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Genetics

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Evaluation Of The Bax-Vdac Interaction And Their Influence On Apoptosis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Frances Marie Gatlin May 2020

Evaluation Of The Bax-Vdac Interaction And Their Influence On Apoptosis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Frances Marie Gatlin

Honors Theses

Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is a cellular process used for development or for when cells undergo injury or stress. The Bcl2 family of proteins includes both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins that control the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Understanding the mechanisms and influence these proteins have on apoptosis is an important area of research focused on in Dr. Jones’s lab. Evidence shows a homology amongst the Bcl2 family of proteins at the BH3 domain. Dr. Jekabsons' lab has found a potential homology amongst VDAC 1-3 and the Bcl2 family at the BH3 domain.

Specifically, our lab is ...


Population Genetics Of A Recent Range Expansion By The Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus Frontalis, Into The Northeastern United States, Megan Stubbs May 2020

Population Genetics Of A Recent Range Expansion By The Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus Frontalis, Into The Northeastern United States, Megan Stubbs

Honors Theses

Population genetics as a field of study aims to determine the genetic variation among individuals in a population, and differences among populations. Certain population genetic analyses can provide such information and be used to better understand the biological aspects to a species’ expansion beyond its native range. The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, has become an invasive pest to pine forests in northeastern United States with its recent range expansion. Nine microsatellite loci were first developed and then used in analyses. To determine what the genetic variation is among individuals in SPB populations across its entire range, including ones ...


The Embark® Protocol: Dog Genomics In Genetics Laboratories, Alexandra Lyn Kissel May 2020

The Embark® Protocol: Dog Genomics In Genetics Laboratories, Alexandra Lyn Kissel

Honors Theses

In a world of ever-advancing technology, it is imperative that young pre-health professionals are educated according to the most relevant research. One of the most fundamental, foundational concepts of health is genetics. This field is rapidly expanding, and quickly engraining itself into the realm of healthcare. Genetic testing and gene therapies, once subjects of science fiction, have become commonplace. It is more important than ever that health professionals have a concrete knowledge of genetics, and this begins with the proper education of pre-health students.

With this idea in mind, a laboratory protocol was designed for students of the Bisc 336 ...


The Embark Protocol: Dog Genomics In Genetics Laboratories 5/5/2020, Alexandra Kissel May 2020

The Embark Protocol: Dog Genomics In Genetics Laboratories 5/5/2020, Alexandra Kissel

Honors Theses

In a world of ever-advancing technology, it is imperative that young pre-health professionals are educated according to the most relevant research. One of the most fundamental, foundational concepts of health is genetics. This field is rapidly expanding, and quickly engraining itself into the realm of healthcare. Genetic testing and gene therapies, once subjects of science fiction, have become commonplace. It is more important than ever that health professionals have a concrete knowledge of genetics, and this begins with the proper education of pre-health students.

With this idea in mind, a laboratory protocol was designed for students of the Bisc 336 ...


Advanced Phenotyping Of Otosclerosis In An Ontario Population And Two Large Newfoundland Families, Matthew B. Lucas Apr 2020

Advanced Phenotyping Of Otosclerosis In An Ontario Population And Two Large Newfoundland Families, Matthew B. Lucas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Otosclerosis is a relatively common hearing loss disorder characterized by abnormal bone growth in the otic capsule leading to stapes fixation. In approximately half of cases, otosclerosis is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Typically, gene discovery efforts rely on surgical confirmation, audiometry and occasionally acoustic reflexes to identify affected cases of otosclerosis within families, requiring that the otosclerosis was at an advanced stage to be detected. This makes it difficult to identify individuals with early otosclerosis. The use of advanced phenotyping to identify cases of otosclerosis was tested in an Ontario otosclerotic population as well as in two large ...


Genetic And Functional Approaches To Understanding Autoimmune And Inflammatory Pathologies, Abbas Raza Jan 2020

Genetic And Functional Approaches To Understanding Autoimmune And Inflammatory Pathologies, Abbas Raza

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Our understanding of genetic predisposition to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has been enhanced by large scale quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, the resolution and interpretation of QTL linkage mapping or GWAS findings are limited. In this work, we complement genetic predictions for several human diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) and systemic capillary leakage syndrome (SCLS) with genetic and functional data in model organisms to associate genes with phenotypes and diseases.

Focusing on MS, an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), we experimentally tested the effect of three of the GWAS ...


Optimization And Validation Of The Neurolux Wireless Optoelectronics System For Optogenetics, Karis Courey, Su Hyun Lee Ph.D., Adam Smith Ph.D., Nicholas Cilz Ph.D., Sarah K. Williams Avram Ph.D., Adi Cymerblit-Sabba Ph.D., June Song, Nicholas Leipzig Ph.D., W. Scott Young M.D., Ph.D. Jan 2020

Optimization And Validation Of The Neurolux Wireless Optoelectronics System For Optogenetics, Karis Courey, Su Hyun Lee Ph.D., Adam Smith Ph.D., Nicholas Cilz Ph.D., Sarah K. Williams Avram Ph.D., Adi Cymerblit-Sabba Ph.D., June Song, Nicholas Leipzig Ph.D., W. Scott Young M.D., Ph.D.

