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2004

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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

An Analysis Of The End-Of-Life Choices Of Elderly Patients And Their Healthcare Providers At A Community Hospital In Tennessee, Elizabeth Harder Dobbins Dec 2004

An Analysis Of The End-Of-Life Choices Of Elderly Patients And Their Healthcare Providers At A Community Hospital In Tennessee, Elizabeth Harder Dobbins

Doctoral Dissertations

The Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990 was expected to popularize the use of advance directives (living wills and durable powers of attorney for healthcare (DPOA-HC)). Since the law was passed, researchers have found that the use of the documents has not increased as expected and that the documents, when present, were not always respected by healthcare providers.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the end-of-life choices of elderly patients and their healthcare providers in a community hospital setting. The subjects of this study were 160 patients, aged 65 years and older, who died in a community hospital in ...


The Role Of History In The Diversification Of The Funnel-Web Spiders, Agelenopsis Aperta, And Its Congeners, Nadia Antoine Ayoub Dec 2004

The Role Of History In The Diversification Of The Funnel-Web Spiders, Agelenopsis Aperta, And Its Congeners, Nadia Antoine Ayoub

Doctoral Dissertations

Identifying the influence of history on the diversity of life is an important goal of evolutionary biology, whether it is an historical event that is extrinsic to the organism such as past climate change or an intrinsic event such as a single switch in behavior. Phylogenetic trees offer an indirect record of the history of diversification in a group of organisms and can be used in conjunction with other information to deduce the multiple roles of history affecting a particular group. Intra- and inter-specific phylogenetic relationships in the spider genus Agelenopsis Geibel (Araneae: Agelenidae) were analyzed using sequence data from ...


The Dynamics, Distribution, And Activity Of Viruses In Lake Erie, Amanda Dean Dec 2004

The Dynamics, Distribution, And Activity Of Viruses In Lake Erie, Amanda Dean

Masters Theses

As viruses-- specifically pervasive pathogens of aquatic microorganisms-- are now included in most studies of aquatic food webs and nutrient cycles, presented here is new information from samples collected in July 2003 which demonstrates that bacteria lysed by viruses released 122 - 1080 nM of phosphorus per day throughout Lake Erie, implying that viruses acted as a major mechanism of phosphorus recycling in the lake. Viruses have been shown to be ubiquitous throughout Lake Erie, with a weak correlation between their distribution and the distribution of bacteria. Moreover, evidence suggests that virus production rates are tightly tied to the growth rate ...


Origin And Evolution Of Large Brains In Toothed Whales, Lori Marino, Daniel W. Mcshea, Mark D. Uhen Dec 2004

Origin And Evolution Of Large Brains In Toothed Whales, Lori Marino, Daniel W. Mcshea, Mark D. Uhen

Veterinary Science and Medicine Collection

Toothed whales (order Cetacea: suborder Odontoceti) are highly encephalized, possessing brains that are significantly larger than expected for their body sizes. In particular, the odontocete superfamily Delphinoidea (dolphins, porpoises, belugas, and narwhals) comprises numerous species with encephalization levels second only to modern humans and greater than all other mammals. Odontocetes have also demonstrated behavioral faculties previously only ascribed to humans and, to some extent, other great apes. How did the large brains of odontocetes evolve? To begin to investigate this question, we quantified and averaged estimates of brain and body size for 36 fossil cetacean species using computed tomography and ...


The Other Side Of Silence: Rachel Carson’S Views Of Animals, Marc Bekoff, Jan Nystrom Dec 2004

The Other Side Of Silence: Rachel Carson’S Views Of Animals, Marc Bekoff, Jan Nystrom

Animal Welfare Collection

The publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962 is widely regarded as one of the major events that launched the modern environmental movement. Silent Spring is a compelling blend of stories, natural history, human values, and biological facts. In this essay we consider Carson’s attitude toward animals in Silent Spring and in other texts. Despite the facts that she was raised to love Nature and animals, little direct attention has been given to Carson’s views about our moral responsibilities to, and the moral standing of animals. Carson favored responsible stewardship, was more of an animal welfarist ...


