Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2004

PDF

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 169

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Towards A Systems Approach To Understanding Plant Cell Walls, Chris R. Somerville, Stefan Bauer, Ginger Brininstool, Michelle Facette, Thorsten Hamann, Jennifer Milne, Erin Osborne, Alex Paradez, Staffan Persson, Ted K. Raab, Sonja Vorwerk, Heather Youngs Dec 2004

Towards A Systems Approach To Understanding Plant Cell Walls, Chris R. Somerville, Stefan Bauer, Ginger Brininstool, Michelle Facette, Thorsten Hamann, Jennifer Milne, Erin Osborne, Alex Paradez, Staffan Persson, Ted K. Raab, Sonja Vorwerk, Heather Youngs

Ted K. Raab

One of the defining features of plants is a body plan based on the physical properties of cell walls. Structural analyses of the polysaccharide components, combined with highresolution imaging, have provided the basis for much of the current understanding of cell walls. The application of genetic methods has begun to provide new insights into how walls are made, how they are controlled, and how they function. However, progress in integrating biophysical, developmental, and genetic information into a useful model will require a system-based approach.


Tsc2 Modulates Actin Cytoskeleton And Focal Adhesion Through Tsc1-Binding Domain And The Rac1 Gtpase, Elena Goncharova, Dmitry Goncharov, Daniel J. Noonan, Vera P Krymskaya Dec 2004

Tsc2 Modulates Actin Cytoskeleton And Focal Adhesion Through Tsc1-Binding Domain And The Rac1 Gtpase, Elena Goncharova, Dmitry Goncharov, Daniel J. Noonan, Vera P Krymskaya

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 and TSC2 are thought to be involved in protein translational regulation and cell growth, and loss of their function is a cause of TSC and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). However, TSC1 also activates Rho and regulates cell adhesion. We found that TSC2 modulates actin dynamics and cell adhesion and the TSC1-binding domain (TSC2-HBD) is essential for this function of TSC2. Expression of TSC2 or TSC2-HBD in TSC2-/- cells promoted Rac1 activation, inhibition of Rho, stress fiber disassembly, and focal adhesion remodeling. The down-regulation of TSC1 with TSC1 siRNA in TSC2-/- cells activated Rac1 and induced loss of ...


Isolation Of Cancer Stem Cells From Adult Glioblastoma Multiforme, Xianpeng Yuan, James Curtin, Yizhi Xiong, Gentao Liu, Sebastian Waschsmann-Hogiu, Daniel Farkas, Keith Black, John Yu Dec 2004

Isolation Of Cancer Stem Cells From Adult Glioblastoma Multiforme, Xianpeng Yuan, James Curtin, Yizhi Xiong, Gentao Liu, Sebastian Waschsmann-Hogiu, Daniel Farkas, Keith Black, John Yu

Articles

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor and is comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells. It is unclear which cells within the tumor mass are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. In this study, we report that brain tumor stem cells can be identified from adult GBMs. These tumor stem cells form neurospheres, possess the capacity for self-renewal, express genes associated with neural stem cells (NSCs), generate daughter cells of different phenotypes from one mother cell, and differentiate into the phenotypically diverse populations of cells similar to those present in the initial GBM. Having a ...


Global Expression Changes Resulting From Loss Of Telomeric Dna In Fission Yeast, Jeffrey G. Mandell, Jürg Bähler, Thomas A. Volpe, Robert A. Martienssen, Thomas R. Cech Dec 2004

Global Expression Changes Resulting From Loss Of Telomeric Dna In Fission Yeast, Jeffrey G. Mandell, Jürg Bähler, Thomas A. Volpe, Robert A. Martienssen, Thomas R. Cech

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Contributions (1986-2018)

Background

Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells lacking the catalytic subunit of telomerase (encoded by trt1+) lose telomeric DNA and enter crisis, but rare survivors arise with either circular or linear chromosomes. Survivors with linear chromosomes have normal growth rates and morphology, but those with circular chromosomes have growth defects and are enlarged. We report the global gene-expression response of S. pombe to loss of trt1+.

Results

Survivors with linear chromosomes had expression profiles similar to cells with native telomeres, whereas survivors with circular chromosomes showed continued upregulation of core environmental stress response (CESR) genes. In addition, survivors with circular chromosomes had altered ...


