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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Influence Of Short-Term Variations In Food On Survival Of Crassotrea Gigas Larvae: A Modeling Study, Eric N. Powell, Eleanor A, Bochenek, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann Jan 2004

Influence Of Short-Term Variations In Food On Survival Of Crassotrea Gigas Larvae: A Modeling Study, Eric N. Powell, Eleanor A, Bochenek, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann

OEAS Faculty Publications

A biochemically-based model was developed to simulate the growth, development, and metamorphosis of larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The model defines larvae in terms of their protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and ash content and includes variation in growth efficiency and egg quality to better simulate cohort population dynamics. Changes in tissue composition occur as the larva grows and in response to the biochemical composition of the food. The premise behind this modeling study was that certain periods of larval life are more critical than others with respect to the availability of food and that food quality is as important ...


Physical Forcing Of Phytoplankton Community Structure And Primary Production In Continental Shelf Waters Of The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Barbara B. Prézelin, Eileen E. Hofmann, Mark Moline, John M. Klinck Jan 2004

Physical Forcing Of Phytoplankton Community Structure And Primary Production In Continental Shelf Waters Of The Western Antarctic Peninsula, Barbara B. Prézelin, Eileen E. Hofmann, Mark Moline, John M. Klinck

OEAS Faculty Publications

Analyses of a multidisciplinary data set, collected in continental shelf waters of the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) during austral summer of January 1993, identified a previously unrecognized forcing mechanism that sets up a physical and chemical structure that supports and assures site-specific diatom-dominated communities and enhanced biological production (Prézelin et al., 2000). This forcing is active when the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) flows along the shelf edge, thereby facilitating onshelf bottom intrusions of nutrient-rich Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW), which then is upwelled or mixed into the upper water column. At times or locations where UCDW ...


Black Carbon In Estuarine And Coastal Ocean Dissolved Organic Matter, Antonio Mannino, H. Rodger Harvey Jan 2004

Black Carbon In Estuarine And Coastal Ocean Dissolved Organic Matter, Antonio Mannino, H. Rodger Harvey

OEAS Faculty Publications

We measured black carbon (BC) in ultrafiltered, high-molecular weight dissolved organic matter (UDOM) in surface waters of Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean (U.S.A.) to investigate the importance of riverine and estuarine dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a source of BC to the ocean. BC was 5-72% of UDOM-C (27 ± 17%), which corresponds to 8.9 ± 6.5% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher values in the heavily urbanized midbay region of the Delaware Estuary and lower yields in the river and coastal ocean. The spatial and seasonal distributions of BC along the salinity ...


Does Antarctic Krill Employ Body Shrinkage As An Overwintering Strategy?, Se-Jong Ju, H. Rodger Harvey, H. C. Shinn, Y. Kim, S. H. Kang Jan 2004

Does Antarctic Krill Employ Body Shrinkage As An Overwintering Strategy?, Se-Jong Ju, H. Rodger Harvey, H. C. Shinn, Y. Kim, S. H. Kang

OEAS Faculty Publications

To determine if Antarctic krill employ body shrinkage as one of its overwintering mechanisms in the field, Euphausia superba and Euphausia crystallorophias were collected during fall and winter in and around Marguerite Bay through US Southern Ocean GLOBEC field programs during fall and winter 2001 and 2002. The relationships between the body length and weight of both krill species were exponentially correlated with no significant differences between the two species (p>0.05). The ratio between eye diameter and body length of individual krill was examined in an expectation that it could be used as an indicator of the body ...


Relevant Scales In Zooplankton Ecology: Distribution, Feeding, And Reproduction Of The Copepod Acartia Hudsonica In Response To Thin Layers Of The Diatom Skeletonema Costatum, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Stephen M. Bollens Jan 2004

Relevant Scales In Zooplankton Ecology: Distribution, Feeding, And Reproduction Of The Copepod Acartia Hudsonica In Response To Thin Layers Of The Diatom Skeletonema Costatum, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Stephen M. Bollens

OEAS Faculty Publications

We investigated the interaction of the copepod Acartia hudsonica in relation to thin layers of the diatom Skeletonema costatum. Thin layers have recently received much attention, since they are common and persistent features in the water column, often overlooked by traditional sampling methods. Their frequent abundance in coastal oceans and the high biomass associated with them has led to the assumption that they are important grazing sites of calanoid copepods. We employed 2-m tall tower tanks that allowed us to simulate thin layers. Three variables representative of three time scales were considered: the distribution of copepods in the tanks (time ...


Interactive Regulation Of Dissolved Copper Toxicity By An Estuarine Microbial Community, Christina L. Dryden, Andrew S. Gordon, John R. Donat Jan 2004

Interactive Regulation Of Dissolved Copper Toxicity By An Estuarine Microbial Community, Christina L. Dryden, Andrew S. Gordon, John R. Donat

OEAS Faculty Publications

Cultured marine microorganisms under copper stress produce extracellular compounds having a high affinity for copper (copper-complexing ligands). These ligands are similar in binding strength to those found in natural waters, but few studies have examined the relationship between copper, copper-complexing ligand concentrations, and natural microbial populations. A series of in situ experiments in the Elizabeth River, Virginia, revealed that an intact estuarine microbial community responded to copper stress by production of extracellular, high-affinity copper-complexing ligands. The rate of ligand production was dependent on copper concentration and resulted in a reduction of the concentration of free cupric ions, Cu2+, by ...


