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2004

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Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

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Articles 61 - 84 of 84

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Biozonation On Deep-Water Carbonate Mounds And Associated Hardgrounds Along The Western Margin Of Little Bahama Bank, With Notes On The Caicos Platform Island Slope, Charles G. Messing Jan 2004

Biozonation On Deep-Water Carbonate Mounds And Associated Hardgrounds Along The Western Margin Of Little Bahama Bank, With Notes On The Caicos Platform Island Slope, Charles G. Messing

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Proceedings, Presentations, Speeches, Lectures

Carbonate mounds found in a broad band from about 325 to 700 m along the western margin of Little Bahama Bank exhibit consistent faunal zonations characterized by assemblages of attached, suspension-feeding macroinvertebrates dominated by sponges, octocorals, crinoids and stylasterid and scleractinian corals. Biozonation on hard substrates appears chiefly dependent on depth (and associated parameters, e.g., temperature) and current flow. Mounds in 325-435 m with up to 30 m vertical relief reveal dense assemblages on gentler up current slopes and flanks, and an almost complete lack of macrofauna on steep downcurrent slopes. Macrofauna include stalked crinoids on upcurrent slopes and ...


Physical Forcing Of Phytoplankton Community Structure And Primary Production In Continental Shelf Waters Of The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Barbara B. Prézelin, Eileen E. Hofmann, Mark Moline, John M. Klinck Jan 2004

Physical Forcing Of Phytoplankton Community Structure And Primary Production In Continental Shelf Waters Of The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Barbara B. Prézelin, Eileen E. Hofmann, Mark Moline, John M. Klinck

OEAS Faculty Publications

Analyses of a multidisciplinary data set, collected in continental shelf waters of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) during austral summer of January 1993, identified a previously unrecognized forcing mechanism that sets up a physical and chemical structure that supports and assures site-specific diatom-dominated communities and enhanced biological production (Prézelin et al., 2000). This forcing is active when the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) flows along the shelf edge, thereby facilitating onshelf bottom intrusions of nutrient-rich Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW), which then is upwelled or mixed into the upper water column. At times or locations where UCDW ...


Dinitrogen Fixation And Release Of Ammonium And Dissolved Organic Nitrogen By Trichodesmium Ims101, Margaret R. Mulholland, Deborah A. Bronk, Douglas G. Capone Jan 2004

Dinitrogen Fixation And Release Of Ammonium And Dissolved Organic Nitrogen By Trichodesmium Ims101, Margaret R. Mulholland, Deborah A. Bronk, Douglas G. Capone

OEAS Faculty Publications

Two methods used to measure dinitrogen (N2) fixation (acetylene reduction and 15N2 uptake) often result in different N2 fixation rates. Part of the discrepancy may arise from the observation that Trichodesmium can release a fraction of their recently fixed N2 as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and/or ammonium (NH4 +). To resolve outstanding issues regarding N2 fixation and the production of dissolved combined nitrogen (N) by Trichodesmium, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of N2 fixation and the production of DON and NH4+ in cultures of Trichodesmium IMS101. We performed 15N2 uptake ...


Method Analysis Of Laboratory Measures Of Stream Sediment And Water Phosphorus Equilibrium, Anna L. Erickson, Stephanie M. Williamson, Brian E. Haggard Jan 2004

Method Analysis Of Laboratory Measures Of Stream Sediment And Water Phosphorus Equilibrium, Anna L. Erickson, Stephanie M. Williamson, Brian E. Haggard

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Elevated phosphorus concentrations in aquatic ecosystems of northwest Arkansas prompted an investigation of the effects of sample preparation and extraction methods on laboratory measures of sediment-phosphorus interactions. Two streams of contrasting phosphorus (P) concentrations were selected to determine the effect of using a CaCl2 solution instead of filtered stream water, refrigerated or dried sediments instead of fresh wet sediments, and vortexing the suspensions instead of shaking them. Sediment equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) and P buffering capacity (K) were used to determine differences in extraction methods. EPC0 and K from extractions using fresh sediments and a CaCl2 solution matching the electrical ...


