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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling And The Inflammatory Response During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Sarcopenic Obese Mice, Lemuel Arthur Brown

Theses and Dissertations

AIM: Sarocpenic obesity is a national concern within the United States because this metabolic syndrome is tied with reduced mobility and quality of life. Both obesity and aging are associated with insulin-resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and muscle weakness. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a process that involves the coordinated effort of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), inflammatory signaling, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling for optimal regeneration. It has been demonstrated that obesity and aging have a reduction in muscle regeneration. It has not been examined if sarcopenic obesity will further reduce muscle mass and the regenerative process. The purpose of this study ...

Long-Term Supplementation With Leucine Does Not Prevent Development Of Obesity In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet, Dameon Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Excess dietary fat consumption has been implicated in the development of obesity and diabetes. Obesity can be characterized by a disproportionate increase in fat mass compared to lean body mass. However, if muscle mass can be increased or maintained in obesity, this may facilitate weight loss by increasing the body’s overall metabolic capacity. Historically, supplementation with the branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via the protein kinase mTORC1. Recent studies suggest that supplementation with leucine also has the potential to reduce weight gain and fat deposition in high-fat fed, obese mice. The objective ...

Biochemical Changes In Animal Models Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Christine E. M. Keller Aug 2016

Biochemical Changes In Animal Models Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Christine E. M. Keller

Open Access Dissertations

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a completely preventable disease, that has profound effects on life-long health and function of the affected individual. Prevalence estimates of FASD in the United States indicate 33.5 per 1,000 live births are affected with this disorder (Roozen, 2016). FASD is caused by maternal ethanol intake during pregnancy. However, recommendations of the amounts of alcohol safe to drink during pregnancy are not established. Further, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the biochemical pathways modified in prenatal ethanol exposure. Biomarkers are also lacking. Our results demonstrate the vast array of biochemical pathways modified in ...

Aug 2016

Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila

Open Access Dissertations

Dietary fat provides essential nutrients, contributes to energy balance, and regulates blood lipid concentrations. These functions are important to health, but can also become dysregulated and contribute to diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The small intestine absorbs dietary fat through an efficient multi step process of digestion, uptake, metabolism, and secretion or storage. When dietary fat is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, it can be secreted into circulation where it contributes to blood lipid levels or temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). The objective of this dissertation is to investigate ...

Aug 2016

Innate Immunity In Chickens: In Vivo Responses To Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns, Kristen Alicia Byrne

Theses and Dissertations

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells recognize motifs known as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are common to groups of microbes. Examples include LPS on Gram-negative bacteria, the structural motif PGN common to all bacteria, MDP the smallest immunostimulatory unit of PGN, and poly I:C the dsRNA analog. PAMP recognition by and stimulation of the innate immune system is crucial to an individual’s ability to quickly limit microbial growth and stimulate the adaptive immune system. Characterization of the in vivo immune responses initiated by PAMPs has not been directly addressed. Using growing feathers (GF) as a ...

May 2016

Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar

Theses and Dissertations

The use of antibiotics in poultry growth and disease control has led to antibiotics resistant problem in human beings, which is a big concern among consumers. With the necessity for judicious use of antibiotics in poultry production, alternative strategies to improve disease resistance in poultry production are necessary. The research is more inclined towards using the natural products available to grow healthier and antibiotic free meat animals. In the context of exploring natural and sustainable resource of alternative to antibiotics, the biochemical milieu of eggshell membranes (ESM) were analyzed by using mass spectrometry techniques including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization ...

May 2016

Immune Modulating Functions By Soypeptide Lunasin In Cancer Immunotherapy, Chun-Yu Tung

Open Access Dissertations

Chemotherapy is currently the mainstay of treatment for most cancer patients. Despite its efficacy in eliminating cancer cells, a high percentage of chemotherapy patients eventually relapse or suffer progression of the disease. Immunosurveillance is capable of recognizing and eliminating continuously arising transformed mutant cells, and thus cancer immunotherapy is one of the emerging therapeutic strategies that harnesses the power of the immune system to eradicate chemotherapy-resistant cancerous cells. However, the adverse side effects of chemotherapy impede the therapeutic effects of immunotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrate that lymphoma patients are refractory to clinical immunotherapy because of chemotherapy-induced immune dysfunction. In addition ...

Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman Mar 2016

Alternative Regulation Of Myc In Lung Cancer, Patrick N. Backman

Open Access Theses

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, accounting for 27% of all cancer induced deaths1. In an attempt to create a effective targeted therapy for the treatment of lung cancer, a strategy used to treat an activated KrasG12D/+;p53 R172H/+ transgenic lung cancer mouse model was to deliver a known tumor suppressive microRNA (miRNA) to stop tumor growth. The tumor suppressive miRNA let-7 was lentivirally delivered in the form of its primary transcript, pri-let-7a-1, and resulted in increased lung size and inflammation compared to lungs exposed to a control lentivirus. It was ...

In Vivo Periodical Monitoring Of Immune Cell Infiltration In Response To Feathers And Intramuscular Injection Of Ionps Using The Pulp (Dermis) Of Growing Feathers As Test Site Tissue In Chickens, Olfat Taleb Alaamri

Theses and Dissertations

The applications of nanoparticles are growing, but little is known about their interactions with the immune system as most studies did not use suitable in vivo test systems. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the utility of chicken growing feathers as an in vivo test site for iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) interactions with the immune system. The first objective of this study was to monitor leukocyte infiltration into the growing feather pulp upon the administration of IONP and IO-mIgG preparations. The second objective was to test the utility of IONPs as vaccine adjuvants by monitoring primary and memory ...

Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez Jul 2015

Comparison Of Different Modulators That Affect Macrophage Activation In Vitro, Alda Alexa Díaz Pérez

Theses and Dissertations

Inflammation is known as a mechanism to regulate and control infections as well as promote tissue repair. Macrophages (Mф) are known to be a major cell type in the initiation, sustainability and resolution of inflammation. Moreover, Mф are essential for the remodeling process that is also known as the wound healing response. The objective of this research was to compare five modulators (acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), dexamethasone (DEX), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), iloprost, and resolvin D1 (RvD1) for their anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages in vitro. Then, Mф phenotype in terms of gene expression and secreted cytokine response was determined. Our study compared ...

Local Modulation And Measurement Of Macrophage-Derived Bioactive Proteins From Implanted Biomaterials In Rat, Geetika Bajpai

Theses and Dissertations

Fibrosis around the implanted medical devices is a severe problem that can plague long-term device reliability. Activation of macrophage phenotype (macrophage polarization) has emerged as a new and possible means for reducing fibrosis in the fields of biomaterials and regenerative medicine. Macrophages are phagocytic cells that respond to microenvironmental cues that direct their phenotype. Macrophage activation has been widely studied in mouse and human in the context of tumor biology, yet little information is available regarding how macrophage activation could be used in a biomaterials context. Further, rats rather than mice are the common subjects in biomaterials experiments. A significant ...

Inducing And Characterizing M2c Macrophages At A Non-Degradable Implant In Vivo, Geoffrey David Keeler May 2015

Inducing And Characterizing M2c Macrophages At A Non-Degradable Implant In Vivo, Geoffrey David Keeler

Theses and Dissertations

The implantation of biomaterials in the body leads to a reaction known as the foreign body response (FBR) which leads to the eventual encapsulation of the biomaterial. This encapsulation proves to be detrimental to certain biomaterials, such as implanted glucose sensors, which rely on interacting with the extracellular space for proper function. Altering the FBR has become of interest in an effort to increase the longevity and integration of biomaterials. One strategy for altering the FBR is by targeting the macrophage, shown to play an important role in the FBR. In this work, the microdialysis sampling technique was used to ...

Impacts Of Micrornas On Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis And Mitochondrial Quality, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

microRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptional modification is becoming a well-established mechanism for controlling mRNA translation. microRNAs -1, -133, and -206 are under the control of skeletal muscle promoters and affect muscle plasticity and metabolic health. A detailed review on the generation and processing of miRNAs with a view to skeletal muscle brings up intriguing connections in the transcriptional connections between multiple miRNAs. Additionally, exciting new research has defined a role of miRNAs in skeletal muscle mitochondria showing an additional, direct link to metabolic function. Multiple investigations in models of exercise, aging, hypertrophy, and injury have shown how these interventions can affect miRNA ...

