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2004

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Agronomy and Crop Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Isu Introduces The Corn And Soybean Initiative, Brian Gene Meyer Dec 2004

Isu Introduces The Corn And Soybean Initiative, Brian Gene Meyer

Integrated Crop Management News

The Corn and Soybean Initiative is a new effort at Iowa State University to better serve the needs of Iowa's number-one-in-the-nation corn and soybean growers. "Iowa has the best crop producers in the country and they just keep getting better," said Greg Tylka, coordinator of the initiative and a professor of plant pathology. "Iowa State's Corn and Soybean Initiative will work to make sure that trend continues by providing a central access point for research-based production information and education.


Workshop In Using Living Mulch Systems For Grain Crop Production, Palle Pedersen, Jodee Roland Dec 2004

Workshop In Using Living Mulch Systems For Grain Crop Production, Palle Pedersen, Jodee Roland

Integrated Crop Management News

Incorporation of perennial legumes and cover crops into our row cropping systems and reduction of tillage will reduce soil erosion and concurrent loss of phosphorous and nitrogen to the surface water. Kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum) is a relatively new forage legume in North America that can be used in a living mulch system. It has an excellent forage yield and is persistent under a wide range of soil and climatic environments. Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, and Integrated Farm/Livestock Management Demonstration Program, with the assistance of Iowa State University Extension, are currently funding a large on-farm demonstration ...


Commercial Pesticide Applicator Training Sessions For Spring 2005, James A. Fawcett, Virgil L. Schmitt Dec 2004

Commercial Pesticide Applicator Training Sessions For Spring 2005, James A. Fawcett, Virgil L. Schmitt

Integrated Crop Management News

With the arrival of Asian soybean rust in this country, many commercial applicators are adding agricultural diseases (category 1C) to their certification so that they can apply fungicides. Most agricultural commercial applicators are certified in Ag Weeds (category 1A), and many are certified in Ag Insects (category 1B), but not very many are certified in Ag Diseases (category 1C).


The Phosphorus Index, U.S. Department Of Agriculture Dec 2004

The Phosphorus Index, U.S. Department Of Agriculture

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Phosphorus Index is a tool used to assess the potential for phosphorus (P) to move from agricultural fields to surface water. It uses an integrated approach that considers soil and landscape features as well as soil conservation and P management practices in individual fields. These characteristics include source factors such as soil test P; total soil P; rate, method, and timing of P application from commercial fertilizer, manure, and other organic sources; and erosion. Transport factors include sediment delivery, relative field location in the watershed, soil conservation practices, precipitation, runoff, and tile flow/subsurface drainage. Erosion, runoff and drainage ...


With High Fertilizer Prices Is It Business As Usual Or Should Fertilization Practices Change?, John E. Sawyer Dec 2004

With High Fertilizer Prices Is It Business As Usual Or Should Fertilization Practices Change?, John E. Sawyer

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

After the spike in natural gas price in the winter of 2000-2001 the price of natural gas and N fertilizers have fluctuated, but remained above previous historic levels. Seasonal trends have also resulted in both N product availability and high cost issues, including this fall. Recently, similar problems have hit phosphate and potash fertilizers where world demand and production problems (hurricanes affecting phosphate production in Florida) have negatively affected product price and supply in the United States. With these trends, are there fertilizer use practices that should change, or does crop response to fertilization pay no matter the cost? Crop ...


Iron Deficiency Chlorosis: Management For Hot Spots And Whole Fields, Seth Naeve Dec 2004

Iron Deficiency Chlorosis: Management For Hot Spots And Whole Fields, Seth Naeve

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iron Deficiency Chlorosis impacts soybean yields primarily in the Western Corn Belt. Iron Deficiency Chlorosis (more commonly iron chlorosis) is a complex plant disorder that is driven primarily by a nutrient deficiency (iron), usually manifested where soil pH is greater than 7.5. Although Midwestern soils are abundant in iron, higher pH soils cause iron to be in a form that is less available to plants, i.e. it cannot be absorbed. Iron chlorosis, however, does not occur in all high pH soils. A multitude of other soil factors interact to impact iron chlorosis in soybean. Soil chemical properties such ...


Do We Really Need To Inoculate Our Fields?, Palle Pedersen Dec 2004

Do We Really Need To Inoculate Our Fields?, Palle Pedersen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Currently, there is a lot of interest in soybean seed inoculation. Several new products have entered the market and created a renewed interest in seed inoculation even on fields that have a history of soybean production. As a result of this renewed interest and the lack of information from Iowa, a soybean inoculant evaluation trial was initiated this year in Iowa to evaluate these products. Our objective was to determine if we need to adjust our current recommendations when using inoculants. Twelve different inoculants were tested at two locations (Ames and Vincent) in Iowa. Averaged across locations, none of the ...


