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1995

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1904

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characterization Of Hybridization Between Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides And Rna In Living Cells, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Krishan L. Taneja, Robert H. Singer Dec 1995

Characterization Of Hybridization Between Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides And Rna In Living Cells, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Krishan L. Taneja, Robert H. Singer

Open Access Articles

Cells internalized synthetic oligonucleotides (oligos) in culture. The hybridization of these molecules to target RNA in the living cell was subsequently detected and characterized after fixation of the cells, with or without previous detergent extraction. Hybridized oligo was distinguished from free oligo in the cell using an in situ reverse transcription technique. This assay exploited the ability of the hybridized oligo to prime synthesis of a specific cDNA strand; unhybridized oligo present in the cell could not act as a primer for reverse transcription. Phosphorothioate and fluorochrome-labeled phosphodiester oligo dT were found to enter cells rapidly and hybridize to poly ...


Dynamic Input Demand Functions And Resource Adjustment For U.S. Agriculture: State Evidence, Perry Warjiyo, Wallace E. Huffman Dec 1995

Dynamic Input Demand Functions And Resource Adjustment For U.S. Agriculture: State Evidence, Perry Warjiyo, Wallace E. Huffman

Economic Staff Paper Series

Farmers in the developed countries do not hire their workforce or rent machinery and land afresh each day or week because it is more profitable to have longer term arrangements/contracts. Hiring/training and firing/terminating workers, searching/learning to use and refurbishing/returning machinery, and searching/learning to use and returning land to its original condition are all costs over and above a per-unit time rental rate. These costs insure that farmers* demand for most inputs depend not only on current exogenous factors but also on past use and expectations about future use. These are arguments that agricultural input ...


"Near-Organic" And "Mainstream" Crop-Livestock Production: South Dakota Case Study, Donald Taylor Dec 1995

"Near-Organic" And "Mainstream" Crop-Livestock Production: South Dakota Case Study, Donald Taylor

Economics Research Reports

In this report, results are presented of a case study on alternative strategies for producing crops and beef cattle in South Dakota. The alternative production strategies are termed "nearorganic" and "mainstream." "Near-organic" producers were defined as farmers/ranchers1 expected to substantially meet standards of private "organic" certification authorities in raising crops and livestock, whereas "mainstream" producers were defined as those who generally follow practices recommended by the S.D. Cooperative Extension Service. Four matching pairs of near-organic and mainstream case study farmers from the following locations were selected for study: Morristown in the Northwest Region, Norris in the South Central ...


Index To Volume 6, Nos. 13-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 1995

Index To Volume 6, Nos. 13-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Dec 1995

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Gifts Of Commodities To Charities, Neil Harl Dec 1995

Gifts Of Commodities To Charities, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

For farm and ranch taxpayers, gifts of commodities to charitable organizations or family members have become an attractive way to reduce self-employment tax and, for noncharitable donees, to convert what would otherwise be ordinary income into capital gain. Although two private letter rulings, one issued in 1991 and one in 1992, disapproved the gifts of soybeans to the spouses, and have dampened enthusiasm for such transfers, gifts to other family members and to charitable organizations seem to be gaining in popularity.


Nutritional Value Of Grazed Forages And How It Fits The Cow’S Requirement, Don C. Adams, Richard T. Clark, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Jerry D. Volesky Dec 1995

Nutritional Value Of Grazed Forages And How It Fits The Cow’S Requirement, Don C. Adams, Richard T. Clark, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Jerry D. Volesky

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The concept of matching nutrients available in grazed forages with nutrient requirements of the cow has been reviewed and recommended as a means to most efficiently utilize grazed forages (Valentine 1990, Vavra and Raleigh 1976). We further develop the principles and concepts necessary to improve the match between forage quality and the cow's nutrient needs and discuss potential impacts on management and production cost.