Immunotoxicological Study Of Depleted Uranium, Bin Wan Dec 2004

Immunotoxicological Study Of Depleted Uranium, Bin Wan

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine toxicity of depleted uranium (DU) to the immune system and the gene expression profile of DU-exposed immune cells including peritoneal macrophages, primary CD4+ T-cells and T Cell Hybridoma (TCH) PLP1 5B6. Flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V and Propidium Iodide (PI) binding revealed that DU causes death in those cells at various concentrations. The non-cytotoxic concentrations of DU determined in macrophages, primary CD4+ T-cells, and T cells hybridoma are 50µM, 100 µM, and 500 µM, respectively. Findings also revealed that DU-exposed macrophages are able to promote CD4+ T-cell proliferation in a concentration dependent ...


Online Atmospherics: An Investigation Of Feeling And Internet Purchase Intention, Kelly Price Rankin Dec 2004

Online Atmospherics: An Investigation Of Feeling And Internet Purchase Intention, Kelly Price Rankin

Doctoral Dissertations

This study examines the online atmospheric cues of color and music and their impact upon feeling, attitude and purchase intention of consumers in the online environment. The research design was experimental and used data from a questionnaire. A pilot test of the instrument was conducted. The final questionnaire contained 39 items and a demographic section. A total of 200 questionnaires were collected. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Each group of 50 participants was exposed to a specific set of online atmospheric elements. The results indicated that Hypotheses 1, 3 and 4 were rejected while Hypotheses 2 ...


Education In The Environment: A Hands-On Student Research And Outdoor Learning Experience: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending November 30, 2004, Margaret N. Rees Nov 2004

Education In The Environment: A Hands-On Student Research And Outdoor Learning Experience: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending November 30, 2004, Margaret N. Rees

Reports (PLI Education)

During the past three-months, the focus of the university’s efforts has been 1) making progress on the hiring of permanent project managers for the Education in the Environment Strategy and the Forever Earth / Wonderful Outdoor World on the Water (WOW) projects; 2) completing legal review of the cooperative agreement and standard operating procedures required for the university to assume operations of the Forever Earth vessel; and 3) writing curriculum for the WOW and Forever Earth projects.


Landscape Assessment For The Buckskin Mountain Area, Wildlife Habitat Improvement, Bureau Of Land Management Nov 2004

Landscape Assessment For The Buckskin Mountain Area, Wildlife Habitat Improvement, Bureau Of Land Management

All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository)

No abstract provided.


Red Rock Desert Learning Center Core Group Meeting: November 16, 2004, Red Rock Desert Learning Center Nov 2004

Red Rock Desert Learning Center Core Group Meeting: November 16, 2004, Red Rock Desert Learning Center

Reports (RRLC)

  1. Introductions (5 min.)
  2. Approval of Minutes from October 19 Meeting (5 minutes)
  3. Presentation of Biology Curriculum Strands – Paul Buck (15 min.)
  4. Discussion of Possible Advisory Board Structures – Michael Reiland (15 min.)
  5. Update from Line and Space Architects – Les Wallach/Henry Tom (20 min.)
  6. Discussion of Student Risk Analysis/Liability Issues (15 min.)
  7. Standing Reports (10 minutes)
    A. UNLV/CESU Update – Nancy Flagg
    B. BLM Update – Michael Reiland
  8. Committee Reports (5 min.)
    A. Building Committee – Angie Lara
  9. Open Discussion / New Business (5 min.)
    A. January Meeting – Tuesday, January 18, 10:30 a.m., UNLV Paradise
    Campus
    B. Core Curriculum Handout


Lexen: Role Of Atmospheric Trace Gases In Microbial Colonization And Succession On Recent Lava Flows, Gary M. King Nov 2004

