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Dietary Isoflavones Alter Regulatory Behaviors, Metabolic Hormones And Neuroendocrine Function In Long-Evans Male Rats, Edwin D. Lephart, James P. Proter, Lihong H. Bu, Trent D. Lund, Kenneth Setchell, Gina Ramoz, William R. Crowley Dec 2004

Dietary Isoflavones Alter Regulatory Behaviors, Metabolic Hormones And Neuroendocrine Function In Long-Evans Male Rats, Edwin D. Lephart, James P. Proter, Lihong H. Bu, Trent D. Lund, Kenneth Setchell, Gina Ramoz, William R. Crowley

Faculty Publications

Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones) have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a) age-related diseases, b) hormone-dependent cancers and c) postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1) body weight and adipose deposition, 2) food and water intake, 3) metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels), 4) brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels, 5) heat ...


The Effect Of Prostaglandin Inhibitor On Pregnancy Rates Of Heifer Embryo Transfer Recipients, Jared William Mcnaughtan Dec 2004

The Effect Of Prostaglandin Inhibitor On Pregnancy Rates Of Heifer Embryo Transfer Recipients, Jared William Mcnaughtan

Theses and Dissertations

Manipulation of the reproductive tract results in increased levels of prostaglandin, which may, in turn, reduce pregnancy rates in embryo recipients. Administration of a prostaglandin inhibitor prior to embryo transfer improves pregnancy rates in cows. Embryo transfer into heifers is more difficult and often requires additional manipulation of the uterus. This study was designed to determine whether administration of the prostaglandin inhibitor, flunixin meglumine, immediately prior to embryo transfer increases pregnancy rates in heifers. Heifers (n=466) were divided into two equal groups based on BCS (range=6-7) and weight (range=256-455). Estrus was synchronized in heifers by giving two ...


Identification Of Proteins Involved In Chloroplast Dna Replication, Matthew G. Lassen Dec 2004

Identification Of Proteins Involved In Chloroplast Dna Replication, Matthew G. Lassen

Theses and Dissertations

Chapter 1

Chloroplast nucleoids (ct-nucleoids) are DNA/protein complexes involved in compacting the chloroplast genome, and may play a role in regulating DNA replication. Ct-nucleoids were isolated from young soybean plants and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Gel spots were excised and analyzed by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry, resulting in several protein identifications. The proteins identified all have functions unrelated to DNA replication. While some of these proteins may be due to contamination, it is possible that some of these proteins are dual-functional, playing direct roles in the regulation of DNA replication.

Chapter 2

A 28 kDa soybean protein was isolated ...


A Biomechanical Analysis Of Sprinters Vs. Distance Runners At Equal And Maximal Speeds, Tyler D. Bushnell Dec 2004

A Biomechanical Analysis Of Sprinters Vs. Distance Runners At Equal And Maximal Speeds, Tyler D. Bushnell

Theses and Dissertations

In the sport of track and field, sprinting and distance running represent two major categories of athletes. Sprinting is associated with power and speed, whereas distance running focuses on the economy of movement. With distance running there are elements of sprint technique that overlap. With distance events, there comes a time near the end of the race where economy gives way to speed. If the distance runners knew how to alter their technique in a way to become more sprint-like, this process could possibly be more successful. PURPOSE: This study compared the differences in technique between sprinters and distance runners ...


Effects Of Video Modeling On Skill Acquisition In Learning The Golf Swing, Joshua L. Smith Dec 2004

Effects Of Video Modeling On Skill Acquisition In Learning The Golf Swing, Joshua L. Smith

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of video modeling on skill acquisition in learning the golf swing. One-hundred-eight college students participated in this study. All participants were pre-tested via videotaping to determine initial skill level. The pre-test videotaping was analyzed using DartTrainer software. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of three groups (1) control (2) single-view or (3) multi-view. Participants in the control group viewed a compact disc (CD) with a putting demonstration repeated 40 times. The participants in the single-view group viewed a CD with a front view only demonstration repeated 40 times of ...


The Long Term Effects Of Short-Wave Diathermy And Long-Duration Static Stretch On Hamstring Flexibility, Daniel Joseph Graham Dec 2004

The Long Term Effects Of Short-Wave Diathermy And Long-Duration Static Stretch On Hamstring Flexibility, Daniel Joseph Graham

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To compare changes in hamstring flexibility from treatments of pulsed short- wave diathermy and prolonged stretch versus sham diathermy and prolonged stretch and control and to observe how long those changes last.

