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2004

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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

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Articles 151 - 169 of 169

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Evaluation Of Immunogenicity Of Transgenic Chloroplast Derived Protect, Vijay Koya Jan 2004

Evaluation Of Immunogenicity Of Transgenic Chloroplast Derived Protect, Vijay Koya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthrax, a fatal bacterial infection is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive, spore forming, capsulated, rod shaped organism. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) lists anthrax as Category A biological agent due to its severity of impact on human health, high mortality rate, acuteness of the disease and potential for delivery as a biological weapon. The currently available human vaccine in the United States (AVA anthrax vaccine adsorbed) is prepared from Alum adsorbed formalin treated supernatant culture of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strain of Bacillus anthracis with the principle component being protective antigen (PA83). Evaluation of anthrax vaccine given to nearly 400,000 ...


Extracullular Atp Regulates Il-1beta Release From Microglial Cells Via Purinergic Receptor After In Vitro Trauma, Chengya Liang Jan 2004

Extracullular Atp Regulates Il-1beta Release From Microglial Cells Via Purinergic Receptor After In Vitro Trauma, Chengya Liang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a state of microglialactivation, which includes upregulation of macrophage functions and release inflammatory mediators such as certain inflammatory cytokines. Current literature suggests that interleukin-1Beta is an important cytokine mediator, which is dramatically increased after brain injury. Previous studies indicate that ATP is released by traumatically injured astrocytes and serves as a cell-to-cell mediator through purinergic receptors after in vitro injury. However, the mechanism of interleukin-1Beta release after traumatic brain injury remains poorly defined and is difficult to study using in vivo models. Using an in vitro model for traumatic brain injury (cell strain or stretch ...


An Investigation Into The Effects Of Structural Isomers Of Salicylic Acid On Propionibacterium Acnes, Ireland Burch Jan 2004

An Investigation Into The Effects Of Structural Isomers Of Salicylic Acid On Propionibacterium Acnes, Ireland Burch

Senior Research Projects

Acne is caused when the sebaceous glands in the skin are unable to secrete an oily substance, called sebum, onto the surface of the skin. This is because the opening of the follicle is clogged from a mixture of skin cells and sebum. The opening of the follicle becomes plugged when the cells from the lining of the follicle are shed too quickly and clump together. Because Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacteria feed off sebum, they are then able to grow in the plugged follicle. Acne is caused by the inflammation that results from the chemicals and enzymes produced from ...


Isolation Ofphosphoglucose Isomerase From Peas, Tyler Dubs Jan 2004

Isolation Ofphosphoglucose Isomerase From Peas, Tyler Dubs

Senior Research Projects

No abstract provided.


Expression Analysis Of Maize Opaque2 Mutants And Glu-1dx5 Transgenic Corn , Hongwu Jia Jan 2004

Expression Analysis Of Maize Opaque2 Mutants And Glu-1dx5 Transgenic Corn , Hongwu Jia

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The maize (Zea mays L.) opaque2 (o2) mutant has high lysine content, but soft and starchy kernels. We confirm that Lys content, kernel density, and reduction of zein proteins in o2 mutants are genetic-background dependent. Microarray analysis was carried out by pooling the same amount of mRNA from eight o2 lines to probe the maize Unigene cDNA chip to understand the o2 main effects. 202 genes identified as differentially expressed fit our definition of main effect genes. Comparative analysis of the expression profiles of two additional inbred lines shows that B46WT/B46 o2 with the most extreme phenotype has the ...


Effects Of Overexpressing Alternative Isoform Pax-5e In Vivo, Suzanne Elizabeth Cole Jan 2004

Effects Of Overexpressing Alternative Isoform Pax-5e In Vivo, Suzanne Elizabeth Cole

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Dissecting The Loci Of Low-Level Quinine Resistance In Malaria Parasites, Michael T. Ferdig, Roland A. Cooper, Jianbing Mu, Bingbing Deng, Deirdre A. Joy, Xin-Zhuan Su, Thomas E. Wellems Jan 2004

Dissecting The Loci Of Low-Level Quinine Resistance In Malaria Parasites, Michael T. Ferdig, Roland A. Cooper, Jianbing Mu, Bingbing Deng, Deirdre A. Joy, Xin-Zhuan Su, Thomas E. Wellems

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Quinine (QN) remains effective against Plasmodium falciparum, but its decreasing efficacy is documented from different continents. Multiple genes are likely to contribute to the evolution of QN resistance. To locate genes contributing to QN response variation, we have searched a P. falciparum genetic cross for quantitative trait loci (QTL). Results identify additive QTL in segments of chromosomes (Chrs) 13, 7 and 5, and pairwise effects from two additional loci of Chrs 9 and 6 that interact, respectively, with the QTL of Chrs 13 and 7. The mapped segments of Chrs 7 and 5 contain pfcrt, the determinant of chloroquine resistance ...


