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2004

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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

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Articles 31 - 60 of 169

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Central Role For Liver X Receptor In Insulin-Mediated Activation Of Srebp-1c Transcription And Stimulation Of Fatty Acid Synthesis In Liver., Guoxun Chen Aug 2004

Central Role For Liver X Receptor In Insulin-Mediated Activation Of Srebp-1c Transcription And Stimulation Of Fatty Acid Synthesis In Liver., Guoxun Chen

Nutrition Publications and Other Works

Transcription of the gene encoding sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is known to be activated by insulin in the liver. The resultant SREBP-1c protein activates transcription of the genes required for fatty acid synthesis. Here, we use SREBP-1c promoter reporter constructs to dissect the mechanism of insulin activation in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. The data show that a complete insulin response (increase of 6- to 11-fold) requires two binding sites for liver X receptors (LXRs), which are nuclear receptors that are activated by oxygenated sterols. Disruption of these binding sites did not lower basal transcription but severely reduced the ...


Examination Of Technologies For Student-Generated Work In A Peer-Led, Peer-Review Instructional Environment, Brian P. Coppola, Alan L. Kiste Aug 2004

Examination Of Technologies For Student-Generated Work In A Peer-Led, Peer-Review Instructional Environment, Brian P. Coppola, Alan L. Kiste

Chemistry and Biochemistry

There is a growing literature demonstrating the effectiveness of using computer environments to assist students’ in visualizing science and mathematics concepts. However, with many of these computerized learning environments, students do not have the option of manipulating the environment. Instead, they are presented with pre-made visualizations. Enabling students to display their understanding through multiple representational forms is more interesting. In our peer-led, peer-review environment, students generate a complex, literature-based, multimedia text on which their final examination is based. However, there are great time and personnel costs in this design. Collaborating with SRI Inc., we are addressing these demands via the ...


Nrage Regulates Life And Death Of Neural Progenitors, Stephen E. Kendall Aug 2004

Nrage Regulates Life And Death Of Neural Progenitors, Stephen E. Kendall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The development of the central nervous system requires the orchestration of numerous instructive and permissive cues. These factors are secreted from signaling centers and function in a concentration dependent manner that effects the proliferation, survival and differentiation of neural progenitors (NP) and their differentiated progeny. The family including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key regulators of NP expansion and survival. However, once NP become committed to a neuronal fate and begin to differentiate they compete for limited amounts of neurotrophin that facilitate further growth and survival. Here we show that the p75 neurotrophin receptor interacting protein NRAGE is expressed in ...


Capillary Liquid Chromatography Using Micro Size Particles, Yanqiao Xiang Jul 2004

Capillary Liquid Chromatography Using Micro Size Particles, Yanqiao Xiang

Theses and Dissertations

High speed and/or high efficiency separations can be realized using small particles (~ 1 µm) in liquid chromatography (LC). However, due to the large pressure drop caused by small particles, conventional LC pumping systems cannot satisfy the pressure requirements needed to drive the mobile phase through the column. Use of ultrahigh pressure, elevated temperature, or both can overcome these pressure limitations and allow the use of very small particles for high speed and/or high efficiency separations.

In this dissertation, the use of ultrahigh pressures with and without elevated temperatures in capillary LC is described. Very fast separations of various ...


A Novel Phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P3 Pathway In Fission Yeast, Prasenjit Mitra, Yingjie Zhang, Lucia E. Rameh, Mariya P. Ivshina, Dannel Mccollum, John J. Nunnari, Gregory M. Hendricks, Monica L. Kerr, Seth J. Field, Lewis C. Cantley, Alonzo H. Ross Jul 2004

A Novel Phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P3 Pathway In Fission Yeast, Prasenjit Mitra, Yingjie Zhang, Lucia E. Rameh, Mariya P. Ivshina, Dannel Mccollum, John J. Nunnari, Gregory M. Hendricks, Monica L. Kerr, Seth J. Field, Lewis C. Cantley, Alonzo H. Ross

Open Access Articles

The mammalian tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), inhibits cell growth and survival by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI[3,4,5]P3). We have found a homologue of PTEN in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (ptn1). This was an unexpected finding because yeast (S. pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lack the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases that generate PI(3,4,5)P3 in higher eukaryotes. Indeed, PI(3,4,5)P3 has not been detected in yeast. Surprisingly, upon deletion of ptn1 in S. pombe, PI(3,4,5)P3 became detectable at ...