Cascading Disturbances In Florida Bay, Usa: Cyanobacteria Blooms, Sponge Mortality, And Implications For Juvenile Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Mark J. Butler Iv, John H. Hunt, William F. Herrnkind, Michael J. Childress, Rodney Bertelsen, William Sharp, Thomas Matthews, Jennifer M. Field, Harold G. Marshall Dec 1995

Cascading Disturbances In Florida Bay, Usa: Cyanobacteria Blooms, Sponge Mortality, And Implications For Juvenile Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Mark J. Butler Iv, John H. Hunt, William F. Herrnkind, Michael J. Childress, Rodney Bertelsen, William Sharp, Thomas Matthews, Jennifer M. Field, Harold G. Marshall

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Florida Bay, the shallow lagoon separating mainland Florida and the Florida Keys, USA, is experiencing an unprecedented series of ecological disturbances. In 1991, following reports of other ecosystem perturbations, we observed widespread and persistent blooms of cyanobacteria that coincided with the decimation of sponge communities over hundreds of square kilometers. Juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus, among other animals, rely on sponges for shelter; the impact of sponge loss on the abundance of lobsters and their use of shelter, in particular, has been dramatic. The loss of sponges on 27 experimental sites in hard bottom habitat in central Florida Bay ...


Keeping Employees "Positive And Pulling", John Flocchini Dec 1995

Keeping Employees "Positive And Pulling", John Flocchini

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Content:
Personal Introduction
Ranch Description
Ranch History
People
Planning Process
Benefits


The Latest Methods To Determine When To Supplement, Ted Mccollum Iii Dec 1995

The Latest Methods To Determine When To Supplement, Ted Mccollum Iii

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Because feed accounts for a significant portion of operating costs, cattlemen are always interested in getting the most out of the supplemental feed dollar. Two unwanted costs are the costs of overfeeding and the lost opportunities resulting from underfeeding.

Three keys to more efficient supplementation are (1) identifying the most appropriate supplement, (2) determining the proper amount of feed, and (3) identifying the window of opportunity for achieving the desired changes with the minimal feed input. In order to adjust a feeding program, one needs to have an estimate of the nutrient value for the forage being consumed, current cattle ...


Family Relationships And Estate Transfer – What Should And Can We Do?, Robert J. Fetsch Dec 1995

Family Relationships And Estate Transfer – What Should And Can We Do?, Robert J. Fetsch

Range Beef Cow Symposium

"How do we transfer information, values and the land to the next generation of agricultural producers?" is a question often asked. This is an especially important question today as agriculture wrestles with a complexity of stresses and strains as described by Knox (1995):

Agriculture is in the midst of a major transformation from how to produce more to how to produce more efficiently in an evermore competitive and global market. Agricultural production systems must be economically profitable, while at the same time environmentally compatible and socially acceptable. The primacy of the consumer is recognized and is driving the need to ...


Achieving Cow/Calf Profitability Through Low-Cost Production, R. E. Taylor, T. G. Field Dec 1995

Achieving Cow/Calf Profitability Through Low-Cost Production, R. E. Taylor, T. G. Field

Range Beef Cow Symposium

A few years ago a NCA task force committee made the following statement:

"Low-cost producers (in all segments of the production chain) will survive in this system of competitive markets. Others [high-cost producers] will eventually be unable to compete and will exit the business."

Initially, this pointed summary statement fell on deaf ears as cattle prices were relatively good and many producers said they couldn't reduce costs as each year their costs were increasing. Currently, the high-cost producers are exiting the cattle business or depleting assets. Other cow/calf producers have positioned or are positioning themselves as low-cost producers ...


A Rancher’S Focus On Cost Effective Management, Connie R. Quinn Dec 1995

A Rancher’S Focus On Cost Effective Management, Connie R. Quinn

Range Beef Cow Symposium

This paper focuses on profitability points which apply to the cow/calf producer. This is a challenging task and, at best, will be a restatement of the practices that are employed by any good beef producer. In today’s environment, if one has the boldness to put these points in print, it is only to reinforce the good management already being implemented and to offer ideas for other management practices that could also be employed. The merit of this exercise is to exchange ideas that can be mixed and matched with what is already being done on the ranch. The ...


Dealing With A Down-Cycle In The Cattle Market, Tom Brink Dec 1995

Dealing With A Down-Cycle In The Cattle Market, Tom Brink

Range Beef Cow Symposium

It’s no secret that the cattle market is in a down-cycle. Cattle numbers and beef supplies are on the rise. Cattle prices have declined significantly during the past two years, and will probably continue trending lower for another year or two.