Theoretical Neuroscience: Modeling The Activation Mechanism Of Potassium Channels In Neurons, Kevin Twedt Jan 2004

Theoretical Neuroscience: Modeling The Activation Mechanism Of Potassium Channels In Neurons, Kevin Twedt

Presidential Scholars Theses (1990 – 2006)

We have modeled the electrostatic interaction between the S4 segment of the potassium channel molecule and the surrounding water molecules on both the intracellular and extracellular sides of the neural axon cell membrane. Two methods were used to approximate this interaction: (i) a macroscopic evaluation in which the water was treated as a dielectric medium with dielectric constant 80; (ii) a microscopic evaluation considering the effects of each individual water molecule fixed in position within the water pockets surrounding the S4 segment. The potential energy of the S4 due to the water pockets was plotted against the rotation of the ...


A Role For Talin In Presynaptic Function, Jennifer R. Morgan, Gilbert Di Paolo, Hauke Werner, Valentina A. Shchedrina, Marc Pypaert, Vincent A. Pieribone, Pietro De Camilli Jan 2004

A Role For Talin In Presynaptic Function, Jennifer R. Morgan, Gilbert Di Paolo, Hauke Werner, Valentina A. Shchedrina, Marc Pypaert, Vincent A. Pieribone, Pietro De Camilli

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Talin, an adaptor between integrin and the actin cytoskeleton at sites of cell adhesion, was recently found to be present at neuronal synapses, where its function remains unknown. Talin interacts with phosphatidylinositol-(4)-phosphate 5-kinase type Iγ, the major phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]–synthesizing enzyme in brain. To gain insight into the synaptic role of talin, we microinjected into the large lamprey axons reagents that compete the talin–PIP kinase interaction and then examined their effects on synaptic structure. A dramatic decrease of synaptic actin and an impairment of clathrin-mediated synaptic vesicle endocytosis were observed ...


Endocytic Function, Glycosaminoglycan Specificity, And Antibody Sensitivity Of The Recombinant Human 190-Kda Hyaluronan Receptor For Endocytosis (Hare), Ed Harris, Janet A. Weigel, Paul H. Weigel Jan 2004

Endocytic Function, Glycosaminoglycan Specificity, And Antibody Sensitivity Of The Recombinant Human 190-Kda Hyaluronan Receptor For Endocytosis (Hare), Ed Harris, Janet A. Weigel, Paul H. Weigel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The human hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (hHARE) mediates the endocytic clearance of hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate from lymph fluid and blood. Two hHARE isoforms (190 and 315 kDa) are present in sinusoidal endothelial cells of liver, spleen, and lymph nodes (Zhou, B., McGary, C. T., Weigel, J. A., Saxena, A., and Weigel, P. H. (2003) Glycobiology 13, 339–349). Here we report the specificity and function of the 190-kDa HARE, expressed without the larger isoform, in Flp-In 293 cell lines (190hHARE cells). Like the native protein, recombinant hHARE contains ~25 kDa of N-linked oligosaccharides, binds HA in a ligand ...


Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Regulation Of Yeast Lifespan Reveals Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent And -Independent Components Of Aging, Ahmet Koc, Audrey P. Gasch, Julian C. Rutherford, Hwa-Young Kim, Vadim N. Gladyshev Jan 2004

Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Regulation Of Yeast Lifespan Reveals Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent And -Independent Components Of Aging, Ahmet Koc, Audrey P. Gasch, Julian C. Rutherford, Hwa-Young Kim, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Aging is thought to be caused by the accumulation of damage, primarily from oxidative modifications of cellular components by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we used yeast methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB to address this hypothesis. In the presence of oxygen, these antioxidants could increase yeast lifespan and did so independent of the lifespan extension offered by caloric restriction. However, under ROS-deficient, strictly anaerobic conditions, yeast lifespan was shorter, not affected by MsrA or MsrB, and further reduced by caloric restriction. In addition, we identified changes in the global gene expression associated with aging in yeast, and they did ...