Flash Artifact Suppression In Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging, Richard Yung Chiao, Gregory Ray Bashford, Mark Peter Feilen, Cynthia Andrews Owen Jul 2004

Flash Artifact Suppression In Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging, Richard Yung Chiao, Gregory Ray Bashford, Mark Peter Feilen, Cynthia Andrews Owen

Biomedical Imaging and Biosignal Analysis Laboratory

Flash artifacts in ultrasound flow images are suppressed to achieve enhanced flow discrimination. Flash artifacts typically occur as region of elevated signal strength (brightness or equivalent color) within an image. A flash suppression algorithm included the steps of estimating the flash within an image and then suppressing the estimated flash. The mechanism for flash suppression is spatial filtering. An extension of this basic method used information from adjacent frames to estimate the flash and/or to smooth the resulting image sequence. Temporal information from adjacent frames is used as an adjunct to improve performance.


Activation Of The Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway Contributes To Survival Of Primary Epithelial Cells Infected With The Periodontal Pathogen Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Özlem Yilmaz, Thomas Jungas, Philippe Verbeke, David M. Ojcius Jul 2004

Activation Of The Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway Contributes To Survival Of Primary Epithelial Cells Infected With The Periodontal Pathogen Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Özlem Yilmaz, Thomas Jungas, Philippe Verbeke, David M. Ojcius

Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, infects primary gingival epithelial cells (GECs). Despite the large number of bacteria that replicate inside the GECs, the host cell remains viable. We demonstrate that P. gingivalis triggers rapid and reversible surface phosphatidylserine exposure through a mechanism requiring caspase activation. However, after 1 day of infection, the bacteria no longer induce phosphatidylserine externalization and instead protect infected cells against apoptosis. Infection exerts its effect at the level of mitochondria, as P. gingivalis also blocks depolarization of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and cytochrome c release. Interestingly, protein kinase B/Akt is phosphorylated during infection, which ...


The Euplotes Telomerase Subunit P43 Stimulates Enzymatic Activity And Processivity In Vitro, Stefan Aigner, Thomas R. Cech Jul 2004

The Euplotes Telomerase Subunit P43 Stimulates Enzymatic Activity And Processivity In Vitro, Stefan Aigner, Thomas R. Cech

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Contributions (1986-2018)

Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Although it is minimally composed of a conserved catalytic protein subunit (TERT) and an RNA component, additional accessory factors present in the holoenzyme play crucial roles in the biogenesis and function of the enzyme complex. Telomerase from the ciliate Tetrahymenacan be reconstituted in active form in vitro. Using this system, we show that p43, a telomerase-specific La-motif protein from the ciliate Euplotes, stimulates activity and increases repeat addition processivity of telomerase. Activity enhancement by p43 requires its incorporation into a TERT•RNA•p43 ...


A High -Order Finite Difference Method For Solving Bioheat Transfer Equations In Three-Dimensional Triple -Layered Skin Structure, Haofeng Yu Jul 2004

A High -Order Finite Difference Method For Solving Bioheat Transfer Equations In Three-Dimensional Triple -Layered Skin Structure, Haofeng Yu

Doctoral Dissertations

Investigations on instantaneous skin burns are useful for an accurate assessment of burn-evaluation and for establishing thermal protections for various purposes. Meanwhile, hyperthermia with radiation is important in the treatment of cancer, and it is essential for developers and users of hyperthermia systems to predict, and interpret correctly the biomass thermal and vascular response to heating. In this dissertation, we employ the well-known Pennes' bioheat transfer equation to predict the degree of skin burn and the temperature distribution in hyperthermia cancer treatment.

A fourth-order compact finite difference scheme is developed to solve Pennes' bioheat transfer equation in a three-dimensional single ...