Lower calf prices are creating a major cost/price squeeze for many producers in the cow/calf segment of the industry. Cattle-Fax estimates that less than 25% of U.S. cow/calf operations will be profitable in 1995. Over half of all producers will see significant red ink.


Improving Re-Breeding Through Protein Supplementation, M. K. Petersen, D. E. Hawkins, I. Tovar, L. A. Appeddu Dec 1995

Improving Re-Breeding Through Protein Supplementation, M. K. Petersen, D. E. Hawkins, I. Tovar, L. A. Appeddu

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Research conducted at Fort Robinson in 1960 and following studies have demonstrated that good body condition supports successful reproduction in both young and older cows. The recommendations from these studies have emphasized the feeding of energy to assist thin cows back into condition. However, in the extensive range conditions of the West, the ranch is intended to supply dietary energy through the range vegetation. When we look at the costs associated with calf production many ranchers have production costs above the national average. Many of these high cost producers have higher than average purchased feed costs. It would be advantageous ...


The Use Of Composite Bulls – Long Term Benefits And Challenges, James A. Gosey Dec 1995

The Use Of Composite Bulls – Long Term Benefits And Challenges, James A. Gosey

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Composite bulls won't perform magic or offset poor management but they offer a tool to help solve production/management problems and optimize production for a wide range of environments.

The impact of crossbreeding through heterosis (hybrid vigor) and utilization of breed differences (complementarity) for major traits like reproduction, calf survival, maternal ability, growth, longevity and other fitness traits is powerful. The cumulative effect of crossbreeding can increase calf weight weaned per cow exposed by 20 percent.

Conventional crossbreeding programs fall short in "management ease" because: 1) Rotations tie up several breeding pastures; thus, complicating grazing management, 2) Identification by ...


Management Factors To Decrease Health Problems In Weaned Calves, M. L. Galyean, G. C. Duff, K. J. Malcom-Callis Dec 1995

Management Factors To Decrease Health Problems In Weaned Calves, M. L. Galyean, G. C. Duff, K. J. Malcom-Callis

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Economic losses caused by morbidity and mortality from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in newly weaned/received cattle are one of the most significant problems facing the beef cattle industry. In small feedlots (100 to 1,000 animals marketed annually) throughout the United States (USDA-APHIS, 1994), death losses ranged from 1.5 to 2.7 per 100 animals marketed, with greater losses in western than in central regions of the US. Two-thirds to three-quarters of these deaths were attributed to respiratory disease (USDA-APHIS, 1994).

Two factors contribute to the high incidence of BRD in newly received, lightweight (e.g., < 400 to 500 lb) cattle. First, stresses associated with weaning and transportation negatively impact the immune system (Blecha et al., 1984) at a time when the animal is often exposed to a variety of infectious agents as a result of marketing procedures. Second, feed intake by stressed calves is typically low (Cole, 1995), averaging approximately 1.5% of BW during the first 2 wk after arrival of lightweight feeder cattle (Galyean and Hubbert, 1995). This low feed, and thereby nutrient, intake may further impair immune function (Cole, 1995). Older (e.g., yearling) cattle typically have greater intake than lightweight cattle subjected to shipping stress, although outbreaks of BRD can still be a problem in older cattle. Practices that have been used to offset these negative factors that impact the health of newly received cattle include preconditioning (Cole, 1993), on-ranch vaccination programs (Parker et al., 1993), nutritional management, and prophylactic medication. This review will emphasize nutritional and prophylactic medication approaches and their effects on performance and health of newly weaned/received beef cattle.


New Or Emerging Infectious Diseases In Cattle, Dale M. Grotelueschen Dec 1995

New Or Emerging Infectious Diseases In Cattle, Dale M. Grotelueschen

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Disease is defined as a definite process having a characteristic progression of symptoms that may affect the whole body or any of its parts. Its cause, specific effects, and outcome may or may not be known. Infectious, metabolic, toxic, deficient, genetic and traumatic causes are examples of categories fitting the definition. Infectious processes frequently receive attention due in part to their ability to spread to other animals through various means.