Assessment And Restoration Of A Neighborhood Wetland Invaded By Exotic Plant Species, Ryan Neal, Kimberly R. Payne, Lorena Moreno, Graham Duffy, Jonathan Peck, Mary C. Savin Jan 2004

Assessment And Restoration Of A Neighborhood Wetland Invaded By Exotic Plant Species, Ryan Neal, Kimberly R. Payne, Lorena Moreno, Graham Duffy, Jonathan Peck, Mary C. Savin

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

The University of Arkansas Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) Club adopted a local wetland in the spring of 2002 through the Fayetteville Parks and Recreation Department. This project has allowed students to interact with local community and governmental organizations as well as other academic departments within the university. Students have gained valuable laboratory and field experience through characterizing hydric soils, identifying bird and plant species, and analyzing water quality, soil nutrients, and microbial biomass. Under the main goal of restoring the wetland, the club has outlined both short and long-term objectives including soil and water assessments; removal of two ...


An Investigation Of Dissolved Organic Matter In A Shallow Coastal Bay Subject To Aureococcus Anophagefferens Blooms, Jean-Paul Simjouw Jan 2004

An Investigation Of Dissolved Organic Matter In A Shallow Coastal Bay Subject To Aureococcus Anophagefferens Blooms, Jean-Paul Simjouw

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Aureococcus anophagefferens, the pelagophyte responsible for brown tide blooms, was identified in Chincoteague Bay in 1997 and has “bloomed” there since at least 1998. Aureococcus anophagefferens is capable of using dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) substrates to support growth, and this utilization is hypothesized to give the organism a competitive advantage relative to other phytoplankton when inorganic nutrient concentrations are low or depleted. Because previous studies suggest dissolved organic matter (DOM) is important in initiating and sustaining brown tide blooms, a field study of the variations in DOC concentration and DOM composition was performed at two ...


Analytical Intercomparison Between Flow Injection-Chemiluminescence And Flow Injection-Spectrophotometry For The Determination Of Picomolar Concentrations Of Iron In Seawater, Andrew R. Bowie, Peter N. Sedwick, Paul J. Worsfold Jan 2004

Analytical Intercomparison Between Flow Injection-Chemiluminescence And Flow Injection-Spectrophotometry For The Determination Of Picomolar Concentrations Of Iron In Seawater, Andrew R. Bowie, Peter N. Sedwick, Paul J. Worsfold

OEAS Faculty Publications

A lab- and ship-based analytical intercomparison of two flow injection methods for the determination of iron in seawater was conducted, using three different sets of seawater samples collected from the Southern Ocean and South Atlantic. In one exercise, iron was determined in three different size-fractions (< 0.03 &μm, < 0.4 μm, and unfiltered) in an effort to better characterize the operational nature of each analytical technique with respect to filter size. Measured Fe concentrations were in the range 0.19 to 1.19 nM using flow injection with luminol chemiluminescence detection (FI-CL), and 0.07 to 1.54 nM using flow injection with catalytic spectrophotometric detection with N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (FI-DPD). The arithmetic mean for the FI-CL method was higher (by 0.09 nM) than the FI-DPD method for dissolved (< 0.4 μm) Fe, a difference that is comparable to the analytical blanks, which were as high as 0.13 nM ( CL) and 0.09 nM (DPD). There was generally good agreement between the FI-CL determinations for the < 0.03 μm size fraction and the FI-DPD determinations for the < 0.4 μm size fraction in freshly collected samples. Differences in total-dissolvable ( unfiltered) Fe concentrations determined by the two FI methods were more variable, reflecting the added complexity associated with the analysis of partially digested particulate material in these samples. Overall, however, the FI-CL determinations were significantly (P = 0.05) lower than the FI-DPD determinations for the unfiltered samples. Our results suggest that the observed, systematic inter-method differences reflect measurement of different physicochemical fractions of Fe present in seawater, such that colloidal and/or organic iron species are better determined by the FI-CL method than the FI-DPD method. This idea is supported by our observation that inter-method differences were largest for freshly collected acidified seawater, which suggests extended storage (>6 months) of acidified samples as a possible protocol for the determination of dissolved iron in seawater.