Energy-Landscape-Model Analysis For Irreversibility And Its Pulse-Width Dependence In Cells Subjected To A High-Intensity Ultrashort Electric Pulse, R. P. Joshi, Q. Hu, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe Jul 2004

Energy-Landscape-Model Analysis For Irreversibility And Its Pulse-Width Dependence In Cells Subjected To A High-Intensity Ultrashort Electric Pulse, R. P. Joshi, Q. Hu, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

We provide a simple, but physical analysis for cell irreversibility and apoptosis in response to an ultrashort (nanosecond), high-intensity electric pulse. Our approach is based on an energy landscape model for determining the temporal evolution of the configurational probability function p(q). The primary focus is on obtaining qualitative predictions of a pulse width dependence to apoptotic cell irreversibility that has been observed experimentally. The analysis couples a distributed electrical model for current flow with the Smoluchowski equation to provide self-consistent, time-dependent transmembrane voltages. The model captures the essence of the experimentally observed pulse-width dependence, and provides a possible physical ...


Hyaluronan Facilitates Invasion Of Colon Carcinoma Cells In Vitro Via Interaction With Cd44, Hyeong-Rok Kim, Marie A. Wheeler, Christopher M. Wilson, Joji Iida, David Eng, Melanie A. Simpson, James B. Mccarthy, Kelli M. Bullard Jul 2004

Hyaluronan Facilitates Invasion Of Colon Carcinoma Cells In Vitro Via Interaction With Cd44, Hyeong-Rok Kim, Marie A. Wheeler, Christopher M. Wilson, Joji Iida, David Eng, Melanie A. Simpson, James B. Mccarthy, Kelli M. Bullard

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Hyaluronan (HA) and its biosynthetic enzymes, HA synthases (HAS1, 2, and 3) are thought to participate in cancer progression. We have shown previously that HA production and HAS3 expression are increased in metastatic colon carcinoma cells (SW620) when compared with cells isolated from a primary tumor (SW480). Because invasion of the extracellular matrix is a fundamental event in tumor growth and metastasis, we hypothesized that SW620 cells would show greater invasive capability than SW480 cells, that invasion is HA dependent, and that HA mediates invasion via interaction with a cell-surface receptor. Invasion into artificial basement membrane (Matrigel) was assessed in ...


Involvement Of Thromboxane A2 And Tyrosine Kinase In The Synergistic Interaction Of Platelet Activating Factor And Calcium Ionophore A23187 In Human Platelet Aggregation, Huma Rasheed, Sheikh Arshad Saeed Jun 2004

Involvement Of Thromboxane A2 And Tyrosine Kinase In The Synergistic Interaction Of Platelet Activating Factor And Calcium Ionophore A23187 In Human Platelet Aggregation, Huma Rasheed, Sheikh Arshad Saeed

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

The present study was carried out to examine the mechanisms of the synergistic interaction of PAF and A23187 mediated platelet aggregation. We found that platelet aggregation mediated by subthreshold concentrations of PAF (5 nM) and A23187 (1 mM) was inhibited by PAF receptor blocker (WEB 2086, IC50 = 0.65 mM) and calcium channel blockers, diltiazem (IC50 = 13 mM) and verapamil (IC50 = 18 mM). Pretreatment of platelets with PAF and A23187 induced rise in intracellular calcium and this effect was also blocked by verapamil. While examining the role of the down stream signaling pathways, we found that platelet aggregation induced by ...


Melanoma Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Enhances Fak And Erk Activation By Distinct Mechanisms, Jianbo Yang, Matthew A. Price, Cheryl L. Neudauer, Christopher Wilson, Soldano Ferrone, Hong Xia, Joji Iida, Melanie A. Simpson, James B. Mccarthy Jun 2004

Melanoma Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan Enhances Fak And Erk Activation By Distinct Mechanisms, Jianbo Yang, Matthew A. Price, Cheryl L. Neudauer, Christopher Wilson, Soldano Ferrone, Hong Xia, Joji Iida, Melanie A. Simpson, James B. Mccarthy

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is an early cell surface melanoma progression marker implicated in stimulating tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a pivotal role in integrating growth factor and adhesion-related signaling pathways, facilitating cell spreading and migration. Extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, implicated in tumor growth and survival, has also been linked to clinical melanoma progression. We have cloned the MCSP core protein and expressed it in the MCSP-negative melanoma cell line WM1552C. Expression of MCSP enhances integrin-mediated cell spreading, FAK phosphorylation, and activation of ERK1/2. MCSP transfectants exhibit extensive ...


