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2004

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Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering

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Articles 1 - 30 of 96

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Poulty Manure Impacts On Water Quality, Melissa R. Cheatham, R. S. Kanwar, J. Lorimor, H. Xin, C. Pedersen Dec 2004

Poulty Manure Impacts On Water Quality, Melissa R. Cheatham, R. S. Kanwar, J. Lorimor, H. Xin, C. Pedersen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iowa's egg industry continues to grow each year. In 2001, Iowa became the number one egg producing state in the US, producing 8.69 billion eggs (USDA, 2003; USDA 2002). Iowa broke its record the following year producing 10.1 billion eggs which it topped again in 2003 producing 10.1 billion eggs, thus maintaining its position as number one egg producing state in the US (USDA, 2003; USDA, 2004). With this success comes the added weight of maintaining this status, as well as, managing for all the manure that is generated by being the number one producer. Poultry ...


Conservation Tillage, Soil Erosion And Water Quality, John M. Laflen Dec 2004

Conservation Tillage, Soil Erosion And Water Quality, John M. Laflen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Conservation tillage has a great effect on soil erosion and water quality. This effect is perhaps best understood by understanding of the runoff, erosion and sediment delivery processes, and how these are impacted by conservation tillage. Tillage is an operation that disturbs the soil. Each tool acts differently. Major impacts of tillage may be to invert the soil, to bury residue, to mix materials on the surface with materials below the surface, to change soil density at various levels within the soil depth, to apply materials on and into the soil. Wind erosion and groundwater quality will not be covered ...


Resource Conservation Practices: Manure And Tillage Management, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Mark A. Licht Dec 2004

Resource Conservation Practices: Manure And Tillage Management, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Mark A. Licht

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Adopting best management practices throughout an operation must take into consideration both manure application and tillage management.


Quality Of The 2004 Soybean Crop From The United States, Thomas J. Brumm, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Glen R. Rippke Nov 2004

Quality Of The 2004 Soybean Crop From The United States, Thomas J. Brumm, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Glen R. Rippke

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Technical Reports and White Papers

Quality continues to be an important soybean marketing issue. This report summarizes current knowledge on the following soybean quality topics: • protein and oil composition of the 2004 U.S. soybean crop, • the 2004 crop in historical perspective, • weather conditions affecting the 2004 crop, • Asian soybean rust and its possible impact on the U.S. soybean crop, • programs by growers and U.S. processors to improve quality, • a study being funded by ASA to examine foreign material in soybean shipments, and • the production of low-linolenic soybeans. The data and analyses in this report are intended to assist customers in the sourcing ...


Method Of Measuring Flow Rate Of Flowable Material Under Continuous Flow Conditions, And An In-Line Continuous Flow Meter, Yuh Yuan Shyy, Manjit K. Misra Oct 2004

Method Of Measuring Flow Rate Of Flowable Material Under Continuous Flow Conditions, And An In-Line Continuous Flow Meter, Yuh Yuan Shyy, Manjit K. Misra

Iowa State University Patents

A method of determining the rate of flow of a flowable material, particulate or liquid, through a flowable material passageway, comprising causing the material passing through the passageway to move downwardly by gravity slowing the downward movement of material as compared to free falling gravitational movement measuring the weight of material passing slowly downwardly with respect to the passageway; causing an electronic signal to be generated in response to the magnitude of the weight measuring; and connecting the electronic signal to a read out display to reflect the flow rate of material with respect to units of weight with respect ...


Residue Management After Harvest, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman Oct 2004

Residue Management After Harvest, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

As we are in the harvest season, producers are searching for the best way to manage their residue cover, particularly with corn. Some farmers manage their residue by chopping, bailing, or grazing in livestock operations. But before planning to use any of these options or others, and reducing corn residue cover after this year's harvest, one of the first things to plan for is the remaining crop residue coverage. With that in mind, producers need to ask themselves a series of questions.


Video Companion: Rhythm Of The Seasons... A Journey Beyond Loss, Charles V. Schwab, Shari Burgus, Colleen Jolly Oct 2004

Video Companion: Rhythm Of The Seasons... A Journey Beyond Loss, Charles V. Schwab, Shari Burgus, Colleen Jolly

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Viewer guide, with four activities, to increase personal and community action to prevent farm injuries.

To order the video, see: http://ifasbooks.ufl.edu Search for "Rhythm of the Seasons."


