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Agricultural and Resource Economics

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Articles 1 - 30 of 116

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2004

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Index To Volume 15, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 2004

Index To Volume 15, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


New Limits On “Reverse” Like-Kind Exchanges, Neil E. Harl Dec 2004

New Limits On “Reverse” Like-Kind Exchanges, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

In 2000, the Internal Revenue Service announced a safe harbor for “reverse” like-kind exchanges of eligible property.1 On July 20, 2004, the IRS narrowed the scope of the safe harbor created in 2000.2


Ethanol Industry Outlook, Paul Gallagher Dec 2004

Ethanol Industry Outlook, Paul Gallagher

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The ethanol industry has quickly risen from obscurity to become a major user of U.S. grain. Corn consumption by ethanol processors will soon be 1.6 billion bushels or 16% of U.S. supply when plants under construction begin processing within the next year. In other words, about the same amount of corn is used for ethanol processing and exports. Iowa has shared importantly in the processing expansion, maintaining about a 30% share of national processing capacity throughout the last three decades. Accordingly, the ethanol market review and analysis of growth prospects in this paper may be useful to ...


Links Among Farm Productivity, Off-Farm Work, And Farm Size In The Southeast, Jet Yee, Mary Clare Ahearn, Wallace Huffman Dec 2004

Links Among Farm Productivity, Off-Farm Work, And Farm Size In The Southeast, Jet Yee, Mary Clare Ahearn, Wallace Huffman

Economics Publications

This paper examines the linkages among agricultural total factor productivity, farm size, and farm household participation in the off-farm labor market for the Southeastern states for the period 1960-1996. We find evidence of a simultaneous relationship between productivity and measures of farm structure. The results support the expected relationships between the endogenous variables, namely that productivity and farm size are positively related, farm size and off-farm work participation are negatively related, and off-farm work and productivity are negatively related. We find positive and significant impacts of government policies (investments in public research, extension, and highways) on productivity growth.


Seasonality, Capital Inflexibility, And The Industrialization Of Animal Production, Jutta Roosen, David A. Hennessy, Thia C. Hennessy Dec 2004

Seasonality, Capital Inflexibility, And The Industrialization Of Animal Production, Jutta Roosen, David A. Hennessy, Thia C. Hennessy

CARD Working Papers

Among the prominent recognized features of the industrialization of animal production over the past half century are growth in the stock of inflexible, or use-dedicated, capital as an input in production and growth in productivity. Less recognized is a trend toward aseasonal production. We record the deseasonalization of animal production in Northern Hemisphere countries over the past 70 years. Using Irish farm-level data, we provide evidence that low seasonality favors laborsaving investments. We also suggest that (a) lower seasonality can be Granger-causally prior to increased productivity, and (b) productivity improvements can be Granger-causally prior to lower seasonality. Process (a) should ...


Environmental Conservation On Agricultural Working Land: Assessing Policy Alternatives Using A Spatially Heterogeneous Land Allocation Model, Kelly M. Cobourn Dec 2004

Environmental Conservation On Agricultural Working Land: Assessing Policy Alternatives Using A Spatially Heterogeneous Land Allocation Model, Kelly M. Cobourn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multifunctionality refers to the ability of agricultural systems to produce an array of non-market goods and services in addition to market commodities. This thesis focuses explicitly on the provision of environmental benefits, through reduced soil erosion and fertilizer applications, by agricultural producers. Soil erosion and nutrient contamination from agricultural production are the foremost contributors to ground and surface water degradation in the United States. Reducing their production implies gains in social welfare, but may generate significant private losses to producers. The objective of this analysis is to quantify the tradeoff between environmental improvements and producer welfare and to examine the ...