Emissions From Miombo Woodland And Dambo Grassland Savanna Fires, Parikhit Sinha, Peter V. Hobbs, Robert J. Yokelson, Donald R. Blake, Song Gao, Thomas W. Kirschsetter Jun 2004

Emissions From Miombo Woodland And Dambo Grassland Savanna Fires, Parikhit Sinha, Peter V. Hobbs, Robert J. Yokelson, Donald R. Blake, Song Gao, Thomas W. Kirschsetter

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

[1] Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles over and downwind of two prescribed savanna fires in Zambia are described. The measurements include profiles through the smoke plumes of condensation nucleus concentrations and normalized excess mixing ratios of particles and gases, emission factors for 42 trace gases and seven particulate species, and vertical profiles of ambient conditions. The fires were ignited in plots of miombo woodland savanna, the most prevalent savanna type in southern Africa, and dambo grassland savanna, an important enclave of miombo woodland ecosystems. Emission factors for the two fires are combined with measurements of fuel loading, combustion ...


Mechanisms And Integration Of Signal Pathway: A Role For Calpains?, Dorothy E. Croall Jun 2004

Mechanisms And Integration Of Signal Pathway: A Role For Calpains?, Dorothy E. Croall

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

In order to survive cells must sense and respond to changes in their environment. Environmental cues trigger a variety of events within cells. The concentration and movements of calcium ions are essential regulators of many of these cellular responses. Proper control of intracellular calcium is essential because at thigh levels calcium can lead to cell damage or death. Calcium accomplishes it effects through binding to specific proteins such as calmodulin and calpain. Calmodulin, named for its ability to bind calcium and to modulate the activity of other cellular components, is an important mediator of calcium signals and its mechanism of ...


Liver-Specific Expression Of The Agouti Gene In Transgenic Mice Promotes Liver Carcinogenesis In The Absence Of Obesity And Diabetes, Alexander I. Kuklin, Randall L. Mynatt, Mitchell L. Klebig, Laura L. Kiefer, William O. Wilkison, Richard P. Woychik, Edward J. Michaud Jun 2004

Liver-Specific Expression Of The Agouti Gene In Transgenic Mice Promotes Liver Carcinogenesis In The Absence Of Obesity And Diabetes, Alexander I. Kuklin, Randall L. Mynatt, Mitchell L. Klebig, Laura L. Kiefer, William O. Wilkison, Richard P. Woychik, Edward J. Michaud

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

Background

The agouti protein is a paracrine factor that is normally present in the skin of many species of mammals. Agouti regulates the switch between black and yellow hair pigmentation by signalling through the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) on melanocytes. Lethal yellow (Ay) and viable yellow (Avy) are dominant regulatory mutations in the mouse agouti gene that cause the wild-type protein to be produced at abnormally high levels throughout the body. Mice harboring these mutations exhibit a pleiotropic syndrome characterized by yellow coat color, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased susceptibility to hyperplasia and carcinogenesis in numerous tissues, including ...


Thickness Dependence Of Magneto-Transport In Cu-Co Granular Thin Films, Jian Qing Wang, Ngocnga Dao, Ham H. Kim, Scott L. Whittenburg Jun 2004

Thickness Dependence Of Magneto-Transport In Cu-Co Granular Thin Films, Jian Qing Wang, Ngocnga Dao, Ham H. Kim, Scott L. Whittenburg

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

This work explores the thickness dependence of magneto-transport properties in granular thin films with different thickness. These results are compared with silver-based film series studied earlier. It was observed that the thickness dependence of the GMReffect was sensitive to the surface chemistry of the films. The extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) in these films was measured and found to be different from the Ag-based system. In the Cu-based system, the EHE is a weak function of film thickness over the range studied. When the variation of the spontaneous magnetization is taken into account the effective EHE has a universal thickness dependence


Food Based Approaches For A Healthy Nutrition In Africa, Mamoudou Hama Dicko May 2004