Chromosomal Duplications And Cointegrates Generated By The Bacteriophage Lamdba Red System In Escherichia Coli K-12, Anthony R. Poteete, Anita C. Fenton, Ashwini Nadkarni Dec 2004

Chromosomal Duplications And Cointegrates Generated By The Bacteriophage Lamdba Red System In Escherichia Coli K-12, Anthony R. Poteete, Anita C. Fenton, Ashwini Nadkarni

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: An Escherichia coli strain in which RecBCD has been genetically replaced by the bacteriophage lambda Red system engages in efficient recombination between its chromosome and linear double-stranded DNA species sharing sequences with the chromosome. Previous studies of this experimental system have focused on a gene replacement-type event, in which a 3.5 kbp dsDNA consisting of the cat gene and flanking lac operon sequences recombines with the E. coli chromosome to generate a chloramphenicol-resistant Lac- recombinant. The dsDNA was delivered into the cell as part of the chromosome of a non-replicating lambda vector, from which it was released by ...


Prediction Of Interlaminar Shear Strength Of A Thermally Aged Carbon/Epoxy Composite Material By Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch, Roger W. Jones, David K. Hsu, John F. Mcclelland Dec 2004

Prediction Of Interlaminar Shear Strength Of A Thermally Aged Carbon/Epoxy Composite Material By Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch, Roger W. Jones, David K. Hsu, John F. Mcclelland

Ames Laboratory Publications

Photoacoustic spectroscopy was used to predict the interlaminar shear strength of a carbon/epoxy composite. Samples were artificially aged by exposing the samples to elevated temperatures in an air environment. Short-beam shear tests were performed to determine mechanically the interlaminar shear strength of the samples. Photoacoustic spectra of the samples were also collected and compared to mechanical data. Chemometrics were performed on the spectral and mechanical data, and a good correlation was found between the near surface chemistry of the composite and overall mechanical integrity.


Structure–Function Studies Of The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Α–Mating Factor Pheromone Receptor Ste2p, Ayça Akal–Strader Dec 2004

Structure–Function Studies Of The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Α–Mating Factor Pheromone Receptor Ste2p, Ayça Akal–Strader

Doctoral Dissertations

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane domain cell surface proteins that respond to a variety of environmental cues. Response of these receptors to their cognate stimuli on the extracellular region of the cell results in a concurrent activation of a complex series of intracellular signaling pathways that prepare the cell for the required adjustments through regulation of gene expression levels. Participation of GPCRs in such intricate signal transduction pathways renders them important players in human diseases. The GPCR family of proteins therefore represents one of the largest classes of proteins to be targeted in the development of drug ...


Lateral Hypothalamic Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Feeding Stimulation: Differential Contributions Of Src Family Tyrosine Kinases To Feeding Triggered Either By Nmda Injection Or By Food Deprivation, Arshad Khan, Herman H. Cheung, Elizabeth R. Gillard, Jennifer A. Palarca, Derek S. Welsbie, James W. Gurd, B. Glenn Stanley Nov 2004

Lateral Hypothalamic Signaling Mechanisms Underlying Feeding Stimulation: Differential Contributions Of Src Family Tyrosine Kinases To Feeding Triggered Either By Nmda Injection Or By Food Deprivation, Arshad Khan, Herman H. Cheung, Elizabeth R. Gillard, Jennifer A. Palarca, Derek S. Welsbie, James W. Gurd, B. Glenn Stanley

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Rhodobacter Capsulatus Porphobilinogen Synthase, A High Activity Metal Ion Independent Hexamer, David Bollivar Nov 2004

Rhodobacter Capsulatus Porphobilinogen Synthase, A High Activity Metal Ion Independent Hexamer, David Bollivar

Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Structural Mimicry In Class A G Protein-Coupled Receptor Rotamer Toggle Switches, Sean D. Mcallister, Dow P. Hurst, Judy Barnett-Norris, Diane L. Lynch, Patricia H. Reggio, Mary E. Abood Nov 2004

Structural Mimicry In Class A G Protein-Coupled Receptor Rotamer Toggle Switches, Sean D. Mcallister, Dow P. Hurst, Judy Barnett-Norris, Diane L. Lynch, Patricia H. Reggio, Mary E. Abood

Faculty Publications

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a CB1 TMH3-4-5-6 aromatic microdomain, which includes F3.25(190), F3.36(201), W5.43(280), and W6.48(357), is centrally involved in CB1 receptor activation, with the F3.36(201)/W6.48(357) interaction key to the maintenance of the CB1-inactive state. We have shown previously that when F3.36(201), W5.43(280), and W6.48(357) are individually mutated to alanine, a significant reduction in ligand binding affinity is observed in the presence of WIN 55,212-2 and SR141716A but not CP55,940 and ...