Infectious processes are given "new or emerging" status for various reasons. New or relatively rare entities may become prevalent. Changes in existing infectious disease characteristics have resulted in new clinical ...


Understanding Basic Mineral And Vitamin Nutrition, Larry Corah Dec 1995

Understanding Basic Mineral And Vitamin Nutrition, Larry Corah

Range Beef Cow Symposium

In a typical cow-calf operation in the Great Plains, the nutritional focus is on supplying protein and energy to the cows. That focus is appropriate since these two nutrients comprise the major portion of the annual feed cost of maintaining the cow herd. Recent concerns regarding trace mineral deficiencies has resulted in more producers now asking questions about the mineral and vitamin portion of the cow herd nutrition program.

The common sense approach to supplying minerals and vitamins to beef cows should be very similar to the one used in supplying energy and protein to the cows. In other words ...


Improving Cattle Health Through Trace Mineral Supplementation, Jerry W. Spears Dec 1995

Improving Cattle Health Through Trace Mineral Supplementation, Jerry W. Spears

Range Beef Cow Symposium

A number of trace minerals are required by beef cattle. Feeds consumed by cattle may supply most trace minerals in adequate amounts. However, some minerals may be severely or at least marginally deficient in beef cattle diets. Even marginal mineral deficiencies can reduce growth, reproduction and/or health of cattle showing few if any clinical signs of deficiency. Other trace minerals such as iron and molybdenum may be naturally present in feeds in levels high enough to reduce animal productivity.

Certain trace minerals affect immunity and may affect disease susceptibility in cattle. Selenium, copper, zinc, cobalt and iron have been ...


Strategic Alliances: Advantages And Challenges...Or What Does It Take To Turn A Marketing Concept Into A Business Practice?, Richard H. Lacey Dec 1995

Strategic Alliances: Advantages And Challenges...Or What Does It Take To Turn A Marketing Concept Into A Business Practice?, Richard H. Lacey

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The beef industry has just lost $300 per calf weaned. Industry analysts have rumored that 40% of the beef producers are currently broke and but just don’t know it yet. Bankers tell their clients that they only have two ways to keep out of debt--cut costs, and/or make more money. Simply keeping from spending--doesn’t contribute much to refilling the coffers and satisfying cash flow--therefore cowmen are left with few alternatives. Since we can’t get more for them-- we have to figure a way to get more out of them.

The first strategic alliance study challenged traditions ...


Strategic Alliances: How Can Seed Stock Producers Help?, Roger Dieter Dec 1995

Strategic Alliances: How Can Seed Stock Producers Help?, Roger Dieter

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The reason I have been invited to speak about Strategic Alliances at the Range Beef Cow Symposium is because of our involvement with a couple different Alliances the past two years. As a type of introduction I feel it may be beneficial to provide you with background information about our alliance experiences.

Our first involvement with any type of alliance format was as a participant in the Stragegic Alliance Project that was sponsored by the National Cattlemans Association in 1993. The Stragegic Alliance Project was, in part, a follow up to the National Beef Quality Audit, a project also sponsored ...


What Does The Cattle Buyer Look For In Feeder Cattle?, Robbi H. Pritchard Dec 1995

What Does The Cattle Buyer Look For In Feeder Cattle?, Robbi H. Pritchard

Range Beef Cow Symposium

This subject is steeped with opinion, prejudice and fact in a recipe similar to politics. Some issues are understood, definable and reflected in market prices. We all are aware of body weight, fill, frame, and flesh influences on price and value. Unfortunately, these four factors are inadequate for identifying as much of the profit potential differences between feeder cattle as we would like. As the industry pushes to find sources of profitable cattle, a much broader range of issues is being addressed. The motives and rationales behind these promotions deserve serious scrutiny. We need to distinguish between opinion, prejudice and ...


What Does A Commercial Producer Expect In A Strategic Alliance?, Burke Teichert Dec 1995

What Does A Commercial Producer Expect In A Strategic Alliance?, Burke Teichert

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The discussion of strategic alliances in this setting at this time in the cattle numbers and price cycle is extremely appropriate. I am honored to have been selected to speak for commercial producers regarding what we expect of strategic alliances.