Background: Heat and stretch techniques have been touted for years. To date, the effect of short-wave diathermy and hamstring stretching has not been thoroughly studied. Because diathermy heats a large area and penetrates deep into the muscle, use of this device prior to or during hamstring stretching may increase flexibility and these gains may last longer.

Study Design: A randomized, counterbalanced 3x2x6 repeated measures design. The 3 ...


Phosphorylation Of Skeletal Muscle Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase By Ampk Enhances Palmitoyl-Coa Inhibition, Dustin S. Rubink Dec 2004

Phosphorylation Of Skeletal Muscle Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase By Ampk Enhances Palmitoyl-Coa Inhibition, Dustin S. Rubink

Theses and Dissertations

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the formation of malnoyl-CoA, which in turn controls the rate of fatty acid metabolism. ACC beta or 2 has been shown to be localized on the mitochondria in close proximity to carnintine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), the enzyme responsible for the influx of acyl-CoA into the matrix where beta oxidation takes place. CPT-1 is inhibited by malonyl-CoA produced by ACC. It has been well documented that AMP activated kinase (AMPK) when activated phosphorylates and inactivates ACC. ACC is controlled allosterically by citrate, which activates, and by palmitoyl-COA, which inhibits. In this study, we asked the question ...


Distribution Of Chemistry And Sexual Fecundity In The Lichenized-Fungi, Xanthoparmelia Cumberlandia And Xanthoparmelia Coloradoensis On Boulder Mountain, Aquarius Plateau, Ut, Heather Bird Jackson Dec 2004

Distribution Of Chemistry And Sexual Fecundity In The Lichenized-Fungi, Xanthoparmelia Cumberlandia And Xanthoparmelia Coloradoensis On Boulder Mountain, Aquarius Plateau, Ut, Heather Bird Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Three aspects of Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia and Xanthoparmelia coloradoënsis populations found at two elevations are explored: clustering of secondary chemicals and the resulting implications for taxonomic distinctions, the usefulness of thallus size as an indirect measure of sexual fecundity, and the frequency of sexual reproduction.

First, we use clustering of 46 chemicals produced by X. cumberlandia and X. coloradoënsis to evaluate the adequacy of the current taxonomic distinction between them. Using principal components analysis and UPGMA, we find that the currently recognized species boundaries indicated by the presence of stictic acid in X. cumberlandia and salazinic acid in X. coloradoënsis are ...


Evolution And Phylogeny Of Basal Winged Insects With Emphasis On Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), Thomas H. Ogden Nov 2004

Evolution And Phylogeny Of Basal Winged Insects With Emphasis On Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), Thomas H. Ogden

Theses and Dissertations

Ephemeroptera (mayflies) is a monophyletic group of semi-aquatic pterygote insects, comprising 3083 species, 376 genera, and 37 described families and are present on all continents, excluding Antarctica, being associated with freshwater and brackish water habitats. The order is unique among pterygote insects in possessing functional wings at the penultimate molt (subimago stage), prior to the full development of genitalia; in all other insects the presence of functional wings occurs only after the final molt. The purpose of this dissertation is to use molecular and morphological data, in order to investigate the position of the order Ephemeroptera among other insect orders ...


Density Effects On Growth, Survival And Diet Of June Sucker (Chasmistes Liorus): A Component Allee Effect In An Endangered Species., David Barrett Gonzalez Nov 2004

Density Effects On Growth, Survival And Diet Of June Sucker (Chasmistes Liorus): A Component Allee Effect In An Endangered Species., David Barrett Gonzalez

Theses and Dissertations

Density-dependence is considered one of the most important regulators of population growth, and it has been documented across a wide variety of species. Typically, population growth rate and components thereof decline with increasing density (i.e., negative density-dependence); however, in species that exhibit high population densities and social behavior, positive density-dependence (i.e., Allee effect) may occur at low density. June sucker, a federally endangered lake sucker endemic to Utah Lake, Utah, USA, occurred historically at high density, and it exhibits coordinated feeding behavior. These characteristics indicate a potential for the existence of an Allee effect at current low population ...


Effects Of Different Jumping Programs On Hip And Spine Bone Mineral Density In Pre-Menopausal Women, J. Eric Strong Nov 2004

Effects Of Different Jumping Programs On Hip And Spine Bone Mineral Density In Pre-Menopausal Women, J. Eric Strong

Theses and Dissertations

Sixty premenopausal women (age 25-50) finished a 16 week randomized controlled trial looking at the effects of different jump programs on hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD). Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group or one of two jumping groups. The Jump 10 group performed 10 jumps with 30 seconds of rest between jumps, twice daily, while the Jump 20 group performed the same protocol but with 20 jumps. At 8 weeks, BMD percent change (%Δ) at the hip was significantly different among groups when age, weight change, and subject compliance were simultaneously adjusted. In particular, the Jump ...