Mitochondrial Remodeling In Adipose Tissue Associated With Obesity And Treatment With Rosiglitazone, Leanne Wilson-Fritch, Sarah M. Nicoloro, My T. Chouinard, Mitchell A. Lazar, Patricia C. Chui, John D. Leszyk, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Michael P. Czech, Silvia Corvera Nov 2004

Mitochondrial Remodeling In Adipose Tissue Associated With Obesity And Treatment With Rosiglitazone, Leanne Wilson-Fritch, Sarah M. Nicoloro, My T. Chouinard, Mitchell A. Lazar, Patricia C. Chui, John D. Leszyk, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Michael P. Czech, Silvia Corvera

Open Access Articles

Adipose tissue plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis through the storage and turnover of triglycerides and through the secretion of factors that affect satiety and fuel utilization. Agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, such as rosiglitazone, appear to exert their therapeutic effect through adipose tissue, but the precise mechanisms of their actions are unclear. Rosiglitazone changes the morphological features and protein profiles of mitochondria in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To examine the relevance of these effects in vivo, we studied white adipocytes from ob/ob mice during the development of obesity and after treatment with rosiglitazone. The levels of ...


High-Resolution Serum Proteomic Patterns For Ovarian Cancer Detection, Keith A. Baggerly, Sarah R. Edmonson, Jeffrey S. Morris, Kevin R. Coombes Nov 2004

High-Resolution Serum Proteomic Patterns For Ovarian Cancer Detection, Keith A. Baggerly, Sarah R. Edmonson, Jeffrey S. Morris, Kevin R. Coombes

Jeffrey S. Morris

No abstract provided.


Modeling The Tertiary Structure Of A Maize (Zea Mays Ssp. Mays) Non-Symbiotic Hemoglobin, Juán Sáenz-Rivera, Gautam Sarath, Raul Peter-Arredondo Nov 2004

Modeling The Tertiary Structure Of A Maize (Zea Mays Ssp. Mays) Non-Symbiotic Hemoglobin, Juán Sáenz-Rivera, Gautam Sarath, Raul Peter-Arredondo

Gautam Sarath Publications

The tertiary structure of a maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) non-symbiotic hemoglobin (Hbm) was modeled using computer tools and the known tertiary structure of rice Hb1 as a template. This method was tested by predicting the tertiary structure of soybean leghemoglobin a (Lba) using rice Hb1 as a template. The tertiary structures of the predicted and native Lba were similar, indicating that our computer methods could reliably predict the tertiary structures of plant Hbs. We next predicted the tertiary structure of Hbm. Hbm appears to have a long pre-helixA and a large CD-loop. The positions of the distal and proximal ...


Variability In Lipid Profile In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction From Two Tertiary Care Hospitals In Pakistan, M P. Iqbal, M Shafiq, N Mehboobali, S P. Iqbal, K Abbasi Nov 2004

Variability In Lipid Profile In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction From Two Tertiary Care Hospitals In Pakistan, M P. Iqbal, M Shafiq, N Mehboobali, S P. Iqbal, K Abbasi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objective: To investigate changes in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides in serum of Pakistani patients with AMI due to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and smoking, and also find out the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, "low HDL-cholesterol" and "isolated low-HDL cholesterol" in them.
Patients and Methods: Serum samples from 451 consecutive AMI patients (250 from National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi and 201 from Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology, Rawalpindi) were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides using kit methods. LDL-cholesterol was determined using the Friedewald formula ...