Quantitative Exposure Assessment For Confinement Of Maize Biogenic Systems, Jeffrey D. Wolt, Yuh Yuan Shyy, Paul Christiansen, Karin S. Dorman, Manjit K. Misra Oct 2004

Quantitative Exposure Assessment For Confinement Of Maize Biogenic Systems, Jeffrey D. Wolt, Yuh Yuan Shyy, Paul Christiansen, Karin S. Dorman, Manjit K. Misra

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The development of transgenic crops as production platforms for biogenic agents will largely depend on the success of efforts to confine the genes and their expressed proteins in field environments. We have used quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate how management practices affect materials escape due to outcrossing by pollen flow or grain loss during harvest operations. Specifically, we study the use of maize to produce biogenic agents within field-confined systems. Decision trees representing simplified schemes of fully conforming (designed to comply with current regulatory standards for field confined trials), partially conforming, and non-conforming management practices were developed. Exemplifying assumptions and ...


Holistic Assessment Of Students In Undergraduate Industrial Technology Programs, Dennis W. Field, Steven A. Freeman, Michael J. Dyrenfurth Oct 2004

Holistic Assessment Of Students In Undergraduate Industrial Technology Programs, Dennis W. Field, Steven A. Freeman, Michael J. Dyrenfurth

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.


Student Perceptions Of Web-Based Supplemental Information, Steven A. Freeman, Dennis W. Field Oct 2004

Student Perceptions Of Web-Based Supplemental Information, Steven A. Freeman, Dennis W. Field

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.


Heat And Moisture Production Of Poultry And Their Housing Systems: Pullets And Layers, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin, Manuel C. Puma, Richard S. Gates Oct 2004

Heat And Moisture Production Of Poultry And Their Housing Systems: Pullets And Layers, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin, Manuel C. Puma, Richard S. Gates

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Heat and moisture production rates (HP, MP) of modern pullets and laying hens were measured using large-scale indirect calorimeters that mimic commercial production settings. The experimental birds were Hy-Line W-36 strain at 1-5, 10, 21, 37, and 64 weeks of age and Hy-Line W-98 strain at 1-5 weeks of age. Total HP (THP) was partitioned into latent and sensible HP (LHP, SHP) at bird level (excluding moisture evaporation from feces) or room level (including fecal moisture evaporation from feces). The W-98 and W-36 pullets reached their metabolic peak at about 10 and 14 days of age, respectively. The W-98 pullet ...


Heat And Moisture Production Of Poultry And Their Housing Systems: Molting Hens, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin Oct 2004

Heat And Moisture Production Of Poultry And Their Housing Systems: Molting Hens, H. Justin Chepete, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Heat and moisture production rates (HP, MP) of modern 68- to 75-week-old Hy-Line W-36 laying hens during molting were measured using large-scale indirect calorimeters that mimic commercial production settings. The measurements were performed continuously during acclimation, fasting, restricted feeding, and post-molt. Total HP (THP) was partitioned into latent and sensible HP (LHP, SHP) that incorporated influence of fecal moisture evaporation. THP during fasting (averaging 4.8 W/kg) and restricted feeding (averaging 6.0 W/kg) averaged 29% and 13% lower than that during post-molt (averaging 6.8 W/kg). Correspondingly, LHP averaged 1.9 W/kg and 1.8 ...


Hitch And Go Safely This Harvest Season, Jean Mcguire Sep 2004

Hitch And Go Safely This Harvest Season, Jean Mcguire

Integrated Crop Management News

Each harvest season some loaded wagons go into the ditch due to an inability of the towing vehicle and braking system to control the load. There are a number of reasons that these loads go out of control, according to Mark Hanna and Chuck Schwab, Iowa State University Extension agricultural engineers. "First, some drivers who offer to help reduce the harvest rush are not experienced with towing loads," said Hanna.


Seasonal Aeration Rates For The Eastern United States Based On Long-Term Weather Patterns, Michael D. Montross, Samuel G. Mcneill, Thomas C. Bridges Sep 2004

Seasonal Aeration Rates For The Eastern United States Based On Long-Term Weather Patterns, Michael D. Montross, Samuel G. Mcneill, Thomas C. Bridges

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Most aeration fans are sized to produce a minimum airflow rate of 0.1 m3/min/t (0.1 cfm/bu) in on-farm grain storage structures. At this airflow rate a significant amount of time is required to move a cooling front completely through a bin. The desired grain temperature and prevailing weather conditions will have a significant effect on required fan size. Thirty years of weather data were analyzed for the eastern United States to determine the amount of time available in temperature windows between 0 to 15.C and 0 to 17.C. Contour maps were generated ...