Helping Your Livestock Clients Meet Dnr's New Mmp And Phosphorus Requirements, Jeremy Klatt Dec 2004

Helping Your Livestock Clients Meet Dnr's New Mmp And Phosphorus Requirements, Jeremy Klatt

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The DNR recently revised its manure management plan (MMP) content requirements to implement the phosphorus (P) index for determination of application rates as required by Iowa law. This presentation will help you assist your clients who are required by state law to have an MMP confinement animal feeding operations with more than 500 animal units.


Iowa: Viticulture (Grapes) 101, Michael L. White Dec 2004

Iowa: Viticulture (Grapes) 101, Michael L. White

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iowa has a rich and long history of grape production. Grapes were grown in the Council Bluffs area as early as 1857. In 1900 the US Agriculture Census showed that Iowa produced 7,403,900 pounds of grapes and 76,301 gallons of farm-processed wine. Iowa ranked sixth in grape production in 1919 in the United States with more that 12 million pounds. Iowa grape production peaked in 1929 with a yield of 15.8 million pounds. The 1997 Census of Agriculture listed only 56,536 pounds of grapes harvested.


Fertilizer Application: Nh, Opener Losses And Uniformity Issues, H. Mark Hanna, Paul M. Boyd, James L. Baker, Thomas S. Colvin Dec 2004

Fertilizer Application: Nh, Opener Losses And Uniformity Issues, H. Mark Hanna, Paul M. Boyd, James L. Baker, Thomas S. Colvin

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Anhydrous ammonia (NH3) is injected below the soil surface during application to limit loss to the atmosphere. Application at a shallower depth may reduce tractor horsepower or allow greater speed which could increase field capacity of equipment if NH3 losses are held to acceptable levels. Losses of NH3 during, and for one hour after, field application were measured from a typical knife injector treatment operated at a 15-cm (6-in.) depth and 8 km/h (5 mi/h) travel speed and from a single-disc injector operated at shallower depths (5 and 10 cm (2 and 4 in.)) and a range of ...


Iowa Edible Bean Production With Direct Marketing To Japan By The Greene Bean Project, Chis Henning, David Ausberger Dec 2004

Iowa Edible Bean Production With Direct Marketing To Japan By The Greene Bean Project, Chis Henning, David Ausberger

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

In January 2001, a group of west-central Iowa farmers and supporters came together to research raising edible beans and other alternative crops. The experiment has grown into the Greene Bean Project, Alternative Crop Enterprises of Iowa, LLC whose members have 1000 acres of alternative crops in 18 Iowa counties. In 2004, the Greene Bean Project farmers produced over 700 acres of azuki (small red edible bean) for export to Japan. This paper will share the cooperatives introduction, progression and issues of azuki production in Iowa and direct marketing to Japan.


Protecting Crop Yields With Postemergence Herbicides, Bob Hartzler Dec 2004

Protecting Crop Yields With Postemergence Herbicides, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Postemergence herbicides are an important component of today's weed management systems. Herbicides introduced in the past 10 years for use in both corn and soybeans are able to kill much larger weeds than earlier products, thus providing farmers with greater flexibility in application timing. However, this benefit may end up costing farmers money if application is delayed too late into the growing season. This article will discuss the importance of application timing in protecting crop yields.


Rusle2, U.S. Department Of Agriculture Dec 2004

Rusle2, U.S. Department Of Agriculture

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Released in 2003, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 (RUSLE2) estimates soil loss from rill and interrill erosion caused by rainfall on cropland. RUSLE2, like its predecessors, RUSLE and USLE, is used to predict the long-term average rate of rill and interrill erosion for several alternative combinations of crop system and management practice. Lt also considers specified soil types, rainfall patterns, and topography. When these predicted losses are compared with soil loss tolerances, RUSLE2 provides specific guidelines for effective erosion control.


Growing & Marketing Low Linolenic Soybeans - A Value Added Oppportunity, James H. Jensen, Paul Kassel Dec 2004

Growing & Marketing Low Linolenic Soybeans - A Value Added Oppportunity, James H. Jensen, Paul Kassel

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Food and Drug Administration's statement that trans-fatty acids are undesirable for human health and the requirement that food processors list trans fats on food nutrition labels beginning in 2006 has poised l% low linolenic soybean oil as part of the solution to the trans fat problem. Unhydrogenated soybean oil does not contain trans fat, but most soybean oil is hydrogenated to increase the shelf life of products that use soybean oil as an ingredient. Low linolenic soybean oil is stable enough without requiring hydrogenation, eliminating trans fat and not increasing saturated fat. According to the United Soybean Board ...


