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Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2004

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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

University of Massachusetts Medical School

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Articles 1 - 6 of 6

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Chromosomal Duplications And Cointegrates Generated By The Bacteriophage Lamdba Red System In Escherichia Coli K-12, Anthony R. Poteete, Anita C. Fenton, Ashwini Nadkarni Dec 2004

Chromosomal Duplications And Cointegrates Generated By The Bacteriophage Lamdba Red System In Escherichia Coli K-12, Anthony R. Poteete, Anita C. Fenton, Ashwini Nadkarni

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: An Escherichia coli strain in which RecBCD has been genetically replaced by the bacteriophage lambda Red system engages in efficient recombination between its chromosome and linear double-stranded DNA species sharing sequences with the chromosome. Previous studies of this experimental system have focused on a gene replacement-type event, in which a 3.5 kbp dsDNA consisting of the cat gene and flanking lac operon sequences recombines with the E. coli chromosome to generate a chloramphenicol-resistant Lac- recombinant. The dsDNA was delivered into the cell as part of the chromosome of a non-replicating lambda vector, from which it was released by ...


Mitochondrial Remodeling In Adipose Tissue Associated With Obesity And Treatment With Rosiglitazone, Leanne Wilson-Fritch, Sarah M. Nicoloro, My T. Chouinard, Mitchell A. Lazar, Patricia C. Chui, John D. Leszyk, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Michael P. Czech, Silvia Corvera Nov 2004

Mitochondrial Remodeling In Adipose Tissue Associated With Obesity And Treatment With Rosiglitazone, Leanne Wilson-Fritch, Sarah M. Nicoloro, My T. Chouinard, Mitchell A. Lazar, Patricia C. Chui, John D. Leszyk, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Michael P. Czech, Silvia Corvera

Open Access Articles

Adipose tissue plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis through the storage and turnover of triglycerides and through the secretion of factors that affect satiety and fuel utilization. Agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, such as rosiglitazone, appear to exert their therapeutic effect through adipose tissue, but the precise mechanisms of their actions are unclear. Rosiglitazone changes the morphological features and protein profiles of mitochondria in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To examine the relevance of these effects in vivo, we studied white adipocytes from ob/ob mice during the development of obesity and after treatment with rosiglitazone. The levels of ...


A Novel Phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P3 Pathway In Fission Yeast, Prasenjit Mitra, Yingjie Zhang, Lucia E. Rameh, Mariya P. Ivshina, Dannel Mccollum, John J. Nunnari, Gregory M. Hendricks, Monica L. Kerr, Seth J. Field, Lewis C. Cantley, Alonzo H. Ross Jul 2004

A Novel Phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P3 Pathway In Fission Yeast, Prasenjit Mitra, Yingjie Zhang, Lucia E. Rameh, Mariya P. Ivshina, Dannel Mccollum, John J. Nunnari, Gregory M. Hendricks, Monica L. Kerr, Seth J. Field, Lewis C. Cantley, Alonzo H. Ross

Open Access Articles

The mammalian tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), inhibits cell growth and survival by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI[3,4,5]P3). We have found a homologue of PTEN in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (ptn1). This was an unexpected finding because yeast (S. pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lack the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases that generate PI(3,4,5)P3 in higher eukaryotes. Indeed, PI(3,4,5)P3 has not been detected in yeast. Surprisingly, upon deletion of ptn1 in S. pombe, PI(3,4,5)P3 became detectable at ...


The C-Terminus Of Rat L-Histidine Decarboxylase Specifically Inhibits Enzymic Activity And Disrupts Pyridoxal Phosphate-Dependent Interactions With L-Histidine Substrate Analogues, John V. Fleming, Ignacio Fajardo, Michael R. Langlois, Francisca Sanchez-Jimenez, Timothy C. Wang Apr 2004

The C-Terminus Of Rat L-Histidine Decarboxylase Specifically Inhibits Enzymic Activity And Disrupts Pyridoxal Phosphate-Dependent Interactions With L-Histidine Substrate Analogues, John V. Fleming, Ignacio Fajardo, Michael R. Langlois, Francisca Sanchez-Jimenez, Timothy C. Wang

Open Access Articles

Full-length rat HDC (L-histidine decarboxylase) translated in reticulocyte cell lysate reactions is inactive, whereas C-terminally truncated isoforms are capable of histamine biosynthesis. C-terminal processing of the approximately 74 kDa full-length protein occurs naturally in vivo, with the production of multiple truncated isoforms. The minimal C-terminal truncation required for the acquisition of catalytic competence has yet to be defined, however, and it remains unclear as to why truncation is needed. Here we show that approximately 74 kDa HDC monomers can form dimers, which is the conformation in which the enzyme is thought to be catalytically active. Nevertheless, the resulting dimer is ...


Sequence-Specific Inhibition Of Small Rna Function, Gyorgy Hutvagner, Martin J. Simard, Craig C. Mello, Phillip D. Zamore Apr 2004

Sequence-Specific Inhibition Of Small Rna Function, Gyorgy Hutvagner, Martin J. Simard, Craig C. Mello, Phillip D. Zamore

Open Access Articles

Hundreds of microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been identified from both plants and animals, yet little is known about their biochemical modes of action or biological functions. Here we report that 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotides can act as irreversible, stoichiometric inhibitors of small RNA function. We show that a 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide complementary to an siRNA can block mRNA cleavage in Drosophila embryo lysates and HeLa cell S100 extracts and in cultured human HeLa cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, injection of the 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide complementary to the miRNA let-7 can induce a let-7 loss-of-function phenocopy. Using an ...


Can Telomerase Be Put In Its Place, Thoru Pederson Mar 2004

Can Telomerase Be Put In Its Place, Thoru Pederson

Open Access Articles

The Cajal body is an intriguing nuclear structure present in a great variety of plant, animal, and some fungal cells. Recent work on the ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase has indicated an unanticipated degree of intranuclear dynamics of both its RNA and protein subunits. In this issue, Jady et al. place the Cajal body on the intranuclear traffic route of telomerase RNA (Jady et al., 2004).