Vertical Wall Loads In A Model Grain Bin With Non-Axial Internal Inserts, Marek Molenda, Michael D. Montross, Jozef Horabik, Sidney A. Thompson Sep 2004

Vertical Wall Loads In A Model Grain Bin With Non-Axial Internal Inserts, Marek Molenda, Michael D. Montross, Jozef Horabik, Sidney A. Thompson

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

A study was conducted to estimate the degree of load asymmetry in a bin with non-axial internal inserts. Internal inserts in the form of an annulus segment were attached to the wall, and their influence on vertical wall loads during centric filling and discharge in a model bin were measured. Wall and floor loads were measured in a corrugated-wall model grain bin with a diameter of 2.44 m and a height of 7.3 m filled with soft red winter wheat to a depth of 6.7 m (height-to-diameter ratio of 2.75). Tests were conducted with inserts that ...


Integrated Drainage-Wetland Systems For Reducing Nitrate Loads From Tile Drained Landscapes, William G. Crumpton, Matthew J. Helmers Sep 2004

Integrated Drainage-Wetland Systems For Reducing Nitrate Loads From Tile Drained Landscapes, William G. Crumpton, Matthew J. Helmers

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

In addition to raising local water quality concerns, nitrate loads from Midwest agriculture are suspected as a primary contributor to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Over-application of fertilizer can exacerbate the problem, but the major causes are hydrological and land-use changes that came with tile drainage. Subsurface drainage creates very productive croplands and reduces water quality problems associated with surface runoff, but subsurface flow and nitrate transport are substantially increased. A permanent solution to the environmental problem of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico will likely require more than improved nitrogen management and tillage practices. We present results of ...


The Role Of Pasture In Conservation Management, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman Aug 2004

The Role Of Pasture In Conservation Management, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Michael Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

Pasture is a longtime and significant part of Iowa agriculture and is a critical component of the state's agricultural landscape. The main function of pasture is as a primary support system for livestock. It can affect conservation and the environmental planning in several ways, including soil carbon storage, soil quality, and water quality. The effect of livestock on such parameters is highly significant depending on the way livestock and pasture are managed. Therefore, pasture management does play an important role in a farming operation's overall conservation management plan.


Evaluation Of Sample Recovery Of Malodorous Gases From Air Sampling Bags, Spme, And Sampling Canisters, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Jenny D. Lloyd, David B. Parker, Donald W. Wright, David K. Eaton, Lawrence T. Nielsen Aug 2004

Evaluation Of Sample Recovery Of Malodorous Gases From Air Sampling Bags, Spme, And Sampling Canisters, Jacek A. Koziel, Jarett P. Spinhirne, Jenny D. Lloyd, David B. Parker, Donald W. Wright, David K. Eaton, Lawrence T. Nielsen

Jacek A. Koziel

Odorous gases associated with livestock operations are complex mixtures of hundreds if not thousands of compounds. Research is needed to know how best to sample and analyze these compounds. The main objective of this research was to compare recoveries of a standard gas mixture of 11 odorous compounds from the Carboxen/PDMS 75 µ m SPME fibers, PVF (Tedlar), FEP (Teflon), foil, and PET (Melinex) air sampling bags, and standard 6 L Stabilizer™ sampling canisters after sample storage at room temperature. A standard mixture consisted of 7 VFAs from acetic to hexanoic, and 4 semi-VOCs including p-cresol, indole, 4-ethylphenol, and ...


Comparison Of Measured And Modeled Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations Near A 4000 Head Swine Facility, David R. Schmidt, Lakshmi Koppolu, Gregory C. Pratt, Larry D. Jacobson, Dennis D. Schulte, Steven J. Hoff, Mara Moscato Aug 2004

Comparison Of Measured And Modeled Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations Near A 4000 Head Swine Facility, David R. Schmidt, Lakshmi Koppolu, Gregory C. Pratt, Larry D. Jacobson, Dennis D. Schulte, Steven J. Hoff, Mara Moscato

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Air dispersion models are currently being used to regulate agriculture facilities and/or assess their environmental impact. As such, it is critical that these models accurately reflect these impacts. Meteorological conditions, hydrogen sulfide emissions, and downwind hydrogen sulfide concentrations at a four barn, 4000-head, swine finishing facility in Northeast Iowa were measured for a three week period in October 2003. Meteorological conditions and hydrogen sulfide emissions from the barns were used as inputs into two air dispersion models, INPUFF-2 and AERMOD. Model results were compared to measured results at eighteen receptor locations. Results indicate the models did not accurately predict ...