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Alters Lipid Metabolism And Epithelialto- Mesenchymal Transition In Metastatic Epithelial Breast Cancer Cells, Alle Nicole Barnard

Open Access Theses

Evidence suggests that high vitamin D status (marked by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)2 D) is associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. It has been established that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) can alter glycolysis and the Krebs cycle of breast cancer cells (Jiang et al., 2010; Zheng et al., 2013) but little information is available on 1,25(OH) 2 D's alterations of lipid metabolism in breast cancer cells. Thus, the current research investigates if there was an effect of 1,25(OH) 2 D on proteins that regulate lipid metabolism in ...

Apr 2014

Neurotrophins And Their Effects On Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation And Migration, Kayla Elise Minser

Open Access Theses

Cancer is a large health issue in all parts of the world. In the United States alone, approximately 1 in 4 deaths are cancer related. Breast cancer is a particularly prevalent form, accounting for a little over 14 percent of all cancer incidence. The largest obstacle to overcome for breast cancer morbidity is metastasis. Over 90 percent of all breast cancer related deaths are due to metastasis. Because metastasis is a complex, multi-step process, it is difficult to treat. A recent observation in the Kirshner lab has revealed a type of phenotypic plasticity, where migratory cancer cells have a neuronal-like ...

Apr 2014

Pharmaceuticals And Personal Care Products: Emerging Contaminants In Aquatic Ecosystems, Jenny E. Zenobio

Open Access Theses

In recent years, the presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic systems has led to research on their fate and effects. PPCPs have been found in mixture in wastewater effluents, surface, ground, and drinking water at low concentrations from areas of intense urbanization. Although adverse effects to human health from the current environmental concentrations are unlikely, the impacts to ecological receptors are not clear. We performed field and laboratory studies to quantify and evaluate effects of PPCPs on fish. First, a field study was conducted at the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado (2010-2012) because a portion of ...

Design, Development, And Characterization Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides For Pharmaceutical Applications, Yazan H. Akkam

Theses and Dissertations

Candida species are the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infection. The increased incidence of drug-resistant Candida species has emphasized the need for new antifungal drugs. Histatin 5 is a naturally occurring human salivary antifungal peptide and the first line of defense against infections of the oral cavity. This research has focused on understanding the activity of histatin 5, and subsequently designing novel peptides that may serve as models for the further development of therapeutics to treat fungal infection.

This objective has been achieved in three steps: studying the structural requirement of histatin 5 involved in antifungal activity, the identification of ...

Dec 2012

Characterization And Epidemiology Of Soybean Vein Necrosis Associated Virus, Jing Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Soybean vein necrosis disease (SVND) is widespread in major soybean-producing areas in the U.S. The typical disease symptoms exhibit as vein clearing along the main vein, which turn into chlorosis or necrosis as season progresses. Double-stranded RNA isolation and shot gun cloning of symptomatic tissues revealed the presence of a new tospovirus, provisionally named as Soybean vein necrosis associated virus (SVNaV). The presence of the virus has been confirmed in 12 states: Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and New York. Symptomatic samples collected from eight states (AR, IL, MO, MS, KS, TN, MD and ...

Dec 2011

A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In recent studies, periodontal health has been linked to being overweight and/or obese. Among common oral bacteria, Selenomonas noxia has been implicated in converting periodontal health to disease. Selenomonas spp. have also been found in gastric ulcers, and were misdiagnosed as Helicobacter -like organisms, but no further studies were conducted. The increasing clinical and epidemiological importance of S. noxia necessitates the development of a rapid detection method. In this study, a TaqMan 16S rRNA based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was developed, optimized and evaluated for the rapid and specific detection of S. noxia . The 16S PCR assay ...