Food Based Approaches For A Healthy Nutrition In Africa, Mamoudou Hama Dicko

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

The latest estimates of the FAO demonstrate the problems of the fight against hunger. These problems are manifested by the ever-increasing number of chronically undernourished people worldwide. Their numbers during the 1999-2001 period were estimated at about 840 million of which 798 million live in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa alone represented 198 million of those. In this part of Africa the prevalence of undernourishment ranges from 5-34%, causing growth retardation and insufficient weight gain among one third of the children under five years of age and resulting in a mortality of 5-15% among these children. Malnutrition resulting from undernourishment is ...


Characterization Of Human Udp-Glucose Dehydrogenase: Cys-276 Is Required For The Second Of Two Successive Oxidations, Brandi J. Sommer, Joseph J. Barycki, Melanie A. Simpson May 2004

Characterization Of Human Udp-Glucose Dehydrogenase: Cys-276 Is Required For The Second Of Two Successive Oxidations, Brandi J. Sommer, Joseph J. Barycki, Melanie A. Simpson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes two oxidations of UDP-glucose to yield UDP-glucuronic acid. Pathological overproduction of extracellular matrix components may be linked to the availability of UDP-glucuronic acid; therefore UGDH is an intriguing therapeutic target. Specific inhibition of human UGDH requires detailed knowledge of its catalytic mechanism, which has not been characterized. In this report, we have cloned, expressed, and affinity-purified the human enzyme and determined its steady state kinetic parameters. The human enzyme is active as a hexamer with values for Km and Vmax that agree well with those reported for a bovine homolog. We used crystal coordinates ...


Growth And Transport Properties Of Complementary Germanium Nanowire Field Effect Transistors, Andrew B. Greytak, Lincoln J. Lauhon, Mark S. Gudiksen, Charles M. Lieber May 2004

Growth And Transport Properties Of Complementary Germanium Nanowire Field Effect Transistors, Andrew B. Greytak, Lincoln J. Lauhon, Mark S. Gudiksen, Charles M. Lieber

Faculty Publications

n- and p-type Ge nanowires were synthesized by a multistep process in which axial elongation, via vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) growth, and doping were accomplished in separate chemical vapor deposition steps. Intrinsic, single-crystal, Ge nanowires prepared by Au nanocluster-mediated VLS growth were surface-doped in situ using diborane or phosphine, and then radial growth of an epitaxial Ge shell was used to cap the dopant layer. Field-effect transistors prepared from these Ge nanowires exhibited on currents and transconductances up to 850 µA/µm and 4.9 µA/V, respectively, with device yields of >85%.


Velocity And Temperature Characterization Of The First Vacuum Stage Expansion In An Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer, William Neil Radicic May 2004

Velocity And Temperature Characterization Of The First Vacuum Stage Expansion In An Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer, William Neil Radicic

Theses and Dissertations

The inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is the analytical instrument of choice for trace element detection and quantification. Despite the popularity of ICP-MS, significant degradation in sensitivity and precision occurs as the result of matrix and instrument-induced effects. The sources of these effects are not well understood, characterized, or correlated to particular plasma operating condition settings or matrix compositions and involve both neutral and charged species. The purpose of this study is to characterize the behavior of metastable Ar (I) atom and Ca (II) ion through the measurement of Doppler velocities and fluorescence line width "temperatures."

For the characterization ...


Pv1 Is A Key Structural Component For The Formation Of The Stomatal And Fenestral Diaphragms, Radu V. Stan, Eugene Tkachenko, Ingrid R. Niesman May 2004

Pv1 Is A Key Structural Component For The Formation Of The Stomatal And Fenestral Diaphragms, Radu V. Stan, Eugene Tkachenko, Ingrid R. Niesman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

PV1 is an endothelial-specific integral membrane glycoprotein associated with the stomatal diaphragms of caveolae, transendothelial channels, and vesiculo-vacuolar organelles and the diaphragms of endothelial fenestrae. Multiple PV1 homodimers are found within each stomatal and fenestral diaphragm. We investigated the function of PV1 within these diaphragms and their regulation and found that treatment of endothelial cells in culture with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) led to upregulation of PV1. This correlated with de novo formation of stomatal diaphragms of caveolae and transendothelial channels as well as fenestrae upon PMA treatment. The newly formed diaphragms could be labeled with anti-PV1 antibodies. The upregulation ...