Lexen: Role Of Atmospheric Trace Gases In Microbial Colonization And Succession On Recent Lava Flows, Gary M. King

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Drs. Gary M. King of the University of Maine and Klaus Nusslein of the University of Massachusetts-Amherst have been awarded a grant from the NSF Life in Extreme Environment (LExEn) program to determine the role of atmospheric trace gases in microbial colonization and succession on recent lava flows. Volcanic activity has played an important role in the development of terrestrial ecosystems for much of Earth's history, and continues to shape terrestrial environments at present. Deposition of lava and tephra result in surfaces that over time support complex, highly productive biological communities. However, young or recently extruded lavas represent extreme ...


Predators In Natural Fragments: Foraging Ecology Of Wolves In British Columbia’S Central And North Coast Archipelago, C. T. Darimont, M. H. H. Price, N. N. Winchester, J. Gordon-Walker, P. C. Paquet Nov 2004

Predators In Natural Fragments: Foraging Ecology Of Wolves In British Columbia’S Central And North Coast Archipelago, C. T. Darimont, M. H. H. Price, N. N. Winchester, J. Gordon-Walker, P. C. Paquet

Biogeography and Ecological Opportunity Collection

Aim Predator–prey dynamics in fragmented areas may be influenced by spatial features of the landscape. Although little is known about these processes, an increasingly fragmented planet underscores the urgency to predict its consequences. Accordingly, our aim was to examine foraging behaviour of an apex mammalian predator, the wolf (Canis lupus), in an archipelago environment.

Location Mainland and adjacent archipelago of British Columbia, Canada; a largely pristine and naturally fragmented landscape with islands of variable size and isolation.

Methods We sampled 30 mainland watersheds and 29 islands for wolf faeces in summers 2000 and 2001 and identified prey remains. We ...


Apparent Sibling Rivalry In The Freshwater Clam Sphaerium Striatinum, Mark Beekey, Ronald H. Karlson Nov 2004

Apparent Sibling Rivalry In The Freshwater Clam Sphaerium Striatinum, Mark Beekey, Ronald H. Karlson

Biology Faculty Publications

In Sphaerium striatinum, a freshwater brooding bivalve, up to 97.5% of offspring that adults initially produce fail to reach independence. Marsupial sacs, specialized extensions of gill filaments that act as nurseries, initially contain multiple offspring in various sizes and stages of development. However, by the time offspring reach later stages of development, marsupial sacs typically contain only one offspring. Brood mortality is hypothesized to be the result of competition among embryos for nutrients and/or space. Sphaeriid eggs do not contain enough yolk for offspring to complete development. Adults supply additional nutrients required to reach independence. Brood capacity is ...


Red Rock Desert Learning Center Core Group Meeting: October 19, 2004, Red Rock Desert Learning Center Oct 2004

Red Rock Desert Learning Center Core Group Meeting: October 19, 2004, Red Rock Desert Learning Center

Reports (RRLC)

  1. Introductions (5 min.)
  2. Approval of Minutes from September 21 Meeting (5 minutes)
  3. Review & Discussion of Suggested Core Curriculum Themes – Jeanne Klockow/Michael Reiland (20 min.)
  4. Update from Line and Space Architects – Les Wallach/Henry Tom (20 min.)
  5. Standing Reports (20 minutes)
    A. UNLV/CESU Update – Nancy Flagg
    C. BLM Update – Michael Reiland
  6. Committee Reports (10 min.)
    A. Building – Angie Lara
    B. Design Oversight – David Frommer
    C. Educational Programs – Paul Buck
    D. Fund-Raising & Partnerships – Blaine Benedict
    E. NEPA – Charles Carroll
    F. Operations – Jack Ramsey
    G. Other Uses – Pat Williams
    H. Wild Horse & Burro – Billie Young
  7. Open Discussion / New Business (5 min ...