Double Cropping Field Peas After Winter Wheat For Swine Rations, Jim Fawcett, Tom Miller Dec 2004

Double Cropping Field Peas After Winter Wheat For Swine Rations, Jim Fawcett, Tom Miller

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Most Iowa crop producers now rely on two crops, corn and soybeans, for their livelihood. This has led to many problems, including increased pest problems, such as with bean leaf beetles and soybean aphids, and more vulnerability to adverse weather and poor prices. It has also become increasingly difficult to compete in the world market when these commodities can be produced at a lower cost in other countries, such as Brazil. Crop producers are continually looking for a third crop to include in the rotation, but either the economics are not favorable or there is not a local market for ...


Conservation Tillage System Effects On Soil Productivity And Carbon Credit Incentives., Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark Licht Dec 2004

Conservation Tillage System Effects On Soil Productivity And Carbon Credit Incentives., Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark Licht

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Conservation systems play a significant role in improving soil and water quality. Management of crop residue and soil organic matter is of primary importance in maintaining soil productivity and in minimizing agricultural impacts on the environment. Conservation systems utilize tillage practices that are defined by the percent of residue cover left on the soil surface, such as ridge tillage, strip-tillage, and minimum-tillage. These tillage systems and no-tillage each accounted for one-third of Iowa's corn (Zea Mays L) and soybean (Glycine max L Merr.) cropland in production according to a survey conducted by the Iowa Residue Management Partnership (IRMP) in ...


Can We Increase Both, Emerson D. Nafziger Dec 2004

Can We Increase Both, Emerson D. Nafziger

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The 2002 Farm Bill, price support from increasing industrial usage of corn (primarily ethanol production), and high corn yield and high corn:soybean yield ratio in 2003 have combined to increase corn acreage in Illinois and Iowa. Because corn and soybean occupy such a large percentage of cultivated land in these two states, corn acreage can increase substantially only at the expense of soybean acres, and only by increasing the acreage of corn that follows corn instead of soybean in the crop sequence. Following are some summary points regarding the management of corn following corn:


Crop Weather Cycles: Myth Or Reality?, Elwynn Taylor Dec 2004

Crop Weather Cycles: Myth Or Reality?, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Serious Corn Belt drought has followed an apparent 19-year cycle for 200 years. What is the risk of severe drought during the coming six years (2005-2010)? The climate is changing and will likely continue to do so, but will this change the size and suitability of the Midwest as far as Corn and Soybean production is concerned? The cycle suggests that risk of drought is greater during the next 6 years (2005-2010) than it was during the past 12, and history shows that the years of reduced yields seem to appear suddenly just when new record highs are being realized ...


Weed Management 2005: Weed Shifts, Herbicide Resistance, Issues And Opportunities, Micheal D. K. Owen Dec 2004

Weed Management 2005: Weed Shifts, Herbicide Resistance, Issues And Opportunities, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

A number of factors influenced the record crop in Iowa during 2004. While weed control was generally good, the cool and wet conditions enhanced potential injury from a number of herbicides. Furthermore, with increase adoption of transgenic glyphosate resistant corn and soybean, changes in weed populations, either weed population shifts or the evolution of resistant weeds, must be given due consideration for a successful 2005 growing season. The paper will describe some of the issues and opportunities facing Iowa growers in the next growing season.


A Fresh Look At Some New & Alternative Forages, Stephen K. Barnhart Dec 2004

A Fresh Look At Some New & Alternative Forages, Stephen K. Barnhart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iowa producers grow and manage 40 to 50 different species of plants for forage, cover crops in row crop fields and as components of soil erosion control and buffer strip practices. The most commonly used are:


On-Farm Implementation Of The Phosphorus Index Observed Risk Ratings And Impacts On Fertilizer And Manure Phosphorus Management, Antonio P. Mallarino, David J. Wittry Dec 2004

On-Farm Implementation Of The Phosphorus Index Observed Risk Ratings And Impacts On Fertilizer And Manure Phosphorus Management, Antonio P. Mallarino, David J. Wittry

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The Iowa phosphorus (P) index is an assessment tool that was developed to assess the risk of P loss from fields to water resources. It provides a risk rating that also can be used to prioritize fields or field zones for manure or fertilizer P application and for implementing improved soil conservation practices. Scientists have been proposing such a tool since the early 1990s, and it has evolved from a simple subjective tool to a more complete objective tool without becoming a complex model of P flow. The need for a P index has its origin in two main issues ...


