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1999

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Method For Estimating Marine Habitat Values Based On Fish Guilds, With Comparisons Between Sites In The Southern California Bight, Alan Bond, John Stephens, Daniel Pondella, James Allen, Mark Helvey May 2013

A Method For Estimating Marine Habitat Values Based On Fish Guilds, With Comparisons Between Sites In The Southern California Bight, Alan Bond, John Stephens, Daniel Pondella, James Allen, Mark Helvey

Alan B. Bond

Habitat valuation is an essential tool for tracking changes in habitat quality and in adjudicating environmental mitigation. All current methods for estimating habitat values of coastal marine sites rely heavily on the opinion of experts or on data variables that can readily be manipulated to influence the outcome. As a result, unbiased, quantitative comparisons between the values of different marine habitats are generally unavailable. We report here on a robust, objective technique for the valuation of marine habitats that makes use of data that are commonly gathered in surveys of marine fish populations: density, fidelity, and mean size. To insure ...


Stratification And Light Improve Germination Of Katsura Tree Seed, Michael S. Dosmann, Jeffery K. Iles, Mark P. Widrlechner Dec 1999

Stratification And Light Improve Germination Of Katsura Tree Seed, Michael S. Dosmann, Jeffery K. Iles, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

Germinability of two, half-sib seed sources of Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. & Zucc. and one seed source of Cercidiphyllum magnificum (Nakai) Nakai was determined after not stratifying or stratifying seeds at 3.5 ± 0.5 °C (38.3 ± 0.9 °F) for 8 days followed by germination for 21 days at 25 °C (77 °F) in darkness or under a 15-hour photoperiod. Stratification was not required for germination, but increased germination percentage, peak value, and germination value for both species. Stratification increased germination of C. japonicum from 42% to 75%, and germination of C. magnificum from 12% to 24%. Light enhanced germination ...


Remote Sensing Observations Of Winter Phytoplankton Blooms Southwest Of The Luzon Strait In The South China Sea, Dan-Ling Tang, I-Hsun Ni, Dana R. Kester, Frank E. Muller-Karger Dec 1999

Remote Sensing Observations Of Winter Phytoplankton Blooms Southwest Of The Luzon Strait In The South China Sea, Dan-Ling Tang, I-Hsun Ni, Dana R. Kester, Frank E. Muller-Karger

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The Luzon Strait is a channel between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea. This area is traditionally classified as an oligotrophic zone with low primary productivity. Even so, high concentrations of pigment were detected 100 km southwest of the Strait through analysis of historical Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data that the Nimbus-7 satellite collected during the winters of 1979 to 1986. These blooms were observed in December 1979, February 1983, February 1985, and January 1986, when sea surface temperatures measured with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAAs) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were 23 ...


Integration Of Calcium And Cyclic Amp Signaling Pathways By 14-3-3, Chi-Wing Chow, Roger J. Davis Dec 1999

Integration Of Calcium And Cyclic Amp Signaling Pathways By 14-3-3, Chi-Wing Chow, Roger J. Davis

Open Access Articles

Calcium-stimulated nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription activity at the interleukin-2 promoter is negatively regulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). This effect of cAMP is mediated, in part, by protein kinase A phosphorylation of NFAT. The mechanism of regulation involves the creation of a phosphorylation-dependent binding site for 14-3-3. Decreased NFAT phosphorylation caused by the calcium-stimulated phosphatase calcineurin, or mutation of the PKA phosphorylation sites, disrupted 14-3-3 binding and increased NFAT transcription activity. In contrast, NFAT phosphorylation caused by cAMP increased 14-3-3 binding and reduced NFAT transcription activity. The regulated interaction between NFAT and 14-3-3 provides a mechanism for ...