Incorporating A Partnership, Neil E. Harl Nov 2004

Incorporating A Partnership, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

For some time, the incorporation of partnerships has been governed largely by Rev. Proc. 84-1111 which has provided that a partnership can be incorporated under any one of three alternative methods. Each method has been accompanied by unique income tax consequences.2


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Nov 2004

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Handling S Corporation's Losses In Shareholder Bankruptcy, Neil E. Harl Nov 2004

Handling S Corporation's Losses In Shareholder Bankruptcy, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

The fact that a new tax entity may be created on bankruptcy filing has an enormous impact on the income tax consequences for the bankrupt.1 A recent Tax Court case2 has clarified the handling of S corporation losses in bankruptcy where the S corporation shareholder files for bankruptcy and the S corporation generates losses for the year.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Nov 2004

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Prior Beliefs And Learning On Consumers’ Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Foods, Wallace Huffman, Matthew Rousu, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene Nov 2004

The Effects Of Prior Beliefs And Learning On Consumers’ Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Foods, Wallace Huffman, Matthew Rousu, Jason F. Shogren, Abebayehu Tegene

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

In most environments, information is critical to consumers’ decision making. Consumers have prior beliefs about quality and price of goods and services and obtain new information which is used to update these prior beliefs or to form posterior beliefs, i.e., Bayesian learning. New food products made from herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant crops using bioengineering, have appeared in U.S. supermarkets starting in 1996. The objective of this paper is to examine in depth the role of consumer’s prior beliefs about genetic modification and of diverse, new information on their willingness to pay for foods that might be genetically modified ...


Country Of Origin As A Brand: The Case Of New Zealand Lamb, Roxanne L. B. Clemens, Bruce A. Babcock Nov 2004

Country Of Origin As A Brand: The Case Of New Zealand Lamb, Roxanne L. B. Clemens, Bruce A. Babcock

MATRIC Briefing Papers

New Zealand has used country-of-origin labeling (COOL) as a "country brand" to differentiate New Zealand lamb in international markets and increase consumer awareness of this lamb as a high-quality imported product. The case of New Zealand lamb is especially interesting as an unsubsidized commodity product competing against subsidized lamb in some of the most competitive and sophisticated retail markets in the world. Given New Zealand's dependence on international markets, producers, processors, and exporters needed to develop strategies to create and maintain a strong positive image for their product. This paper explores the history of New Zealand lamb exports, the ...


Product Development, Cost Seasonality, Region Marginalization, And A More Demanding Consumer, David A. Hennessy Nov 2004

Product Development, Cost Seasonality, Region Marginalization, And A More Demanding Consumer, David A. Hennessy

CARD Working Papers

Agricultural production is becoming more like manufacturing in the routinization of processes, the extent to which raw materials are processed, capital intensity, and its emphasis on throughput. Some ascribe the changes to demand-side factors while others look to technological innovations. Emphasizing cost seasonality as a reference indicator for nature's role in agricultural production, this paper develops a simple model that includes both supply and demand sides. We show how cost seasonality can impede product development to meet consumer needs and find that there may be a ceiling level of cost seasonality below which a non-seasonal equilibrium production profile occurs ...


Carbon Sequestration, Co-Benefits, And Conservation Programs, Hongli Feng, Catherine L. Kling, Philip W. Gassman Nov 2004

Carbon Sequestration, Co-Benefits, And Conservation Programs, Hongli Feng, Catherine L. Kling, Philip W. Gassman

CARD Working Papers

Land use changes to sequester carbon also provide "co-benefits," some of which (for example, water quality) have attracted at least as much attention as carbon storage. The non-separability of these co-benefits presents a challenge for policy design. If carbon markets are employed, then social efficiency will depend on how we take into account co-benefits, that is, externalities, in such markets. If carbon sequestration is incorporated into conservation programs, then the weight given to carbon sequestration relative to its co-benefits will partly shape these programs. Using the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) as an example, we show that CRP has been sequestering ...