The Importance Of A Critical Protonation State And The Fate Of The Catalytic Steps In Class A Β-Lactamases And Penicillin-Binding Proteins, Dasantila Golemi-Kotra, Samy O. Meroueh, Choonkeun Kim, Sergei B. Vakulenko, Alexey Bulychev, Ann J. Stemmler, Timothy L. Stemmler, Shahriar Mobashery May 2004

The Importance Of A Critical Protonation State And The Fate Of The Catalytic Steps In Class A Β-Lactamases And Penicillin-Binding Proteins, Dasantila Golemi-Kotra, Samy O. Meroueh, Choonkeun Kim, Sergei B. Vakulenko, Alexey Bulychev, Ann J. Stemmler, Timothy L. Stemmler, Shahriar Mobashery

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

b-Lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins are bacterial enzymes involved in antibiotic resistance to b-lactam antibiotics and biosynthetic assembly of cell wall, respectively. Members of these large families of enzymes all experience acylation by their respective substrates at an active-site serine as the first step in their catalytic activities. A Ser-X-X-Lys sequence motif is seen in all these proteins and crystal structures demonstrate that the side chain functions of the serine and lysine are in contact with one another. Three independent methods were used in this report to address the question of the protonation state of this important lysine (Lys73) in the ...


Evaluating The Contributions Of Desolvation And Base-Stacking During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Xuemei Zhang, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis May 2004

Evaluating The Contributions Of Desolvation And Base-Stacking During Translesion Dna Synthesis, Xuemei Zhang, Irene Lee, Anthony J. Berdis

Chemistry Faculty Publications

DNA polymerases catalyze the insertion of a nucleoside triphosphate into the growing polymer chain using the template strand as a guide. Numerous factors such as hydrogen bonding interactions, base-stacking contributions, and desolvation play important roles in controlling the efficiency and fidelity of this process. We previously demonstrated that 5-nitro-indolyl-2′-deoxyriboside triphosphate, a non-natural nucleobase with enhanced base-stacking properties, was more efficiently inserted opposite a non-templating DNA lesion compared to natural templating nucleobases (E. Z. Reineks and A. J. Berdis, Biochemistry, 2004, 43, 393–404). The catalytic enhancement was proposed to reflect increased base-stacking interactions of the non-natural nucleobase with the ...


N9 Alkylation And Glycosylation Of Purines; A Practical Synthesis Of 2-Chloro-2'-Deoxyadenosine, Minghong Zhong May 2004

N9 Alkylation And Glycosylation Of Purines; A Practical Synthesis Of 2-Chloro-2'-Deoxyadenosine, Minghong Zhong

Theses and Dissertations

(a) The Robins reagent [2-acetamido-6-O-(diphenylcarbamoyl)purine] was utilized for glycosylation under Lewis acid conditions. Regioselectivity of glycosylation depends on the glycosyl donor and its 2-O- or 2-N-protecting group. Regioselective N9 glycosylation of 2-acetamido-6-O-(diphenylcarbamoyl)purine with problematic glucosamine has been accomplished by protecting the amino function as a phthalimido group with consequent stabilization of the oxocarbenium cation, and lowering the activation energy by introduction of trichloroacetimidate at the anomeric carbon.

(b) 6-Heteroaryl functions [6-(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl) and 6-(imidazol-1-yl)] were introduced into purine derivatives for regioselective N9 alkylation. The regiospecificity of alkylation mainly results from steric effects due ...


The Prokaryotic Selenoproteome, Gregory V. Kryukov, Vadim N. Gladyshev May 2004

The Prokaryotic Selenoproteome, Gregory V. Kryukov, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

In the genetic code, the UGA codon has a dual function as it encodes selenocysteine (Sec) and serves as a stop signal. However, only the translation terminator function is used in gene annotation programs, resulting in misannotation of selenoprotein genes. Here, we applied two independent bioinformatics approaches to characterize a selenoprotein set in prokaryotic genomes. One method searched for selenoprotein genes by identifying RNA stem–loop structures, selenocysteine insertion sequence elements; the second approach identified Sec/Cys pairs in homologous sequences. These analyses identified all or almost all selenoproteins in completely sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes and provided a view ...