Front Matter, Vol. 64 No. 4 Oct 2004

Front Matter, Vol. 64 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 64 No. 4 Oct 2004

End Matter, Vol. 64 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Rapid And Convenient Method For Preparing Masters For Microcontact Printing With 1–12 Μm Features, Lloyd W. Zilch, Ghaleb A. Husseini, Yit-Yian Lua, Michael V. Lee, Kevin R. Gertsch, Bennion R. Cannon, Robert M. Perry, Eric T. Sevy, Matthew C. Asplund, Adam T. Woolley, Matthew R. Linford Sep 2004

Rapid And Convenient Method For Preparing Masters For Microcontact Printing With 1–12 Μm Features, Lloyd W. Zilch, Ghaleb A. Husseini, Yit-Yian Lua, Michael V. Lee, Kevin R. Gertsch, Bennion R. Cannon, Robert M. Perry, Eric T. Sevy, Matthew C. Asplund, Adam T. Woolley, Matthew R. Linford

Faculty Publications

Mechanical scribing can be employed to create surfaces with recessed features. Through replica molding elastomeric copies of these scribed surfaces are created that function as stamps for microcontact printing. It is shown that this new method for creating masters for microcontact printing can be performed with a computer-controlled milling machine (CNC), making this method particularly straightforward and accessible to a large technical community that does not need to work in a particle free environment. Thus, no clean room, or other specialized equipment is required, as is commonly needed to prepare masters. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry confirms surface pattering by ...


Evidence Of Linear Lattice Expansion And Covalency Enhancement In Rutile Tio2 Nanocrystals, Guangshe Li, Juliana Boerio-Goates, Brian F. Woodfield, Liping Li Sep 2004

Evidence Of Linear Lattice Expansion And Covalency Enhancement In Rutile Tio2 Nanocrystals, Guangshe Li, Juliana Boerio-Goates, Brian F. Woodfield, Liping Li

Faculty Publications

Lattice variations and bonding characteristics in rutile TiO2 nanocrystals were examined by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With a reduction in the physical dimensions, rutile TiO2 nanocrystals show a linear lattice expansion and an anomalous covalency enhancement in apparent contradiction to the ionicity increase in BaTiO3 and CuO nanocrystals as reported recently by S. Tsunekawa et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 85, 3440] and V. R. Palkar et al. [Phys. Rev. B 1996, 53, 2167]. A surface defect dipole model is proposed to explain these physical phenomena in terms of the strong interactions among the surface dipoles that produce ...


Testing Species Boundaries In An Ancient Species Complex With Deep Phylogeographic History: Genus Xantusia (Squamata: Xantusiidae), Keith A. Crandall, Elizabeth A. Sinclair, Robert L. Bezy, Kathryn Bolles, Jose L. Camarillo, Jack W. Sites Sep 2004

Testing Species Boundaries In An Ancient Species Complex With Deep Phylogeographic History: Genus Xantusia (Squamata: Xantusiidae), Keith A. Crandall, Elizabeth A. Sinclair, Robert L. Bezy, Kathryn Bolles, Jose L. Camarillo, Jack W. Sites

Faculty Publications

Identification of species in natural populations has recently received increased attention with a number of investigators proposing rigorous methods for species delimitation. Morphologically conservative species (or species complexes) with deep phylogenetic histories (and limited gene flow) are likely to pose particular problems when attempting to delimit species, yet this is crucial to comparative studies of the geography of speciation. We apply two methods of species delimitation to an ancient group of lizards (genus Xantusia) that occur throughout southwestern North America. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene sequences were generated from samples taken throughout the geographic ...


End Matter, Vol. 64 No. 3 Aug 2004

End Matter, Vol. 64 No. 3

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Vol. 64 No. 3 Aug 2004

Front Matter, Vol. 64 No. 3

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Selenium On Estrogen-Regulated Gene Expression In Lncap Prostate Cancer Cells, Tory L. Parker Aug 2004

The Effects Of Selenium On Estrogen-Regulated Gene Expression In Lncap Prostate Cancer Cells, Tory L. Parker

Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in American men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Supplementation with Se has reduced the incidence of prostate cancer and Se status is inversely correlated with prostate cancer risk. One molecular mechanism by which high Se concentrations may affect cancer risk is by catalyzing disulfide bond formation or otherwise complexing with reactive sulfhydryl groups in cellular proteins. The estrogen receptor (ER) contains cysteines in zinc (Zn) fingers that are susceptible to oxidation and internal disulfide formation, which can prevent DNA binding. We examined ER binding to its DNA response element ...