Structure And Function Analysis Of Lin-14, A Temporal Regulator Of Postembryonic Developmental Events In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Yang Hong, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros Dec 1999

Structure And Function Analysis Of Lin-14, A Temporal Regulator Of Postembryonic Developmental Events In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Yang Hong, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

During postembryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans, the heterochronic gene lin-14 controls the timing of developmental events in diverse cell types. Three alternativelin-14 transcripts are predicted to encode isoforms of a novel nuclear protein that differ in their amino-terminal domains. In this paper, we report that the alternative amino-terminal domains of LIN-14 are dispensable and that a carboxy-terminal region within exons 9 to 13 is necessary and sufficient for in vivo LIN-14 function. A transgene capable of expressing only one of the three alternativelin-14 gene products rescues a lin-14 null mutation and is developmentally regulated by lin-4. This shows ...


The Ccaat Displacement Protein/Cut Homeodomain Protein Represses Osteocalcin Gene Transcription And Forms Complexes With The Retinoblastoma Protein-Related Protein P107 And Cyclin A, Maria F. Van Gurp, Jitesh Pratap, Mai X. Luong, Amjad Javed, Heidi M. Hoffmann, Antonio Giordano, Janet L. Stein, Ellis J. Neufeld, Jane B. Lian, Gary S. Stein, Andre J. Van Wijnen Dec 1999

The Ccaat Displacement Protein/Cut Homeodomain Protein Represses Osteocalcin Gene Transcription And Forms Complexes With The Retinoblastoma Protein-Related Protein P107 And Cyclin A, Maria F. Van Gurp, Jitesh Pratap, Mai X. Luong, Amjad Javed, Heidi M. Hoffmann, Antonio Giordano, Janet L. Stein, Ellis J. Neufeld, Jane B. Lian, Gary S. Stein, Andre J. Van Wijnen

Open Access Articles

Developmental control of bone tissue-specific genes requires positive and negative regulatory factors to accommodate physiological requirements for the expression or suppression of the encoded proteins. Osteocalcin (OC) gene transcription is restricted to the late stages of osteoblast differentiation. OC gene expression is suppressed in nonosseous cells and osteoprogenitor cells and during the early proliferative stages of bone cell differentiation. The rat OC promoter contains a homeodomain recognition motif within a highly conserved multipartite promoter element (OC box I) that contributes to tissue-specific transcription. In this study, we demonstrate that the CCAAT displacement protein (CDP), a transcription factor related to the ...


The T(8;21) Chromosomal Translocation In Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Modifies Intranuclear Targeting Of The Aml1/Cbfalpha2 Transcription Factor, Sandra Marie Mcneil, Congmei Zeng, Kimberly Stacy Harrington, Scott W. Hiebert, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Gary S. Stein Dec 1999

The T(8;21) Chromosomal Translocation In Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Modifies Intranuclear Targeting Of The Aml1/Cbfalpha2 Transcription Factor, Sandra Marie Mcneil, Congmei Zeng, Kimberly Stacy Harrington, Scott W. Hiebert, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Gary S. Stein

GSBS Student Publications

Targeting of gene regulatory factors to specific intranuclear sites may be critical for the accurate control of gene expression. The acute myelogenous leukemia 8;21 (AML1/ETO) fusion protein is encoded by a rearranged gene created by the ETO chromosomal translocation. This protein lacks the nuclear matrix-targeting signal that directs the AML1 protein to appropriate gene regulatory sites within the nucleus. Here we report that substitution of the chromosome 8-derived ETO protein for the multifunctional C terminus of AML1 precludes targeting of the factor to AML1 subnuclear domains. Instead, the AML1/ETO fusion protein is redirected by the ETO component ...