Gene Markers And Complex Disorders: A Review, M S. Mahmood, N Kureshi, P M. Frossard Nov 2004

Gene Markers And Complex Disorders: A Review, M S. Mahmood, N Kureshi, P M. Frossard

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


Megator, An Essential Coiled-Coil Protein That Localizes To The Putative Spindle Matrix During Mitosis In Drosophila, Hongying Qi, Uttama Rath, Dong Wang, Ying-Zhi Xu, Yun Ding, Weiguo Zhang, Melissa J. Blacketer, Michael R. Paddy, Jack Girton, Jorgen Johansen, Kristen M. Johansen Nov 2004

Megator, An Essential Coiled-Coil Protein That Localizes To The Putative Spindle Matrix During Mitosis In Drosophila, Hongying Qi, Uttama Rath, Dong Wang, Ying-Zhi Xu, Yun Ding, Weiguo Zhang, Melissa J. Blacketer, Michael R. Paddy, Jack Girton, Jorgen Johansen, Kristen M. Johansen

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

We have used immunocytochemistry and cross-immunoprecipitation analysis to demonstrate that Megator (Bx34 antigen), a Tpr ortholog in Drosophila with an extended coiled-coil domain, colocalizes with the putative spindle matrix proteins Skeletor and Chromator during mitosis. Analysis of P-element mutations in the Megator locus showed that Megator is an essential protein. During interphase Megator is localized to the nuclear rim and occupies the intranuclear space surrounding the chromosomes. However, during mitosis Megator reorganizes and aligns together with Skeletor and Chromator into a fusiform spindle structure. The Megator metaphase spindle persists in the absence of microtubule spindles, strongly implying that the existence ...


Dynamics Of Dissolved Organic Carbon, Nitrogen And Phosphorus In A Seagrass Meadow Of Laguna Madre, Texas, Susan Ziegler, Edith Kaiser, Ronald Benner Nov 2004

Dynamics Of Dissolved Organic Carbon, Nitrogen And Phosphorus In A Seagrass Meadow Of Laguna Madre, Texas, Susan Ziegler, Edith Kaiser, Ronald Benner

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Formin Homology 2 Domain, Henry N. Higgs, Kevin J. Peterson Oct 2004

Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Formin Homology 2 Domain, Henry N. Higgs, Kevin J. Peterson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Formin proteins are key regulators of eukaryotic actin filament assembly and elongation, and many species possess multiple formin isoforms. A nomenclature system based on fundamental features would be desirable, to aid the rapid identification and characterization of novel formins. In this article, we attempt to systematize the formin family by performing phylogenetic analyses of the formin homology 2 (FH2) domain, an independently folding region common to all formins, which alone can influence actin dynamics. Through database searches, we identify 101 FH2 domains from 26 eukaryotic species, including 15 in mice. Sequence alignments reveal a highly conserved yeast-specific insert in the ...


Thermal And Sodium Dodecylsulfate Induced Transitions Of Streptavidin, Mark J. Waner, Irina Navrotskaya, Amanda Bain, Edward D. Oldham, David P. Mascotti Oct 2004

Thermal And Sodium Dodecylsulfate Induced Transitions Of Streptavidin, Mark J. Waner, Irina Navrotskaya, Amanda Bain, Edward D. Oldham, David P. Mascotti

Chemistry

The strong specific binding of streptavidin (SA) to biotin is utilized in numerous biotechnological applications. The SA tetramer is also known to exhibit significant stability, even in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the nature of the thermal denaturation pathway for SA. This work uses a homogeneous SA preparation to expand on the data of previous literature reports, leading to the proposal of a model for temperature induced structural changes in SA. Temperature dependent data were obtained by SDS and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence and ...


A Subset Of Liver Nk T Cells Is Activated During Leishmania Donovani Infection By Cd1d-Bound Lipophosphoglycan, Joseph L. Amprey, Jin S. Im, Salvatore J. Turco, Henry W. Murray, Petr A. Illarionov, Gurdyal S. Besra, Steven A. Porcelli, Gerald F. Späth Oct 2004

A Subset Of Liver Nk T Cells Is Activated During Leishmania Donovani Infection By Cd1d-Bound Lipophosphoglycan, Joseph L. Amprey, Jin S. Im, Salvatore J. Turco, Henry W. Murray, Petr A. Illarionov, Gurdyal S. Besra, Steven A. Porcelli, Gerald F. Späth

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Natural killer (NK) T cells are activated by synthetic or self-glycolipids and implicated in innate host resistance to a range of viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens. Despite the immunogenicity of microbial lipoglycans and their promiscuous binding to CD1d, no pathogen-derived glycolipid antigen presented by this pathway has been identified to date. In the current work, we show increased susceptibility of NK T cell–deficient CD1d−/− mice to Leishmania donovani infection and Leishmania-induced CD1d-dependent activation of NK T cells in wild-type animals. The elicited response was Th1 polarized, occurred as early as 2 h after infection, and was independent from ...