Black Carbon In Estuarine And Coastal Ocean Dissolved Organic Matter, Antonio Mannino, H. Rodger Harvey Jan 2004

Black Carbon In Estuarine And Coastal Ocean Dissolved Organic Matter, Antonio Mannino, H. Rodger Harvey

OEAS Faculty Publications

We measured black carbon (BC) in ultrafiltered, high-molecular weight dissolved organic matter (UDOM) in surface waters of Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean (U.S.A.) to investigate the importance of riverine and estuarine dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a source of BC to the ocean. BC was 5-72% of UDOM-C (27 ± 17%), which corresponds to 8.9 ± 6.5% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher values in the heavily urbanized midbay region of the Delaware Estuary and lower yields in the river and coastal ocean. The spatial and seasonal distributions of BC along the salinity ...


Relevant Scales In Zooplankton Ecology: Distribution, Feeding, And Reproduction Of The Copepod Acartia Hudsonica In Response To Thin Layers Of The Diatom Skeletonema Costatum, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Stephen M. Bollens Jan 2004

Relevant Scales In Zooplankton Ecology: Distribution, Feeding, And Reproduction Of The Copepod Acartia Hudsonica In Response To Thin Layers Of The Diatom Skeletonema Costatum, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Stephen M. Bollens

OEAS Faculty Publications

We investigated the interaction of the copepod Acartia hudsonica in relation to thin layers of the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Thin layers have recently received much attention, since they are common and persistent features in the water column, often overlooked by traditional sampling methods. Their frequent abundance in coastal oceans and the high biomass associated with them has led to the assumption that they are important grazing sites of calanoid copepods. We employed 2-m tall tower tanks that allowed us to simulate thin layers. Three variables representative of three time scales were considered: the distribution of copepods in the tanks (time ...


Interactive Regulation Of Dissolved Copper Toxicity By An Estuarine Microbial Community, Christina L. Dryden, Andrew S. Gordon, John R. Donat Jan 2004

Interactive Regulation Of Dissolved Copper Toxicity By An Estuarine Microbial Community, Christina L. Dryden, Andrew S. Gordon, John R. Donat

OEAS Faculty Publications

Cultured marine microorganisms under copper stress produce extracellular compounds having a high affinity for copper (copper-complexing ligands). These ligands are similar in binding strength to those found in natural waters, but few studies have examined the relationship between copper, copper-complexing ligand concentrations, and natural microbial populations. A series of in situ experiments in the Elizabeth River, Virginia, revealed that an intact estuarine microbial community responded to copper stress by production of extracellular, high-affinity copper-complexing ligands. The rate of ligand production was dependent on copper concentration and resulted in a reduction of the concentration of free cupric ions, Cu2+, by ...


Age And Growth Of Scotia Sea Icefish, Chaenocephalus Aceratus, From The South Shetland Islands, M. La Mesa, J. Ashford, E. Larson, M. Vacchi Jan 2004

Age And Growth Of Scotia Sea Icefish, Chaenocephalus Aceratus, From The South Shetland Islands, M. La Mesa, J. Ashford, E. Larson, M. Vacchi

OEAS Faculty Publications

Samples of Chaenocephalus aceratus (Lönnberg) were collected during a trawl survey carried out around the South Shetland Islands in January–February 2002. Fish were caught by commercial bottom trawl fishing down to 500 m depth, using a stratified randomized sampling design. As observed in other recent surveys within the same area, C. aceratus represented one of the predominant species. Overall, 357 specimens ranging from 13 and 67 cm (TL) were selected for the present study. Ages were estimated by counting annuli present in the sagittal otoliths, exposed by grinding and polishing along their sagittal plane. To estimate the precision of ...


Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Of Winter Hardiness Metabolites In Autotetraploid Alfalfa (M. Sativa), B. Alarcón Zúñiga, P. Scott, K. J. Moore, D. Luth, E. C. Brummer Jan 2004

Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Of Winter Hardiness Metabolites In Autotetraploid Alfalfa (M. Sativa), B. Alarcón Zúñiga, P. Scott, K. J. Moore, D. Luth, E. C. Brummer

Agronomy Conference Proceedings and Presentations

In winter hardy alfalfa cultivars, cold acclimation occurs prior to the onset of freezing temperatures and normally is accompanied with a series of metabolic and morphological adjustments. We are studying the accumulation pattern of metabolites throughout the autumn previous to freezing and relating them to winter survival in an Fl segregating population between the cross of M. sativa subsp. sativa and subsp. falcata. Morphological components and soluble carbohydrates, protein, amino-N groups, and free fatty acids were measured in 2001 and 2002 in the field. Broad sense heritability was intermediate for shoot and root mass and height, and for metabolites, ranged ...