Rethinking Agricultural Domestic Support Under The World Trade Organization, Chad E. Hart, John C. Beghin Nov 2004

Rethinking Agricultural Domestic Support Under The World Trade Organization, Chad E. Hart, John C. Beghin

CARD Briefing Papers

This paper focuses on the third pillar of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the discipline of agricultural domestic support. The paper examines the current definition of agricultural domestic support used by the WTO, focusing on the Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) and other forms of support that are less to least distorting (Blue and Green Box payments). The analysis looks at the recent experience of four member states (the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Brazil). The structure of recent support varies considerably by country. Some countries, notably the United States ...


Urban Demand For Dairy Products In China: Evidence From New Survey Data, Frank H. Fuller, John C. Beghin, Scott Rozelle Nov 2004

Urban Demand For Dairy Products In China: Evidence From New Survey Data, Frank H. Fuller, John C. Beghin, Scott Rozelle

CARD Working Papers

In this paper we use 2001-2002 urban survey data we collected to analyze demographics, cultural factors, and purchasing behaviors influencing the consumption of fresh milk, yogurt, ice cream, and powered milk in urban areas of China. The data include frequency of consumption by product, location of consumption and purchase, exposure to advertising and foreign culture, and school milk programs. The variables serve as regressors in a double-hurdle model that examines the decision to consume or not to consume and the level of consumption. We also estimate consumption levels and participation equations with tobit and probit models.


Reputations, Market Structure, And The Choice Of Quality Assurance Systems In The Food Industry, Miguel Carriquiry, Bruce A. Babcock Nov 2004

Reputations, Market Structure, And The Choice Of Quality Assurance Systems In The Food Industry, Miguel Carriquiry, Bruce A. Babcock

CARD Working Papers

Participants in a supply chain of agricultural value-added products face significant challenges. Many of the costly distinctive traits are difficult (if not impossible) to observe even after consumption. A complicating factor, addressed here, is that in some circumstances delivered quality can only be imperfectly learned and/or affected stochastically by producers. In order for markets for these goods to arise, firms touting the quality of the product need to be trusted. In response to these challenges, new (and diverse) quality assurance systems (QASs) that facilitate the acquisition and flow of information about agricultural and food products are being put in ...


American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004: A Summary Of Selected Provisions, Neil E. Harl, Roger A. Mceowen Oct 2004

American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004: A Summary Of Selected Provisions, Neil E. Harl, Roger A. Mceowen

Agricultural Law Digest

The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, H.R. 4520, was signed into law on October 22, 2004. The lengthy bill repealed the Extra-Territorial Income Exclusion Act of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106-519, and also enacted into law numerous other provisions of significance to farm and ranch taxpayers.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Oct 2004

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Working Families Tax Relief Act Of 2004: Summary Of Selected Provisions, Neil E. Harl, Roger A. Mceowen Oct 2004

Working Families Tax Relief Act Of 2004: Summary Of Selected Provisions, Neil E. Harl, Roger A. Mceowen

Agricultural Law Digest

On October 4, 2004, the President signed H.R. 1308, The Working Families Tax Relief Act of 2004, into law. Pub. L. No. 108-311, 108th Cong., 2d Sess. (2004). This legislation has also come to be known as the “tax extenders” bill. See H.R. Rep. No. 108-696, 108th Cong., 2d Sess. (2004).


Cropland Cash Rental Rates In The Upper Mississippi River Basin, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Christopher Sean Burkart, Sylvia Secchi Oct 2004

Cropland Cash Rental Rates In The Upper Mississippi River Basin, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Christopher Sean Burkart, Sylvia Secchi

CARD Technical Reports

The report documents the creation of estimates for cropland cash rental rates in the Upper Mississippi River Basin in 1997. Although the basic data come from disparate sources, we employ a unifying estimation procedure based on the presumption that the cropland cash rental rate is an increasing function of corn yield potential. The rates are estimated at some 42,000 National Resources Inventory data points representing cropland in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.