5-Hydroxydecanoate Is Metabolised In Mitochondria And Creates A Rate-Limiting Bottleneck For Β-Oxidation Of Fatty Acids, Peter J. Hanley, Stefan Dröse, Ulrich Brandt, Rachel A. Lareau, Abir L. Banerjee, D. K. Srivastava, Leonard J. Banaszak, Joseph J. Barycki, Paul P. Van Veldhoven, Jürgen Daut Jan 2004

5-Hydroxydecanoate Is Metabolised In Mitochondria And Creates A Rate-Limiting Bottleneck For Β-Oxidation Of Fatty Acids, Peter J. Hanley, Stefan Dröse, Ulrich Brandt, Rachel A. Lareau, Abir L. Banerjee, D. K. Srivastava, Leonard J. Banaszak, Joseph J. Barycki, Paul P. Van Veldhoven, Jürgen Daut

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

5-Hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) blocks pharmacological and ischaemic preconditioning, and

has been postulated to be a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP)

channels. However, recent work has shown that 5-HD is activated to 5-hydroxydecanoyl-CoA

(5-HD-CoA), which is a substrate for the first step of β-oxidation. We have now

analysed the complete β-oxidation of 5-HD-CoA using specially synthesised (and purified)

substrates and enzymes, as well as isolated rat liver and heart mitochondria, and compared

it with the metabolism of the physiological substrate decanoyl-CoA. At the second step of

β-oxidation, catalysed by enoyl-CoA hydratase, enzyme kinetics were similar using ...


Mobilization Of Intracellular Copper Stores By The Ctr2 Vacuolar Copper Transporter, Erin M. Rees, Jaekwon Lee, Dennis J. Thiele Jan 2004

Mobilization Of Intracellular Copper Stores By The Ctr2 Vacuolar Copper Transporter, Erin M. Rees, Jaekwon Lee, Dennis J. Thiele

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Copper plays an essential role in processes including signaling to the transcription and protein trafficking machinery, oxidative phosphorylation, iron mobilization, neuropeptide maturation, and normal development. Whereas much is known about intracellular mobilization of ions such as calcium, little information is available on how eukaryotic cells mobilize intracellular copper stores. We describe a mechanism by which the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ctr2 protein provides bioavailable copper via mobilization of intracellular copper stores. Whereas Ctr2 exhibits structural similarity to the Ctr1 plasma membrane copper importer, microscopic and biochemical fractionation studies localize Ctr2 to the vacuole membrane. We demonstrate that Ctr2 mobilizes vacuolar copper stores ...


Interactions Between Small Heat Shock Protein Subunits And Substrate In Small Heat Shock Protein-Substrate Complexes, Kenneth L. Friedrich, Kim C. Giese, Nicole R. Baun, Elizabeth Vierling Jan 2004

Interactions Between Small Heat Shock Protein Subunits And Substrate In Small Heat Shock Protein-Substrate Complexes, Kenneth L. Friedrich, Kim C. Giese, Nicole R. Baun, Elizabeth Vierling

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are dynamic oligomeric

proteins that bind unfolding proteins and protect

them from irreversible aggregation. This binding results

in the formation of sHSP-substrate complexes from

which substrate can later be refolded. Interactions between

sHSP and substrate in sHSP-substrate complexes

and the mechanism by which substrate is transferred to

ATP-dependent chaperones for refolding are poorly defined.

We have established C-terminal affinity-tagged

sHSPs from a eukaryote (pea HSP18.1) and a prokaryote

(Synechocystis HSP16.6) as tools to investigate these issues.

We demonstrate that sHSP subunit exchange for

HSP18.1 and HSP16.6 is temperature-dependent and

rapid at ...