Fall 2004, Nsu Oceanographic Center Oct 2004

Fall 2004, Nsu Oceanographic Center

Currents

No abstract provided.


The Evolution Of Evolution: From The Pre-Socratics To The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, Jeffrey Kaimowitz Oct 2004

The Evolution Of Evolution: From The Pre-Socratics To The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, Jeffrey Kaimowitz

Watkinson Publications

Guide to an exhibit held by Watkinson Library, 2004, to celebrate the Trinity College Library’s One Millionth Volume.

In concise fashion, this exhibition traces the beginnings of a scientific approach to the natural world among the early Greek philosophers, examines in some depth the revolutionary work of Charles Darwin, and concludes with the integrated approach to evolution that developed in the work of naturalists and experimental geneticists during the mid-20th century.

The display includes many first editions and landmarks texts that are central in the history of biological thought, the centerpiece being the Library’s millionth volume, the first ...


Nest-Building And Spawning Behaviors In Nocomis Effusus (Actinopterygii: Cyprindae), Eugene G. Maurakis, George E. Maurakis Oct 2004

Nest-Building And Spawning Behaviors In Nocomis Effusus (Actinopterygii: Cyprindae), Eugene G. Maurakis, George E. Maurakis

Virginia Journal of Science

Spawning behavior in Nocomis effusus is described from direct observations and review of videotapes made in Yellow Creek (Cumberland River drainage), Tennessee in 2003. Nest construction (i.e., excavating a concavity, forming a platform, and building a mound), and spawning behavior in N. effusus where a single breeding male excavates a pit and spawns with females on the upstream slope of his nest is like that described for Nocomis asper and Nocomis biguttatus. In digging a spawning pit, a male N. effusus reshapes and reorganizes substrate materials that results in spawning areas on the upstream slope of the nest composed ...


Character Displacement Via Aggressive Interference In Appalachian Salamanders, Dean C. Adams Oct 2004

Character Displacement Via Aggressive Interference In Appalachian Salamanders, Dean C. Adams

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Ecological character displacement occurs when sympatric species compete with one another, resulting in morphological divergence. Theoretically, character displacement can evolve from a number of ecological interactions, such as exploitation, interference, or predation, but most examples describe species competing exploitatively for limiting resources (typically food). Here I report a case of character displacement evolving from aggressive behavioral interference, found in a well-studied system of terrestrial salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Using geometric morphometrics, I found parallel shifts in head shape from allopatry to sympatry in both P. jordani and P. teyahalee, and found significantly greater morphological divergence in sympatry relative to ...


Realistically Low Species Evenness Does Not Alter Grassland Species-Richness-Productivity Relationships, Brian J. Wilsey, H. Wayne Polley Oct 2004

Realistically Low Species Evenness Does Not Alter Grassland Species-Richness-Productivity Relationships, Brian J. Wilsey, H. Wayne Polley

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Biodiversity is declining worldwide from reductions in both species richness and evenness. Field experiments have shown that primary productivity is often reduced when richness of plant species is lowered. However, experiments testing richness effects have used evenness levels that are much higher than normally encountered in plant communities and have been based on the assumption that species extinctions are random. We experimentally varied, for the first time, both species richness (1–8 perennial species/m2) and species evenness (near maximal vs. realistically low) in grassland plots. Net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem CO2 uptake declined when richness was ...


Allee Effects Driven By Predation, J Gascoigne, Romuald N. Lipcius Sep 2004

Allee Effects Driven By Predation, J Gascoigne, Romuald N. Lipcius

VIMS Articles

No abstract provided.