Equilibrium And Efficient Land-Use Arrangements Under Spatial Externality On A Lattice, Alexander E. Saak Oct 2004

Equilibrium And Efficient Land-Use Arrangements Under Spatial Externality On A Lattice, Alexander E. Saak

CARD Working Papers

Many cases of externalities in agricultural production, such as pesticide drift, cross-pollination, and offensive odors, are attributable to the incompatibility of neighboring land uses and exhibit distance dependence. We characterize equilibrium spatial patterns of externality-generating and -receiving land uses on a two-dimensional lattice with noncooperative, profit-maximizing producers. In equilibrium, generators or recipients form one or more neighborhoods with certain geometric properties, depending on how an externality dissipates with distance and whether there is an externality generated outside the region's boundaries. Efficient land-use arrangements maximize social welfare subject to the implementability constraints stipulating that no farm-level activity, except for land ...


Cooperative Formation And Financial Contracting In Agricultural Markets, Brent M. Hueth, Philippe Marcoul, Roger Ginder Oct 2004

Cooperative Formation And Financial Contracting In Agricultural Markets, Brent M. Hueth, Philippe Marcoul, Roger Ginder

CARD Working Papers

Cooperative formation in agriculture sometimes occurs in response to the exit of a private firm and typically requires substantial equity investment by participating farmers. What economic rationale can explain why farmers are willing to contribute capital to an activity that fails to attract non-farm, or “private” investment? We hypothesize that doing so is a costly mechanism for increasing the maximum penalty farmers face in the case of business failure. For a given market environment, exposing farmers to this risk increases the amount of surplus that can be used to repay lenders, thus expanding the set of market environments in which ...


Identity Preservation And Labeling Of Genetically Modified Products: System Design And Enforcement Issues, Harevy E. Lapan, Giancarlo Moschini Oct 2004

Identity Preservation And Labeling Of Genetically Modified Products: System Design And Enforcement Issues, Harevy E. Lapan, Giancarlo Moschini

CARD Working Papers

his paper analyzes economic issues that arise in devising a credible and enforceable system of identity preservation and labeling for genetically modified (GM) and non-GM products. The model represents three stages in the supply chain: farm production, marketing handlers, and final users. The possibility of accidental co-mingling of non-GM products is modeled at the marketing stage. Regulation takes the form of a threshold level of purity for non-GM products, a probability of government testing to verify compliance with the threshold level, and a fine for violators. Uncertainty is modeled explicitly, such that would-be suppliers of non-GM products always face some ...


Reporting Income Under "Ledger" Contracts, Neil E. Harl Sep 2004

Reporting Income Under "Ledger" Contracts, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

Although ledger contracts for marketing hogs have been around for nearly a decade,1 audit activity has picked up in recent months with taxpayers questioned as to how income under the contracts was reported during the period of extremely low live hog prices in 1998-99 when hog prices dropped to as low as eight cents per pound.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Sep 2004

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Sep 2004

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Income Tax Status Of The Farm Credit System, Neil E. Harl Sep 2004

Income Tax Status Of The Farm Credit System, Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

The proposed buyout by Rabobank, a giant Dutch lender, of the Farm Credit Services of America (FCSA),1 a component of the Farm Credit System, announced in late July, 2004, has focused attention on the income tax status of the various units of the farm credit system.2


China's Dairy Market: Consumer Demand Survey And Supply Characteristics, Frank H. Fuller, John C. Beghin, Dinghuan Hu, Scott Rozelle Sep 2004

China's Dairy Market: Consumer Demand Survey And Supply Characteristics, Frank H. Fuller, John C. Beghin, Dinghuan Hu, Scott Rozelle

CARD Staff Reports

This report documents data and other information gathered from a survey of urban households in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China. The survey was conducted as part of a research project aimed at understanding the evolution of dairy markets in Asia and the implications for dairy product trade. The survey data provide insights into the purchasing behavior and attitudes of urban consumers in China with respect to dairy products. The report describes the survey and collection process, summarizes selected data from the survey, and provides anecdotal information about the development of dairy production, processing, and product marketing in China.