Light Dependence Of Selenium Uptake By Phytoplankton And Implications For Predicting Selenium Incorporation Into Food Webs, Stephen B. Baines, Nicholas S. Fisher, Martina A. Doblin, Gregory A. Cutter, Lynda S. Cutter, Brian Cole Jan 2004

Light Dependence Of Selenium Uptake By Phytoplankton And Implications For Predicting Selenium Incorporation Into Food Webs, Stephen B. Baines, Nicholas S. Fisher, Martina A. Doblin, Gregory A. Cutter, Lynda S. Cutter, Brian Cole

OEAS Faculty Publications

The potentially toxic element selenium is first concentrated from solution to a large but highly variable degree by algae and bacteria before being passed on to consumers. The large loads of abiotic and detrital suspended particles often present in rivers and estuaries may obscure spatial and temporal patterns in Se concentrations at the base of the food web. We used radiotracers to estimate uptake of both selenite (Se(IV)) and C by intact plankton communities at two sites in the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta. Our goals were to determine (1) whether C and Se(IV) uptake were coupled, (2 ...


Stability At Hydrothermal-Vent Mussel Beds: Dynamics At Hydrothermal Vents: Evidence For Stable Macrofaunal Communities In Mussel Beds On The Northern East Pacific Rise, Jennifer Carolyn Dreyer Jan 2004

Stability At Hydrothermal-Vent Mussel Beds: Dynamics At Hydrothermal Vents: Evidence For Stable Macrofaunal Communities In Mussel Beds On The Northern East Pacific Rise, Jennifer Carolyn Dreyer

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Parasitism In Deep-Sea Chemosynthetic Mussels: Parasitism In Bathymodiolus Mussels From Deep-Sea Seep And Hydrothermal Vents, Megan E. Ward Jan 2004

Parasitism In Deep-Sea Chemosynthetic Mussels: Parasitism In Bathymodiolus Mussels From Deep-Sea Seep And Hydrothermal Vents, Megan E. Ward

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Spatial Variations In Benthic Invertebrate Assemblages In And Around The Georges Banks Closed Areas, Andrew Clayton Walker Jan 2004

Spatial Variations In Benthic Invertebrate Assemblages In And Around The Georges Banks Closed Areas, Andrew Clayton Walker

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Survival And Habitat Preferences Of White Marlin (Tetrapturus Albidus) Released From The Western North Atlantic Recreational Fishery, Andrij Z. Horodysky Jan 2004

Survival And Habitat Preferences Of White Marlin (Tetrapturus Albidus) Released From The Western North Atlantic Recreational Fishery, Andrij Z. Horodysky

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Reproductive Biology Of American Shad, Alosa Sapidissima, In The Mattaponi River, Aaron Reid Hyle Jan 2004

Reproductive Biology Of American Shad, Alosa Sapidissima, In The Mattaponi River, Aaron Reid Hyle

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Metapopulation Dynamics, Habitat Quality, And Spatial Scale: Variation In Reproductive Output Of The Baltic Clam, Macoma Balthica, In Shallow Systems Of The Chesapeake Bay, Kristen Adams Delano Jan 2004

Metapopulation Dynamics, Habitat Quality, And Spatial Scale: Variation In Reproductive Output Of The Baltic Clam, Macoma Balthica, In Shallow Systems Of The Chesapeake Bay, Kristen Adams Delano

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


A Study Of The Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea Virginica: (1) Dermo Tolerance, Survival, Growth, Condition And Hsp70 Expression In Different Geographic Stocks; (2) Heat Tolerance And Effects Of Sublethal Heat Shock On Survival And Hsp70 Expression Of Infected And Uninfected Oysters, Vincent G. Encomio Jan 2004