Red Rock Desert Learning Center Core Group Meeting: September 21, 2004, Red Rock Desert Learning Center Sep 2004

Red Rock Desert Learning Center Core Group Meeting: September 21, 2004, Red Rock Desert Learning Center

Reports (RRLC)

  1. Introductions (5 min.)
  2. Approval of Minutes from August 17 Meeting (5 minutes)
  3. Potential Tie-in with City of Las Vegas New Directions YouthArts Program –
    Markus Tracy (20 min.)
  4. Presentation of Education in the Environment Curriculum Matrix and correlation to
    RRDLC curriculum development – Jeanne Klockow (30 min.)
  5. Discussion of Policy-making Board for the Center – Michael Reiland (15 min.)
  6. Discussion of Observatory Location – Michael Reiland (25 min.)
  7. Standing Reports (20 minutes)
    A. Line and Space Architects Update – Les Wallach/Henry Tom
    B. UNLV/CESU Update – Nancy Flagg
    C. RRCNCA Capital Improvements Update – BLM
  8. Committee Reports (10 min.)
    A. Building – Angie Lara
    B. Design ...


Education In The Environment Partnership, Public Lands Institute Sep 2004

Education In The Environment Partnership, Public Lands Institute

Presentations (PLI Education)

  • Update on Oliver Ranch
  • Update on Forever Earth
  • Update on WOW on the Water


Wild Justice And Fair Play: Cooperation, Forgiveness, And Morality In Animals, Marc Bekoff Sep 2004

Wild Justice And Fair Play: Cooperation, Forgiveness, And Morality In Animals, Marc Bekoff

Ethology Collection

In this paper I argue that we can learn much about ‘wild justice’ and the evolutionary origins of social morality – behaving fairly – by studying social play behavior in group-living animals, and that interdisciplinary cooperation will help immensely. In our efforts to learn more about the evolution of morality we need to broaden our comparative research to include animals other than non-human primates. If one is a good Darwinian, it is premature to claim that only humans can be empathic and moral beings. By asking the question ‘What is it like to be another animal?’ we can discover rules of engagement ...


Mitochondrial Diversity Analysis Of Glossina Palpalis Gambiensis From Mali And Senegal, J. G. Marquez, M. J. B. Vreysen, A. S. Robinson, S. Bado, E. S. Krafsur Sep 2004

Mitochondrial Diversity Analysis Of Glossina Palpalis Gambiensis From Mali And Senegal, J. G. Marquez, M. J. B. Vreysen, A. S. Robinson, S. Bado, E. S. Krafsur

Entomology Publications

West African riverine tsetse populations of Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae) were investigated for gene flow, inferred from mitochondrial diversity in samples of 69 flies from Senegal and 303 flies from three river drainages in Mali. Four polymorphic mitochondrial loci were scored. Mean haplotype diversities were 0.30 in Mali and 0.18 over both Mali and Senegal. These diversities estimate the probabilities that two randomly chosen tsetse have different haplotypes. Substantial rates of gene flow were detected among flies sampled along tributaries belonging to the river basins of the Senegal, Niger, and Bani in Mali. There was virtually ...


Zebra Mussels Affect Benthic Predator Foraging Success, Mark Beekey, D. J. Mccabe, I. E. Marsden Sep 2004

Zebra Mussels Affect Benthic Predator Foraging Success, Mark Beekey, D. J. Mccabe, I. E. Marsden

Biology Faculty Publications

The introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) to North America has resulted in dramatic changes to the complexity of benthic habitats. Changes in habitat complexity may have profound effects on predator-prey interactions in aquatic communities. Increased habitat complexity may affect prey and predator dynamics by reducing encounter rates and foraging success. Zebra mussels form thick contiguous colonies on both hard and soft substrates. While the colonization of substrata by zebra mussels has generally resulted in an increase in both the abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrate communities, it is not well known how these changes affect the foraging efficiencies of ...


Restoration Of Aspen Woodland Invaded By Western Juniper: Applications Of Partial Cutting And Prescribed Fire, Jonathon D. Bates, Richard F. Miller Aug 2004

Restoration Of Aspen Woodland Invaded By Western Juniper: Applications Of Partial Cutting And Prescribed Fire, Jonathon D. Bates, Richard F. Miller

Aspen Bibliography

No abstract provided.