Emissions Of Formaldehyde, Acetic Acid, Methanol, And Other Trace Gases From Biomass Fires In North Carolina Measured By Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Robert J. Yokelson, Jon G. Goode, Darold E. Ward, Ronald A. Susott, Ronald E. Babbitt, D. D. Wade, Issac T. Bertschi, David W. T. Griffith, Wei Min Hao Dec 1999

Emissions Of Formaldehyde, Acetic Acid, Methanol, And Other Trace Gases From Biomass Fires In North Carolina Measured By Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Robert J. Yokelson, Jon G. Goode, Darold E. Ward, Ronald A. Susott, Ronald E. Babbitt, D. D. Wade, Issac T. Bertschi, David W. T. Griffith, Wei Min Hao

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Biomass burning is an important source of many trace gases in the global troposphere. We have constructed an airborne trace gas measurement system consisting of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) coupled to a “flow-through” multipass cell (AFTIR) and installed it on a U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service King Air B-90. The first measurements with the new system were conducted in North Carolina during April 1997 on large, isolated biomass fire plumes. Simultaneous measurements included Global Positioning System (GPS); airborne sonde; particle light scattering, CO, and CO2; and integrated filter and canister samples. AFTIR spectra acquired within ...


Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 1999, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department Dec 1999

Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 1999, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 1999 annual progress report for the Northeast Research Station in Watertown, South Dakota. This report is issued by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and the South Dakota State University Plant Science Department. This report includes information on the 1999 crop season, including: precipitation summary, crop performance results, canola and flax variety trials, alfalfa production, cool and warm season annual forages, oat research, spring wheat breeding, fertilizer influence on yields, corn and soybean breeding, weed control, oat and spring wheat foliar fungicide trials.


Reduction Of Fe(Iii), Mn(Iv), And Toxic Metal At 100 Degrees C By Pyrobaculum Islandicum, Kazem Kashefi, Derek Lovley Dec 1999

Reduction Of Fe(Iii), Mn(Iv), And Toxic Metal At 100 Degrees C By Pyrobaculum Islandicum, Kazem Kashefi, Derek Lovley

Derek Lovley

It has recently been noted that a diversity of hyperthermophilic microorganisms have the ability to reduce Fe(III) with hydrogen as the electron donor, but the reduction of Fe(III) or other metals by these organisms has not been previously examined in detail. When Pyrobaculum islandicum was grown at 100 degrees C in a medium with hydrogen as the electron donor and Fe(III)-citrate as the electron acceptor, the increase in cell numbers of P. islandicum per mole of Fe(III) reduced was found to be ca. 10-fold higher than previously reported. Poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide could also ...


West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 1999, Agricultural Experiment Station Dec 1999

West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 1999, Agricultural Experiment Station

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 1999 progress report of the West River Crops and Soils Research Projects, South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. This document includes reports on: weather and climate, wheat and grain variety trials, management and tillage, and weed and pest control.


The Effect Of Shelterwood-Cut Oak Forestry Practices On Breeding Bird Success, Patrick Lee Collins Dec 1999

The Effect Of Shelterwood-Cut Oak Forestry Practices On Breeding Bird Success, Patrick Lee Collins

Theses, Dissertations & Honors Papers

Populations of breeding birds were studied on two shelterwood-cut oak stands in Buckingham County, Virginia. These two tracts, Harris East and Harris West, were cut in 1996 and a Breeding Bird Census has been conducted on these tracts since 1997. This study is part of an ongoing effort to collect pre-bum data, and document the diversity of avian species utilizing this habitat. The changes in avian species present on the Harris East and Harris West plots is important to know so that the effects of shelterwood-cut forestry practices can be understood better. The data collected showed that, by changing the ...


Pricing Corn In 2000, Mike Turner Dec 1999

Pricing Corn In 2000, Mike Turner

Cornhusker Economics

Begin thinking about pricing next year抯 corn crop (2000) as an important New Year抯 Resolution. For the third consecutive year, harvest time prices may be below the cost of production for even the most efficient Nebraska producers. As a result, producers will again be obliged to combine cash receipts from the sale of corn along with government program benefits (i.e., loan deficiency payments, transition payments and potential agricultural emergency program benefits) in an attempt to cover the cost of production.