Variance In Percent Body Fat Between And Within Families As Measured By Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Laurel Anne Kelsey Aug 2004

Variance In Percent Body Fat Between And Within Families As Measured By Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Laurel Anne Kelsey

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To determine the variance in percent body fat between and within families as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: Percent body fat (%BF) assessed in 95 females, 120 males (included 54 sets of biological siblings) using DXA. Physical activity questionnaire used to assess current physical activity habits in each participant. Results: Variance in %BF between and within families is similar. Amount of television viewing and levels of physical activity can affect %BF. Discussion: A model such as the one derived in this study can be a useful tool in intervention programs implemented to decrease obesity.


The Effects Of Three Different Ice Bath Immersion Times On Numbness (Sensation Of Pressure), Surface Temperature, And Perceived Pain, Norma E. Johnson Aug 2004

The Effects Of Three Different Ice Bath Immersion Times On Numbness (Sensation Of Pressure), Surface Temperature, And Perceived Pain, Norma E. Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: Determine if numbness differs in magnitude and duration between 10-, 15-, and 20-min ice bath immersions, when temperature was held constant. Design: Dependant variables; sensation of pressure (g), perceived pain (cm), and skin temperature (º C). A repeated measures 3 X 19 factorial guided this study. Conditions were 10-, 15-, and 20-min ice bath immersions. Measurement times were before immersion, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, and 20 min immersion, and 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 min postimmersion. Subjects: Eighteen college-aged volunteers. Measurements: Subjects participated in three ice bath immersions (10 ...


Prevalence Of Teleological And Lamarckian Misconceptions Of Natural Selection Among College Students, Bryce T. Battisti Aug 2004

Prevalence Of Teleological And Lamarckian Misconceptions Of Natural Selection Among College Students, Bryce T. Battisti

Theses and Dissertations

Science teachers and researchers note that students must correctly understand the role of natural selection in evolution to make sense of biology. The level of understanding of natural selection can be assessed using the Conceptual Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS) which is a 20-item multiple-choice test that incorporates student misconceptions as distractors. In the present study, Item Response Theory (IRT) was used to analyze the occurance of misconceptions on the CINS among 1192 students in an introductory non-majors biology course. The four most difficult topics in the CINS are: (a) how change occurs in a population; (b) origin of variation ...


Capillary Liquid Chromatography Using Micro Size Particles, Yanqiao Xiang Jul 2004

Capillary Liquid Chromatography Using Micro Size Particles, Yanqiao Xiang

Theses and Dissertations

High speed and/or high efficiency separations can be realized using small particles (~ 1 µm) in liquid chromatography (LC). However, due to the large pressure drop caused by small particles, conventional LC pumping systems cannot satisfy the pressure requirements needed to drive the mobile phase through the column. Use of ultrahigh pressure, elevated temperature, or both can overcome these pressure limitations and allow the use of very small particles for high speed and/or high efficiency separations.

In this dissertation, the use of ultrahigh pressures with and without elevated temperatures in capillary LC is described. Very fast separations of various ...


The Effects Of The Type Of Skill Assessment On The Motivation Of Students In Physical Education, Tyler Gene Johnson Jul 2004

The Effects Of The Type Of Skill Assessment On The Motivation Of Students In Physical Education, Tyler Gene Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this study were to (1) examine the effects of criterion-referenced (i.e., Programmed Practice Sheet or PPS) and norm-referenced (i.e., standardized) skill assessments on the situational motivation of junior high school physical education students (N = 507), (2) determine if student task and ego dispositions could be affected by the type of skill assessment administered, and (3) determine if having choices of skill level affects student situational motivation and perception of autonomy support. Student situational motivation, task and ego disposition, and sense of autonomy were assessed using the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS), Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ ...


Quality Of Regular And Parboiled Rice In Long-Term Storage, L. Coons, M. B. Halling, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2004

Quality Of Regular And Parboiled Rice In Long-Term Storage, L. Coons, M. B. Halling, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

There is interest in storing food for long periods of time for such uses as disaster relief efforts, military rations and space travel. Rice hermetically sealed in cans and treated to remove oxygen is available in the retail market, but further work is needed to determine the effects of long-term storage on quality. The objective of this research was to investigate the quality of regular and parboiled white rice packaged for long-term storage in cans treated to reduce oxygen levels and held at ambient temperature for up to 30 years. Eighteen samples of white rice (11 regular, 7 parboiled) packaged ...