Oliver Ranch Core Group Meeting: August 17, 2004, Red Rock Desert Learning Center Aug 2004

Oliver Ranch Core Group Meeting: August 17, 2004, Red Rock Desert Learning Center

Reports (RRLC)

  1. Introductions (5 minutes)
  2. Approval of Minutes from June 15 Meeting (5 minutes)
  3. Review of Draft Talking Points/FAQ – Nancy Flagg (30 min)
  4. Discussion of Wild Horse and Burro Facility – Billie Young (30 min.)
  5. Standing Reports (30 minutes)
    A. Line and Space Update – Les Wallach/Henry Tom
    B. UNLV/CESU Update – Peg Rees/Nancy Flagg
    C. RRCNRA Capital Improvements Update – Mark Morse/Michael Reiland
  6. ORSS Committee Reports (15 minutes)
    A. Design Oversight – David Frommer
    B. Educational Programs – Paul Buck
    C. Fund-Raising & Partnerships – Blaine Benedict
    D. NEPA – Charles Carroll
    E. Operations – Jack Ramsey
    F. Other Uses – Pat Williams
    G. Wild Horse & Burro ...


Pinyon Jays Use Transitive Inference To Predict Social Dominance, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño C, Alan B. Bond, Alan Kamil, Russell P. Balda Aug 2004

Pinyon Jays Use Transitive Inference To Predict Social Dominance, Guillermo Paz-Y-Miño C, Alan B. Bond, Alan Kamil, Russell P. Balda

Papers in Behavior and Biological Sciences

Living in large, stable social groups is often considered to favor the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities, such as recognizing group members, tracking their social status and inferring relationships among them. An individual’s place in the social order can be learned through direct interactions with others, but conflicts can be time-consuming and even injurious. Because the number of possible pairwise interactions increases rapidly with group size, members of large social groups will benefit if they can make judgments about relationships on the basis of indirect evidence. Transitive reasoning should therefore be particularly important for social individuals, allowing assessment of ...


Vegetation Characteristics Associated With Small Mammal Populations In The Las Vegas Wash, Christine Therese Herndon Aug 2004

Vegetation Characteristics Associated With Small Mammal Populations In The Las Vegas Wash, Christine Therese Herndon

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Percent litter, average litter depth, percent bare ground, vegetation density, vegetation canopy, and distance to an ecotone boundary were measured and compared to small mammal capture locations in the Las Vegas Wash. Neotoma lepida appear to be greatly dependent upon the foliage litter of T. ramosissima. Alternatively, ecotone boundaries appear to be the most important factor affecting Dipodomys merriami distributions. Peromyscus eremicus distributions may be predicted based on vegetation density and increased canopy during shorter, winter torpor periods. Chaetodipus penicillatus were consistently associated with dense, seed-bearing vegetation, although C. penicillatus is extremely opportunistic and vegetation density should not limit their ...


Historical Biogeography Of The Woodchuck (Marmota Monax Bunkeri) In Nebraska And Northern Kansas, Zachary P. Roehrs, Hugh H. Genoways Aug 2004

Historical Biogeography Of The Woodchuck (Marmota Monax Bunkeri) In Nebraska And Northern Kansas, Zachary P. Roehrs, Hugh H. Genoways

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Discusses the historical biogeography of the Woodchuck (Marmota monax bunkeri) in Nebraska and northern Kansas.

First paragraph:

Jones et al. described the western limit of Marmota monax in the United States as the eastern edge of the northern Great Plains in Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas. Mengel introduced the idea of the Great Plains grasslands as a barrier to contact between birds of eastern and western North American forests. In his studies of bird biogeography on the Platte River, Knopf reported that this barrier has eroded with development of riparian forests along river courses of the Great Plains. This ...