The Lin-4 Regulatory Rna Controls Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans By Blocking Lin-14 Protein Synthesis After The Initiation Of Translation, Philip Olsen, Victor Ambros Dec 1999

The Lin-4 Regulatory Rna Controls Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans By Blocking Lin-14 Protein Synthesis After The Initiation Of Translation, Philip Olsen, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

lin-4 encodes a small RNA that is complementary to sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of lin-14 mRNA and that acts to developmentally repress the accumulation of LIN-14 protein. This repression is essential for the proper timing of numerous events of Caenorhabditis elegans larval development. We have investigated the mechanism of lin-4 RNA action by examining the fate of lin-14 mRNA in vivo during the time that lin-4 RNA is expressed. Our results indicate that the rate of synthesis of lin-14 mRNA, its state of polyadenylation, its abundance in the cytoplasmic fraction, and its polysomal sedimentation profile do not ...


Vaccines And Dewormers – Do We Need Them All?, Dale M. Grotelueschen Dec 1999

Vaccines And Dewormers – Do We Need Them All?, Dale M. Grotelueschen

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Consumers are the ultimate beneficiaries of improved animal health. Costs and potential benefits from use of vaccines and dewormers affect returns to individual producers or operations as well as the beef industry as a whole. Vaccines that positively influence average daily gain, improve carcass quality, lower costs of production and improve efficiency, and that reduce treatments, decreasing reliance on antibiotics, and that decrease treatment costs contribute to success of the beef industry.

Consideration for use by individual operations often involves shorter time perspectives, especially if cattle are marketed or if products administered affect only production systems on the premises. When ...


Lifetime Effects Of Respiratory And Liver Disease On Cattle, Bill Epperson Dec 1999

Lifetime Effects Of Respiratory And Liver Disease On Cattle, Bill Epperson

Range Beef Cow Symposium

In cattle, the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are the main systems affected with disease. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) contributes the majority of illness and death loss in the feedlot segment. Historically, 15-45% of feedlot cattle have been affected with BRD, with 1-5% of total cattle placed dying of BRD (Kelly 1986). Respiratory disease, alone, accounts for 44.1% of deaths in beef feedlot cattle (Vogel 1994). Apart from death loss, the Texas Ranch to Rail Program has suggested that clinical disease (most of which is BRD), even if treated successfully, results in treatment cost ($37.90/affected), decreased average daily ...


Development Of Multibred Genetic Evaluation, Jerry Lipsey Dec 1999

Development Of Multibred Genetic Evaluation, Jerry Lipsey

Range Beef Cow Symposium

There are several important reasons the beef industry needed to develop multibreed genetic evaluation capabilities:

• Multibreed analyses procedures do a better job of evaluating breeding values of individuals with two or more breeds in their pedigree.

• This new technology provides information that more closely matches the potential genetics in current and future beef production systems.

• U.S. Beef Producers want to alternate breeds to take advantage of crossbreeding and biological type complementarity.

• The beef industry wants to utilize composite seedstock that benefit from seedstock production heterosis and provide heterosis in commercial production systems.

• The long term impact will be our ...


Factors To Consider When Buying And Managing Bulls, Ivan G. Rush, Connee Quinn Dec 1999

Factors To Consider When Buying And Managing Bulls, Ivan G. Rush, Connee Quinn

Range Beef Cow Symposium

When considering purchasing a sire price often becomes the first consideration. My father once said the most expensive bull he ever purchased was the one he bought the cheapest. If replacement heifers are retained in the herd, 80-90% of the genetic change in a herd will be made by the bull's genetic makeup. Thus, as leading ranchers know, making decisions in selecting bulls is very important. Management of the bull after he arrives at the farm or ranch is also very important. The best genetic package is of little value unless the bull is managed to serve a large ...