Pressurized Hot Water: An Alternative Method Of Nutrient Extraction And Subsequent Analysis For Use In Small-Scale Agriculture, Kristy Susanne Crane Jul 2004

Pressurized Hot Water: An Alternative Method Of Nutrient Extraction And Subsequent Analysis For Use In Small-Scale Agriculture, Kristy Susanne Crane

Theses and Dissertations

Soil analysis for small acreage farms in developing countries is often inconvenient and prohibitively expensive using current procedures, yet the information gained from these soil tests could have economical and environmental benefits. The pressurized hot-water (PHW) extraction coupled with colorimetric or turbidimetric analyses shows promise as an alternative to current procedures. Accepted methods of colorimetric analysis for NO3-N and P exist but an alternative method to atomic absorption spectrometry for K analysis is needed. Of the many possible methods to quantify K, tests performed in the Brigham Young University (BYU) laboratory found sodium tetraphenylborate to be unsatisfactory and sodium cobaltinitrite ...


The Application Of Pedology, Stable Carbon Isotope Analyses And Geographic Information Systems To Ancient Soil Resource Investigations At Piedras Negras, Guatemala, Kristofer Dee Johnson Jul 2004

The Application Of Pedology, Stable Carbon Isotope Analyses And Geographic Information Systems To Ancient Soil Resource Investigations At Piedras Negras, Guatemala, Kristofer Dee Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

The ancient inhabitants of the Maya Lowlands enjoyed a long and fruitful period of growth which climaxed at around AD 800. At that time, millions of people successfully subsisted in a challenging environment that today only supports a population a fraction of that size. These facts, and the subsequent "Maya Collapse", are the impetus of many recent studies that utilize environmental data, in addition to conventional archaeology, to investigate this Maya mystery. Pedological studies and stable carbon isotope analysis of soil organic matter, combined with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are three tools that can be used to answer crucial questions ...


A Hydrothermal After-Ripening Time Model Of Seed Dormancy Loss In Bromus Tectorum, Necia Beck Bair Jul 2004

A Hydrothermal After-Ripening Time Model Of Seed Dormancy Loss In Bromus Tectorum, Necia Beck Bair

Theses and Dissertations

After-ripening, the process of seed dormancy loss in dry storage is associated with a decrease in the mean base water potential, one of the parameters of hydrothermal time. The rate of change of the mean base water potential is assumed to be a linear function of temperature above a specific base temperature and as a result can be described by a thermal after-ripening (TAR) time model, an extension of hydrothermal modelling. The thermal requirement for after-ripening is the thermal time necessary for the modelling base water potential of the seed to shift from its original value to its final value ...


The Effect Of Religiosity And Spirituality On Work Practices And Trust Levels In Managers And Their Subordinates In Food And Nutrition Care Departments, Jennifer S. Oler Jul 2004

The Effect Of Religiosity And Spirituality On Work Practices And Trust Levels In Managers And Their Subordinates In Food And Nutrition Care Departments, Jennifer S. Oler

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which religiosity and spirituality affected daily work practices and leader/follower trust levels in foodservice and nutrition directors and their subordinates. A similar 72-item survey questionnaire was developed for both the directors and employees, which was completed by 129 directors and 530 employees. Both questionnaires contained questions on demographics, religious influences on work practices, trust characteristics, and three validated measures of religiosity: 1) worship service attendance (1=Religiosity Score), 2) influence of spiritual beliefs on daily life, and 3) frequency of prayer (2 + 3=Spirituality Score). Frequency data was ...


Body Mass Index And Soft Drink Consumption Among Adolescents, Olivia Love Mccord Jul 2004

Body Mass Index And Soft Drink Consumption Among Adolescents, Olivia Love Mccord

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and soft drink consumption among adolescents. It is hypothesized that soft drink consumption contributes to overweight and obesity among adolescents.

Background: Research examining the relationship between body mass index and soft drink consumption is inconsistent. Several studies have found a negative association between total sugar intake and BMI; however, others have found a link between sugar-sweetened drinks and obesity. There are no known studies that have controlled for physical activity.

Data and Methods: Data on approximately 225 adolescents were used. Frequency of soft drink consumption, type of milk, and calcium ...