Evaluation Of Ion-Selective Membranes For Real-Time Soil Macronutrients Sensing, Hak-Jin Kim, John W. Hummel, Stuart J. Birrell Aug 2004

Evaluation Of Ion-Selective Membranes For Real-Time Soil Macronutrients Sensing, Hak-Jin Kim, John W. Hummel, Stuart J. Birrell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

On-the-go, real-time soil nutrient analysis would be useful in the site-specific management of soil fertility. The rapid response and low sample volume associated with ion-selective field effect transistors (ISFETs) make them good soil fertility sensor candidates. An important component of the ion-selective microelectrode technology is an ion-selective membrane that responds selectively to one analyte in the presence of other ions in a solution. This paper describes the evaluation of nitrate and potassium ion-selective membranes and the investigation of the interaction between the ion-selective membranes and soil extracting solutions to identify membranes and extracting solutions that are compatible for use with ...


Nitrification Inhibitor And Nitrogen Application Timing Effects On Yields And Nitrate-Nitrogen Concentrations In Subsurface Drainage From A Corn-Soybean Rotation, Peter A. Lawlor, James L. Baker, Stewart W. Melvin, Matthew J. Helmers Aug 2004

Nitrification Inhibitor And Nitrogen Application Timing Effects On Yields And Nitrate-Nitrogen Concentrations In Subsurface Drainage From A Corn-Soybean Rotation, Peter A. Lawlor, James L. Baker, Stewart W. Melvin, Matthew J. Helmers

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Excess precipitation in Iowa and many other agricultural production areas is removed artificially via subsurface drainage systems that intercept and usually divert it to surface waters. Nitrogen, either applied as fertilizer or manure and derived from soil organic matter, can be carried as nitrate with the excess water in quantities that can cause deleterious effects downstream. A four-year, five-replication, field study was initiated in the fall of 1999 in Pocahontas County, Iowa on 0.05 ha plots that are predominantly Nicollet, Webster, and Canisteo clay loams with 3-5% organic matter. The objective was to determine the influence of seasonal N ...


Application Rate And Timing Effects On Urease Inhibitor Performance For Minimizing Ammonia Emissions From Beef Cattle Feedyards, David B. Parker, Syam Pandrangi, L. Wayne Greene, Lal K. Almas, N. Andy Cole, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel Aug 2004

Application Rate And Timing Effects On Urease Inhibitor Performance For Minimizing Ammonia Emissions From Beef Cattle Feedyards, David B. Parker, Syam Pandrangi, L. Wayne Greene, Lal K. Almas, N. Andy Cole, Marty B. Rhoades, Jacek A. Koziel

Jacek A. Koziel

A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate how rate and timing of urease inhibitor application affects ammonia emissions from simulated beef cattle feedyard surfaces. The urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) was applied at rates of 0, 1 and 2 kg/ha, at 8, 16, and 32 day frequencies, and with or without simulated rainfall. Synthetic urine was added every 2 days to the manure surface. Gaseous NH3 was trapped in a sulfuric acid solution using a vacuum system and analyzed for nitrogen using automated procedures. NBPT applied every 8 days was most effective, with the 1 and 2 ...


Comparison Of Vrt Granular Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Steven F. Higgins, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Matthew J. Darr, Dennis W. Hancock, Edward L. Hutchins Aug 2004

Comparison Of Vrt Granular Applicators, John P. Fulton, Scott A. Shearer, Steven F. Higgins, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Matthew J. Darr, Dennis W. Hancock, Edward L. Hutchins

Matthew J. Darr

Granular applicators equipped with variable-rate technology have gained popularity in recent years due to increased interests in variable-rate application. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize distribution patterns at varying rates and quantify rate transitions from various granular applicators. Both uniform- and variable-rate tests were conducted to assess the accuracy of variable-rate application from four granular applicators (2 spinner spreaders and 2 pneumatic applicators). The patterns results indicated a consistent triangular pattern for spinner spreader B and consistent patterns for pneumatic applicators C and D. However, applicator D produced pattern variations at the center and right side. Simulated overlap ...