Consideration Of Weaning Time, Implanting Strategies And Carcass Data On Cow-Calf Decisions, Doug L. Hixon Dec 1999

Consideration Of Weaning Time, Implanting Strategies And Carcass Data On Cow-Calf Decisions, Doug L. Hixon

Range Beef Cow Symposium

As the beef industry becomes more focused on the consumer, various management practices must be evaluated to determine what lasting effects they might have on final consumer product. In the past, we have evaluated the effects of management decisions on performance and measured differences in pounds produced. However, the dynamic nature of the beef industry and the necessity for sustainability requires that we measure performance in dollars rather than pounds. I often ask students to describe their ideal beef animal in eleven words or less. I believe the answer to that question is "the one that makes the most money ...


Cow Adaptability And Carcass Acceptability – Are They Compatible?, James A. Gosey Dec 1999

Cow Adaptability And Carcass Acceptability – Are They Compatible?, James A. Gosey

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Obviously cows have to be bred to fit their environment/resource base and their progeny have to produce desirable consumer beef. However, genetic antagonisms between traits and other management factors result in mismatches that occur between optimum cow fitness and optimum carcass fitness. Fortunately the knowledge base that can be used to manage some of these mismatches has grown in recent years. Given time, effort, and commitment, a rancher can develop an action plan to produce not a perfect fit, but a profitable compromise between "cow goals" and "carcass goals".


Can Cow Adaptability And Carcass Acceptability Both Be Achieved?, R. D. Green, T. G. Field, N. S. Hammett, B. M. Ripley, S. P. Doyle Dec 1999

Can Cow Adaptability And Carcass Acceptability Both Be Achieved?, R. D. Green, T. G. Field, N. S. Hammett, B. M. Ripley, S. P. Doyle

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Over the past couple of decades, the beef cattle industry has become a confusing place to exist. Messages have been conveyed to producers at a fast and furious pace. This would not be a problem if these messages were consistent and if they were compatible with each other, yet this is far from the real situation. Daryl Tatum has been known to occasionally coin the term to describe confusion as “someone being lost in his/her own fog”. Unfortunately, this verbage very accurately describes the beef cattle production environment of the 1990s.


Enhancing Management Decisions – History Of The Decision Evaluator For The Cattle Industry, Barry Dunn, T. G. Jenkins, C. B. Williams Dec 1999

Enhancing Management Decisions – History Of The Decision Evaluator For The Cattle Industry, Barry Dunn, T. G. Jenkins, C. B. Williams

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Ranch management is the decision making process of resource allocation for a business enterprise that manages natural resources, animals and capitol to meet goals of profitability and sustainability. While this brief sentence captures the essence of ranch management, simplicity is hardly one of ranch decision-making's characteristics. The diagram in Figure 1 has been used to describe the challenge of ranch management as a web of information and complex interrelationships that influence the viability of a beef cattle enterprise. While even this diagram simplifies the complexities faced by ranchers as they grapple with decisions, it does add sensitivity and understanding.


Ranching Information On The Web, Steve Swigert Dec 1999

Ranching Information On The Web, Steve Swigert

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Each day, we are flooded with new information about different products, management practices or production procedures. To keep from missing out on the opportunities while keeping our sanity, we must become better users of information.

In the future, the use and transfer of this information will involve the use of Internet and the World Wide Web. By providing an around-the-clock link to the outside world for the user and a vast sea of information, the producer can access valuable information from any where in the world, whether they are located in northern Montana, southern Texas, or in the mountains of ...


Principles For Low Stress Cattle Handling, Temple Grandin Dec 1999

Principles For Low Stress Cattle Handling, Temple Grandin

Range Beef Cow Symposium

An understanding of animal psychology combined with well designed facilities will reduce stress on both you and your cattle. Reducing stress is important because stress reduces the ability to fight disease and weight gain. The principles discussed in this book apply to all types of grazing animals. Stress increases weight loss, damages rumen function, and can interfere with reproduction.