A Study Of The Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea Virginica: (1) Dermo Tolerance, Survival, Growth, Condition And Hsp70 Expression In Different Geographic Stocks; (2) Heat Tolerance And Effects Of Sublethal Heat Shock On Survival And Hsp70 Expression Of Infected And Uninfected Oysters, Vincent G. Encomio

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The diseases Dermo and MSX have devastated Chesapeake Bay populations of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. The protozoan Perkinsus marinus, which causes Dermo, is particularly problematic since it persists over a wide range of salinities and temperatures. An objective of this dissertation was to determine whether specific wild oyster stocks had developed natural resistance to Dermo and if several parameters (survival, growth, condition and energy reserves) were associated with resistance. Another objective was to characterize heat shock protein (hsp70) expression in the eastern oyster. Heat shock proteins such as hsp70 protect organisms from thermal stress and other stressors, and this ...


Pathobiology Of Mycobacteria In Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), David T. Gauthier Jan 2004

Pathobiology Of Mycobacteria In Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), David T. Gauthier

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Chesapeake Bay, USA, are experiencing an epizootic of mycobacteriosis. This disease, caused by bacteria in the genus Mycobacterium, causes granulomatous lesions of the skin and viscera. Diseased fish are often emaciated, and fish with skin lesions may be significantly disfigured. The overall goal of this work was to examine aspects of the pathobiology of mycobacteria in striped bass via laboratory exposure studies and cellular assays. Striped bass were injected intraperitoneally with a sublethal dose of Mycobacterium marinum, M. shottsii, or M. gordonae and sampled for histology and bacteriology at regular intervals to 45 weeks post-injection ...


Ichthyofaunal And Dietary Analysis Of Sympatric Piscivores In A Chesapeake Bay Littoral Zone: Including Bioenergetic Models Of Growth And Diel Temperature Sanctuary Use, Christian Harding Hager Jan 2004

Ichthyofaunal And Dietary Analysis Of Sympatric Piscivores In A Chesapeake Bay Littoral Zone: Including Bioenergetic Models Of Growth And Diel Temperature Sanctuary Use, Christian Harding Hager

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The first section of this dissertation describes the ichthyofaunal community of a mesohaline Chesapeake Bay April--November. Fish assemblages were sampled using two seine gears, a small seine that sampled 352 m 2 and a 914m haul-seine that sampled 144,473 m2. The small seine collected 32 finfish species. The larger gear captured 31 finfish species, including 17 that were not sampled by small gear. Sampled diversity was greater but density estimates were similar to those determined previously by other investigators using flume-net, drop-ring, and otter trawl techniques. Nocturnal abundance of larger fishes far exceeded daylight. Fish abundance and size distribution ...


Natural Dermo Resistance And Related Defense Mechanisms In Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, With Implications For Restoration, Shawn Michael Stickler Jan 2004

Natural Dermo Resistance And Related Defense Mechanisms In Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, With Implications For Restoration, Shawn Michael Stickler

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) stocks on the East Coast in general, and in Chesapeake Bay in particular, have been in decline over the past half-century in large part due to Dermo disease, caused by the protist parasite Perkinsus marinus. Efforts to restore oysters for their ecological and economic value have centered on the development and use of hatchery-based seed selectively bred for disease resistance. Selective breeding could benefit from the incorporation of oysters from wild stocks that have developed "natural Dermo resistance", but few such stocks have been identified and verified. This dissertation describes reciprocal common-garden experiments carried out at ...


Influence Of Short-Term Variations In Food On Survival Of Crassotrea Gigas Larvae: A Modeling Study, Eric N. Powell, Eleanor A, Bochenek, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann Jan 2004

Influence Of Short-Term Variations In Food On Survival Of Crassotrea Gigas Larvae: A Modeling Study, Eric N. Powell, Eleanor A, Bochenek, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann

OEAS Faculty Publications

A biochemically-based model was developed to simulate the growth, development, and metamorphosis of larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The model defines larvae in terms of their protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and ash content and includes variation in growth efficiency and egg quality to better simulate cohort population dynamics. Changes in tissue composition occur as the larva grows and in response to the biochemical composition of the food. The premise behind this modeling study was that certain periods of larval life are more critical than others with respect to the availability of food and that food quality is as important ...