Dinitrogen Fixation And Release Of Ammonium And Dissolved Organic Nitrogen By Trichodesmium Ims101, Margaret R. Mulholland, Deborah A. Bronk, Douglas G. Capone Jan 2004

Dinitrogen Fixation And Release Of Ammonium And Dissolved Organic Nitrogen By Trichodesmium Ims101, Margaret R. Mulholland, Deborah A. Bronk, Douglas G. Capone

OEAS Faculty Publications

Two methods used to measure dinitrogen (N2) fixation (acetylene reduction and 15N2 uptake) often result in different N2 fixation rates. Part of the discrepancy may arise from the observation that Trichodesmium can release a fraction of their recently fixed N2 as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and/or ammonium (NH4 +). To resolve outstanding issues regarding N2 fixation and the production of dissolved combined nitrogen (N) by Trichodesmium, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of N2 fixation and the production of DON and NH4+ in cultures of Trichodesmium IMS101. We performed 15N2 uptake ...


Age And Growth Of Scotia Sea Icefish, Chaenocephalus Aceratus, From The South Shetland Islands, M. La Mesa, J. Ashford, E. Larson, M. Vacchi Jan 2004

Age And Growth Of Scotia Sea Icefish, Chaenocephalus Aceratus, From The South Shetland Islands, M. La Mesa, J. Ashford, E. Larson, M. Vacchi

OEAS Faculty Publications

Samples of Chaenocephalus aceratus (Lönnberg) were collected during a trawl survey carried out around the South Shetland Islands in January–February 2002. Fish were caught by commercial bottom trawl fishing down to 500 m depth, using a stratified randomized sampling design. As observed in other recent surveys within the same area, C. aceratus represented one of the predominant species. Overall, 357 specimens ranging from 13 and 67 cm (TL) were selected for the present study. Ages were estimated by counting annuli present in the sagittal otoliths, exposed by grinding and polishing along their sagittal plane. To estimate the precision of ...


Light Dependence Of Selenium Uptake By Phytoplankton And Implications For Predicting Selenium Incorporation Into Food Webs, Stephen B. Baines, Nicholas S. Fisher, Martina A. Doblin, Gregory A. Cutter, Lynda S. Cutter, Brian Cole Jan 2004

Light Dependence Of Selenium Uptake By Phytoplankton And Implications For Predicting Selenium Incorporation Into Food Webs, Stephen B. Baines, Nicholas S. Fisher, Martina A. Doblin, Gregory A. Cutter, Lynda S. Cutter, Brian Cole

OEAS Faculty Publications

The potentially toxic element selenium is first concentrated from solution to a large but highly variable degree by algae and bacteria before being passed on to consumers. The large loads of abiotic and detrital suspended particles often present in rivers and estuaries may obscure spatial and temporal patterns in Se concentrations at the base of the food web. We used radiotracers to estimate uptake of both selenite (Se(IV)) and C by intact plankton communities at two sites in the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta. Our goals were to determine (1) whether C and Se(IV) uptake were coupled, (2 ...


Analytical Intercomparison Between Flow Injection-Chemiluminescence And Flow Injection-Spectrophotometry For The Determination Of Picomolar Concentrations Of Iron In Seawater, Andrew R. Bowie, Peter N. Sedwick, Paul J. Worsfold Jan 2004

Analytical Intercomparison Between Flow Injection-Chemiluminescence And Flow Injection-Spectrophotometry For The Determination Of Picomolar Concentrations Of Iron In Seawater, Andrew R. Bowie, Peter N. Sedwick, Paul J. Worsfold

OEAS Faculty Publications

A lab- and ship-based analytical intercomparison of two flow injection methods for the determination of iron in seawater was conducted, using three different sets of seawater samples collected from the Southern Ocean and South Atlantic. In one exercise, iron was determined in three different size-fractions (< 0.03 &μm, < 0.4 μm, and unfiltered) in an effort to better characterize the operational nature of each analytical technique with respect to filter size. Measured Fe concentrations were in the range 0.19 to 1.19 nM using flow injection with luminol chemiluminescence detection (FI-CL), and 0.07 to 1.54 nM using flow injection with catalytic spectrophotometric detection with N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (FI-DPD). The arithmetic mean for the FI-CL method was higher (by 0.09 nM) than the FI-DPD method for dissolved (< 0.4 μm) Fe, a difference that is comparable to the analytical blanks, which were as high as 0.13 nM ( CL) and 0.09 nM (DPD). There was generally good agreement between the FI-CL determinations for the < 0.03 μm size fraction and the FI-DPD determinations for the < 0.4 μm size fraction in freshly collected samples. Differences in total-dissolvable ( unfiltered) Fe concentrations determined by the two FI methods were more variable, reflecting the added complexity associated with the analysis of partially digested particulate material in these samples. Overall, however, the FI-CL determinations were significantly (P = 0.05) lower than the FI-DPD determinations for the unfiltered samples. Our results suggest that the observed, systematic inter-method differences reflect measurement of different physicochemical fractions of Fe present in seawater, such that colloidal and/or organic iron species are better determined by the FI-CL method than the FI-DPD method. This idea is supported by our observation that inter-method differences were largest for freshly collected acidified seawater, which suggests extended storage (>6 months) of acidified samples as a possible protocol for the determination of dissolved iron in seawater.