Ambient Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations At A Beef Cattle Feedlot In Texas, Jacek A. Koziel, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Park Aug 2004

Ambient Ammonia And Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations At A Beef Cattle Feedlot In Texas, Jacek A. Koziel, Bok-Haeng Baek, Jarett P. Spinhirne, David B. Park

Jacek A. Koziel

Concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in ambient air were semicontinuously measured at a 50,000-head cattle feedyard in Texas panhandle in three seasons: fall 2002 (10 days), winter 2003 (14 days), and spring 2003 (15 days). Sampling was conducted at 1.5 m above the ground at one location each season at the western fence line of cattle pens. Gas concentrations were measured using continuous analyzers housed in an onsite instrument shelter. Measured concentrations were upwind or downwind of the feedyard pens depending on the wind direction. Wind directions, wind velocity, and air temperature were measured to ...


Can-Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer, John P. Fulton Aug 2004

Can-Based Distributed Control For Autonomous Vehicles, Matthew J. Darr, Timothy S. Stombaugh, Scott A. Shearer, John P. Fulton

Matthew J. Darr

Through the work of researchers and the development of commercially available products, automated guidance has become a viable option for agricultural producers. One limiting factor of many commercially available technologies is that they only automate one function of an agricultural vehicle and that their control systems are proprietary to a single machine model.The objective of this project was to evaluate a controller area network (CAN bus) as the basis of an automated agricultural vehicle. The prototype system utilized several microcontroller-driven nodes to act as control points along a system wide CAN bus. Messages were transferred to the steering, transmission ...


Design Considerations For The Construction And Operation Of Grain Elevator Facilities. Part Ii: Process Engineering Considerations, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Gregory D. Williams Aug 2004

Design Considerations For The Construction And Operation Of Grain Elevator Facilities. Part Ii: Process Engineering Considerations, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Gregory D. Williams

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Grain elevators play a key role in U.S. agriculture, and fulfill three main functions: post-harvest handling and storing of cereal grains and oilseeds, conditioning and preserving of grain, and facilitating the delivery of grain to domestic feeding and processing, as well as overseas, end-use destinations. These facilities have evolved from mere storage sites to large, high-throughput, highly automated, processing plants. This trend has been driven by the consolidation of local country elevators, which has been due, in part, to both local economic conditions as well as changing railroad regulations. Another reason has been an increased demand for grain storage ...


Educational Needs For Agri-Industrial Facility Designers And Managers, Gregory D. Williams, Kurt A. Rosentrater, David R. Bohnhoff Aug 2004

Educational Needs For Agri-Industrial Facility Designers And Managers, Gregory D. Williams, Kurt A. Rosentrater, David R. Bohnhoff

Kurt A. Rosentrater

This paper summarizes educational needs for agri-industrial facility designers and mangers. Relevant skills required for the design, planning, and operation of agri-industrial facilities are discussed. Continuing and University educational needs for facility designers and managers are also presented.


Design Considerations For The Construction And Operation Of Grain Elevator Facilities. Part I: Planning, Structural, And Life Safety Considerations, Gregory D. Williams, Kurt A. Rosentrater Aug 2004

Design Considerations For The Construction And Operation Of Grain Elevator Facilities. Part I: Planning, Structural, And Life Safety Considerations, Gregory D. Williams, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Grain elevators represent a major link our food production system. To date, information about the unique design requirements of these facilities has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the art design procedures for grain elevator facilities constructed in North America, an overview of accepted standards and procedures has been assembled. With this paper engineers should become more familiar with specific design considerations for grain handling facilities and develop appropriate references to expand their knowledge base. Educators may find this paper useful too.


Design Considerations For The Construction And Operation Of Feed Milling Facilities. Part Ii: Process Engineering Considerations, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Gregory D. Williams Aug 2004

Design Considerations For The Construction And Operation Of Feed Milling Facilities. Part Ii: Process Engineering Considerations, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Gregory D. Williams

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Feed milling facilities represent an important segment of our food production system, because they manufacture the majority of products used to meet the nutritional needs of livestock in our meat supply chain. Agri-industrial facilities such as feed mills have a number of unique design requirements. In an effort to summarize state of the art design procedures for feed milling facilities constructed in North America, an overview of these procedures and accepted standards has been assembled. Specifically, this paper focuses on process engineering considerations. Consequently, engineers and designers should become familiar with the distinctive design process for these facilities and develop ...


An Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum For Agri-Industrial Facility Designers, David R. Bohnhoff, Sundaram Gunasekaran, Gregory D. Williams, Kurt A. Rosentrater Aug 2004

An Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum For Agri-Industrial Facility Designers, David R. Bohnhoff, Sundaram Gunasekaran, Gregory D. Williams, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Faculty of the Biological Systems Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison are considering modifications to their undergraduate engineering curriculum that will result in graduates who are better prepared for positions as agri-industrial facility designers.