Cystic Breast Lymphangioma, S N. Waqar, H Khan, S F. Mekan, N Kayani, A J. Raja Oct 2004

Cystic Breast Lymphangioma, S N. Waqar, H Khan, S F. Mekan, N Kayani, A J. Raja

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


Layer-By-Layer Self -Assembly For Enzyme And Dna Encapsulation And Delivery, Amish Patel Oct 2004

Layer-By-Layer Self -Assembly For Enzyme And Dna Encapsulation And Delivery, Amish Patel

Doctoral Dissertations

Thin wall microcapsules were formed via Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly of alternate adsorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolyte on microcores. After the core dissolution, empty polymeric shells with 20–25 nm thick walls were obtained. These microcapsules were loaded with Myoglobin, Hemoglobin and Glucose Oxidase by opening capsule pores at low pH and closing them at higher pH. The native structure of the enzyme was not affected due to different treatments. Biocompatible nanoshells were also prepared for encasing DNA. Using the same Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly approach nanoparticle were constructed containing DNA as one of the layers. The nanoparticles of different architecture were used to ...


Waccnes Containing Bovine Herpe Svirus 1 Attenuated By Mutation In Latency-Related Gene, Clinton J. Jones Sep 2004

Waccnes Containing Bovine Herpe Svirus 1 Attenuated By Mutation In Latency-Related Gene, Clinton J. Jones

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Vaccines for pathogenic Strains of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) which are based on attenuated BHV-1 having a mutation in the latency-related gene are provided. Live, attenuated vaccines are also provided which express anti gens from other viral or bacterial pathogens and thus form the basis of a variety of vaccines.


Structure And Bioactivity Of Neuropeptide F From The Human Parasites Schistosoma Mansoni And Schistosoma Japonicum, Judith E. Humphries, Michael J. Kimber, Yi-Wen Barton, Walter Hsu, Nikki J. Marks, Brett Greer, Pat Harriott, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day Sep 2004

Structure And Bioactivity Of Neuropeptide F From The Human Parasites Schistosoma Mansoni And Schistosoma Japonicum, Judith E. Humphries, Michael J. Kimber, Yi-Wen Barton, Walter Hsu, Nikki J. Marks, Brett Greer, Pat Harriott, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicuminflict immense suffering as agents of human schistosomiasis. Previous investigations have found the nervous systems of these worms contain abundant immunoreactivity to antisera targeting invertebrate neuropeptide Fs (NPFs) as well as structurally similar neuropeptides of the mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) family. Here, cDNAs encoding NPF in these worms were identified, and the mature neuropeptides from the two species differed by only a single amino acid. Both neuropeptides feature the characteristics common among NPFs; they are 36 amino acids long with a carboxyl-terminal Gly-Arg-X-Arg-Phe-amide and Tyr residues at positions 10 and ...


Rapid And Convenient Method For Preparing Masters For Microcontact Printing With 1–12 Μm Features, Lloyd W. Zilch, Ghaleb A. Husseini, Yit-Yian Lua, Michael V. Lee, Kevin R. Gertsch, Bennion R. Cannon, Robert M. Perry, Eric T. Sevy, Matthew C. Asplund, Adam T. Woolley, Matthew R. Linford Sep 2004

Rapid And Convenient Method For Preparing Masters For Microcontact Printing With 1–12 Μm Features, Lloyd W. Zilch, Ghaleb A. Husseini, Yit-Yian Lua, Michael V. Lee, Kevin R. Gertsch, Bennion R. Cannon, Robert M. Perry, Eric T. Sevy, Matthew C. Asplund, Adam T. Woolley, Matthew R. Linford

Faculty Publications

Mechanical scribing can be employed to create surfaces with recessed features. Through replica molding elastomeric copies of these scribed surfaces are created that function as stamps for microcontact printing. It is shown that this new method for creating masters for microcontact printing can be performed with a computer-controlled milling machine (CNC), making this method particularly straightforward and accessible to a large technical community that does not need to work in a particle free environment. Thus, no clean room, or other specialized equipment is required, as is commonly needed to prepare masters. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry confirms surface pattering by ...