In Vitro Assessment Of The Toxicity Of Cocaine And Its Metabolites In The Human Umbilical Artery, Tessa L. Long

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An in vitro model was used to assess the effect of cocaine and its metabolites on the umbilical artery. Objectives were to pharmacologically confirm the presence of adrenergic innervation using tyramine, evaluate the ability of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine and cocaethylene to potentiate vasoconstriction by serotonin and norepinephrine, examine the ability of ketanserin to block the enhanced vasoconstriction produced by cocaine, and determine displacement of 3 H-ketanserin by serotonin, norepinephrine, tyramine and mianserin. The vasoconstrictive effect of tyramine (100 μM) was enhanced in the presence of cocaine by 257%. Vasoconstrictive effects of serotonin and norepinephrine were significantly enhanced by cocaine by ...

Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis: A Molecular Epidemiology Study, Lyndell R. Gill May 1995

Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis: A Molecular Epidemiology Study, Lyndell R. Gill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is the third-most-frequently isolated microorganism associated with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients during their stay at the Mountain Home VA Medical Center (MHVAMC). In order to develop a practical, epidemiologically-meaningful typing method for M. (B.) catarrhalis, we tested two methods based on analysis of chromosomal DNA for typeability, reproducibility, and ability to differentiate between unrelated strains (discriminatory power, D). M. (B.) catarrhalis isolants from MHVAMC from 7/1/87-6/30/88 were grown overnight in broth and embedded in agarose. DNA was isolated by standard methods. The DNA was subjected to: (1) restriction endonuclease digestion ...

Dec 1994

Factors Influencing The Oxidation Of Lipoproteins And Plasma Lipids, Yanshan Ma

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The hypothesis that antioxidant vitamins (ascorbate and tocopherols) along with urate protect blood plasma lipids from oxidation was tested. Dietary fat is also an important factor influencing plasma lipid peroxidation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of plasma antioxidants and dietary fat on low density lipoprotein (LDL) and plasma lipid oxidation. In the first part of this study, we compared the ability of urate and ascorbate to protect human LDL from in vitro oxidation. LDL oxidation was initiated by 15 mM of a water soluble azo-initiator in the presence or absence of ascorbate or urate. The ...

Characterization Of The Vasoactivity Of Tachykinins In Isolated Rat Kidney: Functional Studies And In Vitro Receptor Autoradiography, Yuejin Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Although tachykinins have potent vascular actions, their effect on renal resistance blood vessels is currently unknown. The vasoactive properties of tachykinins and related analogs were assessed in isolated perfused rat kidney. At a basal perfusion pressure (PP) of 75 $\pm$ 6 mm Hg (n = 5), bolus injections of substance P (SP) had no significant vasoactive effect. Following a sustained increase in baseline PP (134 $\pm$ 10 mm Hg) produced by phenylephrine (1 $\mu$M), SP evoked a dose-dependent increase in PP. The largest dose of SP increased PP by 60 $\pm$ 5 mm Hg. The vasoconstrictor response to SP was ...

Probing Protein-Protein Interactions Among Proteins Of A Nonaggregated Fatty Acid Synthetase From Euglena Gracilis Variety Bacillaris, Sande G. Williams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase from chloroplast nonaggregated fatty acid synthetase (FAS) of Euglena gracilis variety bacillaris was purified to a single band on a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. The enzyme was partially characterized with respect to substrate specificity, reduced nucleotide requirement, and the effect of ACP and Ca$\sp{++}$ on enzyme activity. Antibodies against the purified protein were raised in hens and isolated from eggs. ACP was purified from Euglena in yields of about 1mg/100g (wet weight) of cells. Antibodies were raised against the purified protein. ACP antibodies inhibited the Euglena chloroplast FAS using Euglena or E. coli ACP ...

May 1991

Nitrogen Dioxide Reaction With Proteins: Evidence For Peptide Bond Cleavage At Lysine Residues, Darryl B. Hood

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen dioxide (NO$\sb2$), an air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels and a component of cigarette smoke, is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases, such as emphysema. To gain information on the mechanism by which NO$\sb2$ damages the lung, in vitro exposures of $\alpha\sb1$-proteinase inhibitor ($\alpha\sb1$-PI), elastin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and synthetic poly-L-lysine were performed. A genetic deficiency of $\alpha\sb1$-PI predisposes humans to emphysema and NO$\sb2$ has been hypothesized to damage $\alpha\sb1$-PI, which would leave proteases such as human neutrophil elastase ...