An animal's previous experiences will affect its stress reaction to handling. Cattle have long memories. Animals which have been handled roughly will be more stresses and difficult to handle in the future. Animals which are handled gently and have become ...


Snow Management And Windbreaks, R. L. Jairell, R. A. Schmidt Dec 1999

Snow Management And Windbreaks, R. L. Jairell, R. A. Schmidt

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Anticipating and planning for winters can save farmers and ranchers money with proper snow management and windbreaks. This paper describes tools developed by the U.S. Forest Service to control wind and blowing snow. The discussion updates reviews (Jairell and Schmidt 1989, 1991) of more detailed papers listed as references, available by request to the mailing address given at the end of the paper. Additional information is also available on the Internet at http://www-wrrc.uwyo.edu/wrds/rmfres.

Techniques for wind screening discussed here are (1) permanent livestock protection shelters, and (2) temporary, portable windscreens. Practices to control snow ...


Market Outlook And Factors That Impact Cattle Prices, Randy Blach Dec 1999

Market Outlook And Factors That Impact Cattle Prices, Randy Blach

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Content:

Cattle Number's and Meat Supply

Demand and Trade

Feedgrain

Outlook 2000

Strategies

Where’s the Profit

2001-2002 Outlook

Beef Industry Structure


Imminent Commercialization Of Sexed Bovine Sperm, J. L. Schenk, G. E. Seidel Jr. Dec 1999

Imminent Commercialization Of Sexed Bovine Sperm, J. L. Schenk, G. E. Seidel Jr.

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Cattle breeders demand products and services that improve efficiency and maximize profits. Research and development for these products, once done primarily in academic settings, now is occurring more within the private corporate sector who now fund research that was previously funded from public sources. These products often are patented and licensed to individual companies. Product availability is hastened, but sometimes at higher costs. Sex-specific sperm soon will be available to the cattle industry for use in high profile, genetically elite herds. Widespread availability of sex-specific sperm for commercial herds should follow within 2 years.

Sex-specific sperm for use with artificial ...


Ranching With Regulations, Ron Micheli Dec 1999

Ranching With Regulations, Ron Micheli

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Unfortunately, in today's world, ranchers are feeling the frustration portrayed in the above story. On a daily basis, the agriculture community is being over run by zealots from the federal government who are enforcing such things as the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, the National Environmental Protection Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and on, and on, and on. More and more time and expense are being required to deal with these issues, all the while, fears of being able to make management decisions on the ranch are being threatened.

This seems to be particularly true ...


New Approach To Estimating Bull Fertility, R. L. Ax, M. E. Bellin, H. M. Zhang, H. E. Hawkins Dec 1999

New Approach To Estimating Bull Fertility, R. L. Ax, M. E. Bellin, H. M. Zhang, H. E. Hawkins

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Breeding soundness evaluations (BSE) are conducted to qualify bulls as potential satisfactory breeders. Guidelines for acceptable measures of scrotal circumference, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and the frequency of sperm with morphological abnormalities are compiled and published by the American Society for Theriogenology (Chenoweth et al., 1992). Unfortunately, according to statistics available from USDA, only 40% of eligible bulls are subjected to a BSE. In the real world, bulls with identical outcomes in terms of physical quality of semen will still vary in actual fertility whether used for natural mating or artificial insemination (A.I).


Fence Posts Talking To Each Other, Ronald J. Hanson Dec 1999

Fence Posts Talking To Each Other, Ronald J. Hanson

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Sometimes rather simple misunderstandings as well as the stress of daily life can quite easily damage the personal relationships between family members. Too often the inability to openly share personal feelings and the failure to discuss expectations can ruin any family relationship. This is most often caused by an actual breakdown in communications between family members, especially during periods of stress (i.e. whether financial, work or even personal) when individuals withdraw or hide their emotions from each other. Juggling the current demands of ranch work, family and personal needs can become quite a challenge to anyone. Persons get so ...