While some may have a fairly concise, narrowly defined idea of what a strategic alliance is, I would prefer a less structured view. A strategic alliance could be any long-term win/win relationship between two or more independent businesses. When this happens the businesses become inter-dependent. This makes the quality and structure of the alliance very important to all parties ...


Marketing Cull Cows – How & When?, Dillon M. Feuz Dec 1995

Marketing Cull Cows – How & When?, Dillon M. Feuz

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Cull cows are often overlooked as an important source of income to the cow-calf enterprise. Depending upon the relationships between cull cow and calf prices, and the herd culling rate, cull cow receipts generally account for 15-30 percent of income from the cow-calf enterprise. However, some producers give little attention to this source of income and ways of enhancing it. For many producers, cull cows are sold at the time culling takes place, and much of this culling is done in the late fall soon after calves are weaned. Is it most profitable to sell cows when they are culled ...


Futuristic Application Of New Reproductive Technologies, Charles R. Looney Dec 1995

Futuristic Application Of New Reproductive Technologies, Charles R. Looney

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Animal reproduction has enjoyed the most impact and progress of all the animal sciences in the development of new options for cattle producers. With the development of embryo transfer (ET) in the mid-1970's, animal reproduction has entered a new era of technical achievement. During this time a strong embryo transfer industry has enjoyed new advanced techniques of estrous cycle regulation, follicular growth dynamics and improved procedures in embryology. These and other advances in molecular biology will likely lead to changes in the traditional approaches to livestock breeding and further stimulate researcher's interest in areas of genetic engineering.

The ...


Just How Important Are Carcass Epds?, Ronnie D. Green Dec 1995

Just How Important Are Carcass Epds?, Ronnie D. Green

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The National Beef Quality Audit, conducted by Colorado State, Texas A&M and Texas Tech Universities in 1992, was a "wake-up" call to the beef cattle industry. The results of the audit of the slaughter cattle population, conducted in 28 plants from across the U.S., indicated a total of some $280 in inefficiencies for each fed steer and heifer produced in the beef business. Furthermore, when these inefficiencies were categorized, it became apparent that the majority of these losses occur due to excess fat production with lower consistency in taste than desired. If the industry is to remain a ...


Time Of Weaning And Cow Condition, Jack C. Whittier Dec 1995

Time Of Weaning And Cow Condition, Jack C. Whittier

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The primary mission of a beef brood cow is to consistently produce calves. There are numerous management practices designed to assist cows in accomplishing this mission. Young cows frequently require more management attention to be reproductively successful than do older, mature cows.

In recent years attention has been focused on altering time of weaning to manipulate cow body condition as a method of maintaining high reproductive rates while also reducing winter feed requirements. If cows nurse their calves for a longer or shorter period of time than is traditional, a corresponding decrease or increase in body condition may result due ...


Reducing Calving Difficulty By Heifer And Sire Selection And Management, Gene H. Deutscher Dec 1995

Reducing Calving Difficulty By Heifer And Sire Selection And Management, Gene H. Deutscher

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Calf deaths caused by dystocia (calving difficulty) result in a $600 million annual loss to U.S. beef producers (Bellows and Short, 1994). Therefore, methods to reduce dystocia must be investigated, understood, and utilized to decrease the incidence and degree of calving difficulty. A review of early research was presented at the 1989 Range Beef Cow Symposium at Rapid City (Deutscher, 1989) indicating the major cause of dystocia in first calf heifers was a disproportion between the size of calf at birth (birth weight) and the cow's birth canal (pelvic area). A pelvic area/ birth weight ratio developed in ...


Developing Specified And Predictable Replacement Heifers, Richard (Dick) Kjerstad Dec 1995

Developing Specified And Predictable Replacement Heifers, Richard (Dick) Kjerstad

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Thank you for the invitation to participate in the Range Beef Cow Symposium XIV. I have attended some of the Symposia over the years and have found them all to be very informative and educational. I congratulate the staff of the four Universities for the contribution they give to the Beef Industry.

My family has a grain and livestock operation in western South Dakota. My wife and I have four sons, who are all involved in our operation.

Developing a cow herd that will produce specific, predictable and on-time off-spring, has always been a challenge for most ranchers.

Buying feeder ...