The Identity Of Proteins Associated With A Small Heat Shock Protein During Heat Stress In Vivo Indicates That These Chaperones Protect A Wide Range Of Cellular Functions, Eman Basha, Garrett J. Lee, Linda A. Breci, Andrew C. Hausrath, Nicole R. Baun, Kim C. Giese, Elizabeth Vierling Jan 2004

The Identity Of Proteins Associated With A Small Heat Shock Protein During Heat Stress In Vivo Indicates That These Chaperones Protect A Wide Range Of Cellular Functions, Eman Basha, Garrett J. Lee, Linda A. Breci, Andrew C. Hausrath, Nicole R. Baun, Kim C. Giese, Elizabeth Vierling

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a ubiquitous

class of ATP-independent chaperones believed to

prevent irreversible protein aggregation and to facilitate

subsequent protein renaturation in cooperation

with ATP-dependent chaperones. Although sHSP chaperone

activity has been studied extensively in vitro, understanding

the mechanism of sHSP function requires

identification of proteins that are sHSP substrates in

vivo. We have used both immunoprecipitation and affinity

chromatography to recover 42 proteins that specifically

interact with Synechocystis Hsp16.6 in vivo during

heat treatment. These proteins can all be released from

Hsp16.6 by the ATP-dependent activity of DnaK and cochaperones

and are heat-labile ...


Influence Of Short-Term Variations In Food On Survival Of Crassotrea Gigas Larvae: A Modeling Study, Eric N. Powell, Eleanor A, Bochenek, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann Jan 2004

Influence Of Short-Term Variations In Food On Survival Of Crassotrea Gigas Larvae: A Modeling Study, Eric N. Powell, Eleanor A, Bochenek, John M. Klinck, Eileen E. Hofmann

OEAS Faculty Publications

A biochemically-based model was developed to simulate the growth, development, and metamorphosis of larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The model defines larvae in terms of their protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and ash content and includes variation in growth efficiency and egg quality to better simulate cohort population dynamics. Changes in tissue composition occur as the larva grows and in response to the biochemical composition of the food. The premise behind this modeling study was that certain periods of larval life are more critical than others with respect to the availability of food and that food quality is as important ...


Stimulation Of Capacitative Calcium Entry In Hl-60 Cells By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Jody A. White, Peter F. Blackmore, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe Jan 2004

Stimulation Of Capacitative Calcium Entry In Hl-60 Cells By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Jody A. White, Peter F. Blackmore, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are hypothesized to affect intracellular structures in living cells providing a new means to modulate cell signal transduction mechanisms. The effects of nsPEFs on the release of internal calcium and activation of calcium influx in HL-60 cells were investigated by using real time fluorescent microscopy with Fluo-3 and fluorometry with Fura-2. nsPEFs induced an increase in intracellular calcium levels that was seen in all cells. With pulses of 60 ns duration and electric fields between 4 and 15 kV/cm, intracellular calcium increased 200-700 nM, respectively, above basal levels (similar to100 nM), while the uptake ...


Molecular Cloning And Characterization Of Two Mouse Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (Ppara) Regulated Peroxisomal Acyl-Coa Thioesterases., Maria Westin, Mary Hunt, Stefan Alexson Jan 2004

Molecular Cloning And Characterization Of Two Mouse Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (Ppara) Regulated Peroxisomal Acyl-Coa Thioesterases., Maria Westin, Mary Hunt, Stefan Alexson

Articles

Peroxisomes are organelles that function in the b-oxidation of very-long and long-chain acyl-CoAs, bile acid-CoA intermediates, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, dicarboxylic fatty acids, pristanic acid and xenobiotic carboxylic acids. The very long- and long-chain acyl-CoAs are mainly chain-shortened and then transported to mitochondria for further metabolism. We have now identified and characterized two peroxisomal acyl- CoA thioesterases, named PTE-Ia and PTE-Ic, which hydrolyze acyl-CoAs to the free fatty acid and coenzyme A. PTE-Ia and PTE-Ic show 82% sequence identity at amino acid level and a putative peroxisomal type 1 targeting signal of –AKL was identified at the carboxy-terminal end of both ...


Intravenous 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Injection Rapidly Elevates Levels Of The Phosphorylated Forms Of P44/42 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (Extracellularly Regulated Kinases 1/2) In Rat Hypothalamic Parvicellular Paraventricular Neurons, Arshad Khan, Alan G. Watts Dec 2003

Intravenous 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Injection Rapidly Elevates Levels Of The Phosphorylated Forms Of P44/42 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (Extracellularly Regulated Kinases 1/2) In Rat Hypothalamic Parvicellular Paraventricular Neurons, Arshad Khan, Alan G. Watts

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.