Localizing Ligand Binding Sites Using Overlapping Recombinant Polypeptide Sequences Of Vitronectin, Jodi L. Watson May 2004

Localizing Ligand Binding Sites Using Overlapping Recombinant Polypeptide Sequences Of Vitronectin, Jodi L. Watson

Masters Theses

Vitronectin is a glycoprotein involved in many cellular processes including blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and cell/matrix binding. It interacts with a number of macromolecules including heparin, PAI-1, and the thrombin-antithrombin complex. We have studied the interaction of full-length vitronectin and the thrombin-antithrombin complex using a Far Western method. To localize the recognition site for thrombin-antithrombin binding to vitronectin, sequences for eight overlapping recombinant polypeptide sequences of vitronectin (spanning all 459 amino acids) were cloned into the pET system. Expression in BL21(DE3)pLysS Escherichia coli has been achieved for seven of the eight 100 amino acid fragments. Seven polypeptides (amino ...


Role Of Iron In The Mechanism Of Asbestos-Induced Apoptosis In Human Lung And Pleural Target Cells, Aleksander Baldys May 2004

Role Of Iron In The Mechanism Of Asbestos-Induced Apoptosis In Human Lung And Pleural Target Cells, Aleksander Baldys

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Occupational exposure to asbestos has been associated with increased incidence of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, mesothelioma of the pleura, and bronchogenic carcinoma. Although the mechanism by which asbestos causes cancer remains unknown , iron associated with asbestos is thought to play a role in the pathogenic effects of fibers.

The aim of this research was to examine and compare the asbestos-induced signaling phenomena in relevant human lung and pleural target cells, and to deter mine the role of iron from asbestos fibers in these events. Exposure of human airway epithelial (A549) cells, human pleural mesothelial (METSA) cells, and normal human small airway ...


Increased Levels Of Erythrocyte Glutathione In Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Antioxidant Defence, M P. Iqbal, M Ishaq, N Mehboobali May 2004

Increased Levels Of Erythrocyte Glutathione In Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Antioxidant Defence, M P. Iqbal, M Ishaq, N Mehboobali

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objective: Glutathione (GSH) has a central role in the defence against oxidative damage. This study was carried out to investigate any change in erythrocyte GSH levels in a population of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and compare them with levels in normal healthy subjects.
Method: GSH levels were determined in erythrocytes of one hundred and seventy six patients with AMI (age: 30-70 years; 131 males and 45 females) admitted to the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi. These levels were compared with eryrocyte GSH levels obtained from 95 normal healthy subjects (controls).
Results: Mean +/- SD erythrocyte GSH levels in ...


Identification Of An Il-17-Producing Nk1.1neg Inkt Cell Population Involved In Airway Neutrophilia, Paul B. Savage, Marie-Laure Michel, Alexandre Castro Keller, Christophe Paget, Masakazu Fujio, Francois Trottein, Chi-Huey Wong, Elke Schneider, Michael Dy, Maria C. Leite-De-Moraes Apr 2004

Identification Of An Il-17-Producing Nk1.1neg Inkt Cell Population Involved In Airway Neutrophilia, Paul B. Savage, Marie-Laure Michel, Alexandre Castro Keller, Christophe Paget, Masakazu Fujio, Francois Trottein, Chi-Huey Wong, Elke Schneider, Michael Dy, Maria C. Leite-De-Moraes

Faculty Publications

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an important source of both T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines, through which they can exert beneficial, as well as deleterious, effects in a variety of inflammatory diseases. This functional heterogeneity raises the question of how far phenotypically distinct subpopulations are responsible for such contrasting activities. In this study, we identify a particular set of iNKT cells that lack the NK1.1 marker (NK1.1neg) and secrete high amounts of interleukin (IL)-17 and low levels of interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and IL-4. NK1.1neg iNKT cells produce IL-17 upon synthetic ({alpha ...