Atrazine Runoff In The Blue River Basin: Geomorphology, Rainfall, And Agronomic Practices, Kundan Dhakal Dec 2004

Atrazine Runoff In The Blue River Basin: Geomorphology, Rainfall, And Agronomic Practices, Kundan Dhakal

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Atrazine concentrations in the Big Blue River Basin (BRB) in Nebraska and Kansas periodically exceed the U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 3 µg L-1. The present study is focused on watershed variables influencing surface runoff of atrazine. The assessment includes the impact of corn and sorghum planting progress (indicating atrazine application), rainfall, antecedent soil water content, and soil restrictive layer on stream-measured weekly atrazine load in independent BRB subwatersheds for 1997 - 2004. Maximum atrazine loading occurred after most of the corn had been planted but during sorghum planting from mid-May to early June, immediately following multiple ...


Arkansas Soybean Performance Tests 2004, D. G. Dombek, D. K. Ahrent, R. D. Bond, I. L. Eldridge Dec 2004

Arkansas Soybean Performance Tests 2004, D. G. Dombek, D. K. Ahrent, R. D. Bond, I. L. Eldridge

Research Series

No abstract provided.


Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Performance Tests 2004, D. G. Dombek, D. K. Ahrent, R. D. Bond, I. L. Eldridge Dec 2004

Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Performance Tests 2004, D. G. Dombek, D. K. Ahrent, R. D. Bond, I. L. Eldridge

Research Series

No abstract provided.


Potential For Escape Of Live Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Into Cottonseed, Motes, And Cleaned Lint At The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker Dec 2004

Potential For Escape Of Live Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Into Cottonseed, Motes, And Cleaned Lint At The Cotton Gin, Thomas W. Sappington, Alan D. Brashears, Megha N. Parajulee, Stanley C. Carroll, Mark D. Arnold, Roy V. Baker

Entomology Publications

Reintroductions of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, into areas of the United States where it has been eradicated or suppressed are very expensive to mitigate. There is concern that a cotton gin in an eradication zone may serve as a site of boll weevil reintroductions when processing cotton harvested in a neighboring infested zone. Similarly, there is a question whether weevil-free areas can safely import gin products, such as cottonseed and baled lint, from infested areas without risking an introduction. Many countries require fumigation of imported U.S. cotton bales to protect against boll weevil introductions, costing the ...


Seed Production In Corn And Soybean, Kendall Lamkey Dec 2004

Seed Production In Corn And Soybean, Kendall Lamkey

Agronomy Reports

Seed production is one of the least visible yet most important aspects of food and feed production. This part of the system is often taken for granted, even by the farmers who plant the seed. One of the reasons is that much of the seed in the United States is provided by the private sector, particularly for corn and soybean. Also, seed production is a technical process that requires in-depth knowledge of the reproductive mechanisms in plants.


Resource Conservation Practices: Manure And Tillage Management, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Mark A. Licht Dec 2004

Resource Conservation Practices: Manure And Tillage Management, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Mark A. Licht

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Adopting best management practices throughout an operation must take into consideration both manure application and tillage management.


Quality Of The 2004 Soybean Crop From The United States, Thomas J. Brumm, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Glen R. Rippke Nov 2004

Quality Of The 2004 Soybean Crop From The United States, Thomas J. Brumm, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Glen R. Rippke

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Technical Reports and White Papers

Quality continues to be an important soybean marketing issue. This report summarizes current knowledge on the following soybean quality topics: • protein and oil composition of the 2004 U.S. soybean crop, • the 2004 crop in historical perspective, • weather conditions affecting the 2004 crop, • Asian soybean rust and its possible impact on the U.S. soybean crop, • programs by growers and U.S. processors to improve quality, • a study being funded by ASA to examine foreign material in soybean shipments, and • the production of low-linolenic soybeans. The data and analyses in this report are intended to assist customers in the sourcing ...


Icm Conference December 1-2, 2004, Brent A. Pringnitz Nov 2004

Icm Conference December 1-2, 2004, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

The 16th Annual Integrated Crop Management Conference (ICM) will be held December 1 and 2 at the Iowa State Center on the Iowa State University campus in Ames. Registration begins at 9:00 a.m. on December 1 in Stephens Auditorium, and the conference concludes at 4:00 p.m. on December 2. During the conference participants will hear of Iowa's expanding ethanol industry and the impact that will have on grain marketing and agronomics.


Soybean Rust First Detector Training Session Announced, Gregory L. Tylka, Brent A. Pringnitz Nov 2004

Soybean Rust First Detector Training Session Announced, Gregory L. Tylka, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

Asian soybean rust is a topic of great interest among Iowa soybean growers and agribusiness. The Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship, the Iowa Soybean Association and Promotion Board, and Iowa State University have formed the Iowa Soybean Rust Team and have developed a system in Iowa whereby soybean samples that are suspected of possibly being infected with soybean rust can be examined and passed through a sequence of trained personnel to offer Iowa soybean growers rapid and accurate identification of the disease.