Evidence Of Linear Lattice Expansion And Covalency Enhancement In Rutile Tio2 Nanocrystals, Guangshe Li, Juliana Boerio-Goates, Brian F. Woodfield, Liping Li Sep 2004

Evidence Of Linear Lattice Expansion And Covalency Enhancement In Rutile Tio2 Nanocrystals, Guangshe Li, Juliana Boerio-Goates, Brian F. Woodfield, Liping Li

Faculty Publications

Lattice variations and bonding characteristics in rutile TiO2 nanocrystals were examined by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With a reduction in the physical dimensions, rutile TiO2 nanocrystals show a linear lattice expansion and an anomalous covalency enhancement in apparent contradiction to the ionicity increase in BaTiO3 and CuO nanocrystals as reported recently by S. Tsunekawa et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 85, 3440] and V. R. Palkar et al. [Phys. Rev. B 1996, 53, 2167]. A surface defect dipole model is proposed to explain these physical phenomena in terms of the strong interactions among the surface dipoles that produce ...


Immunity In Medicine, M Saeed Sep 2004

Immunity In Medicine, M Saeed

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

No abstract provided.


Identification And Characterization Of Phosphoseryl-Trna [Ser]Sec Kinase, Bradley A. Carlson, Xue-Ming Xu, Gregory V. Kryukov, Mahadev Rao, Marla J. Berry, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Dolph L. Hatfield Aug 2004

Identification And Characterization Of Phosphoseryl-Trna [Ser]Sec Kinase, Bradley A. Carlson, Xue-Ming Xu, Gregory V. Kryukov, Mahadev Rao, Marla J. Berry, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Dolph L. Hatfield

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

In 1970, a kinase activity that phosphorylated a minor species of seryl-tRNA to form phosphoseryl-tRNA was found in rooster liver [Maenpaa, P. H. & Bernfield, M. R. (1970) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 67, 688–695], and a minor seryl-tRNA that decoded the nonsense UGA was detected in bovine liver. The phosphoseryl-tRNA and the minor UGA-decoding seryl-tRNA were subsequently identified as selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA [Ser]Sec, but the kinase activity remained elusive. Herein, by using a comparative genomics approach that searched completely sequenced archaeal genomes for a kinase-like protein with a pattern of occurrence similar to that of components of Sec ...


Resolution Of Organelle Docking And Fusion Kinetics In A Cell-Free Assay, Alexey J. Merz, William T. Wickner Aug 2004

Resolution Of Organelle Docking And Fusion Kinetics In A Cell-Free Assay, Alexey J. Merz, William T. Wickner

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In vitro assays of compartment mixing have been key tools in the biochemical dissection of organelle docking and fusion. Many such assays measure compartment mixing through the enzymatic modification of reporter proteins. Homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles is measured with a coupled assay of proteolytic maturation of pro-alkaline phosphatase (pro-ALP). A kinetic lag is observed between the end of docking, marked by the acquisition of resistance to anti-SNARE reagents, and ALP maturation. We therefore asked whether the time taken for pro-ALP maturation adds a kinetic lag to the measured fusion signal. Prb1p promotes ALP maturation; overproduction of Prb1p accelerates ALP ...


The Kini Kinesin Kif2a Is Required For Bipolar Spindle Assembly Through A Functional Relationship With Mcak, Neil J. Ganem, Duane A. Compton Aug 2004

The Kini Kinesin Kif2a Is Required For Bipolar Spindle Assembly Through A Functional Relationship With Mcak, Neil J. Ganem, Duane A. Compton

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although the microtubule-depolymerizing KinI motor Kif2a is abundantly expressed in neuronal cells, we now show it localizes to centrosomes and spindle poles during mitosis in cultured cells. RNAi-induced knockdown of Kif2a expression inhibited cell cycle progression because cells assembled monopolar spindles. Bipolar spindle assembly was restored in cells lacking Kif2a by treatments that altered microtubule assembly (nocodazole), eliminated kinetochore–microtubule attachment (loss of Nuf2), or stabilized microtubule plus ends at kinetochores (loss of MCAK). Thus, two KinI motors, MCAK and Kif2a, play distinct roles in mitosis, and MCAK activity at kinetochores must be balanced by Kif2a activity at poles for ...