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Utilizing light and genetic engineering, optogenetics permits the manipulation of events within cells via light using the light-sensitive properties of single-component microbial opsins. Microbial opsins are activated by a light source, such as lasers, light-emitting diodes, and incandescent sources that deliver light to the region of interest either directly or indirectly, such as through fiberoptics. In classical in vivo optogenetics, the wiring of optic fibers necessitates tethering of animals by the optic fiber to the light source. The novel NeuroLux wireless optoelectronic system for optogenetics circumvents issues pertaining to classical optogenetics by utilizing near-field power transfer via magnetic coil antennae ...


The Effects Of Internal Physiology On Polyphenic Horn Development In The Dung Beetle Onthophagus Taurus, Naomi Garrett Williamson Jan 2020

The Effects Of Internal Physiology On Polyphenic Horn Development In The Dung Beetle Onthophagus Taurus, Naomi Garrett Williamson

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

An organism’s phenotype can be affected in development by alterations to gene expression based on environmental inputs. Nutrition is one such environmental input and the central regulator of development of large horn or small horn phenotypes in the dung beetle species, Onthophagus taurus. However, little is known about the nature of chemical compounds that are critical to this plastic horn development. To better understand these compounds, we are utilizing an untargeted metabolomic approach as well as a targeted gene approach. Through the metabolomic approach, it was uncovered that environmental conditions tend to have a greater impact on metabolomic composition ...


Impact Of Sire Selection And Breed On Parasite Resistance In Sheep, Andrew Ryan Weaver Jan 2020

Impact Of Sire Selection And Breed On Parasite Resistance In Sheep, Andrew Ryan Weaver

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Selection within and among breeds are strategies to mitigate the impact of parasitism given failing chemotherapeutics. While Texels have improved marketability compared to other parasite-resistant breeds, the mechanism by which Texels reduce fecal egg count (FEC) is unclear. The immune response to Haemonchus contortus (Hc) was compared in Texel, parasite-resistant St. Croix, and parasite-susceptible Suffolk sheep. Adult worms exposed to St. Croix- and Texel-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum in vitro had greater binding around the reproductive structures than Suffolk and worm egg release tended to be affected by breed (P = 0.09). Resistance in Texels may be caused ...


Chasing The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers Using Whole Genome Resequencing, Alia Parveen Dec 2019

Chasing The Genetics Of Ascites In Broilers Using Whole Genome Resequencing, Alia Parveen

Theses and Dissertations

We are using whole genome resequencing to identify chromosomal regions associated with resistance or susceptibility to ascites, a form of pulmonary hypertension syndrome, meat-type chickens. Previous Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have identified regions on chromosomes 2, 9 and Z. Despite several GWAS and further genotyping, there are no reliable or potential markers for ascites phenotype. We have completed screening of Copy Number Variations (CNVs) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in ascites resistant and susceptible birds from the relaxed, REL, line derived from a commercial elite broiler line. DNA samples from resistant and susceptible birds ...


The Effects Of Foot And Udder Scoring On Cow And Calf Performance, Clayton Lee Mcguire Dec 2019

The Effects Of Foot And Udder Scoring On Cow And Calf Performance, Clayton Lee Mcguire

Theses and Dissertations

Foot soundness and udder conformation are essential for longevity in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foot angle (FA), claw set (CS), teat size (TS) and udder suspension (US) scores on cowherd performance. Data were analyzed for 1,685 observations on Angus-based cows over a four-year period. At weaning FA, CS, TS, and US were evaluated. Scores are based on nine-point scales. A score of one indicates straight pasterns, divergent toes, enlarged bottle shaped teats, and absence of a median suspensory ligament; nine indicates weak pasterns, curled toes, small symmetrical teats, and a ...


Investigating Growth Performance And Intestinal Barrier Integrity In Heat-Stressed Modern Broilers And Their Ancestor Jungle Fowl, Travis Tabler Dec 2019

Investigating Growth Performance And Intestinal Barrier Integrity In Heat-Stressed Modern Broilers And Their Ancestor Jungle Fowl, Travis Tabler

Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) has a negative effect on poultry production sustainability due to its adverse consequence on bird welfare, health, growth, and mortality. Although modern broilers have greater gut mass and higher energy use efficiency than unselected birds, they are more vulnerable to HS that induces “leaky gut syndrome,” or increased intestinal permeability. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of HS on growth performance and gut barrier integrity in three modern broiler lines and their ancestor the Jungle Fowl. Four chicken populations including Giant Jungle Fowl (JF), Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB), 1995 Arkansas Random ...


Genetic Crosstalk And Its Effects On Virulence And Mating In Ustilago Maydis., John S. Desmarais May 2019

Genetic Crosstalk And Its Effects On Virulence And Mating In Ustilago Maydis., John S. Desmarais

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Ustilago maydis is a model organism for study of fungal mating and host infection. Two compatible haploid mating types must mate to form a dikaryon in order for the fungus to infect its host, corn (Zea mays). There are a variety of genetic mechanisms that regulate mating and infection in the fungus, many of which coregulate both processes. The aim of this study was to investigate how alteration of certain regulatory proteins in U. maydis affects these basic processes as well as how alteration of genes involved in signaling pathways can affect the expression of one another. Primarily, the focus ...


Identifying Pathogenic Variants In Hereditary Cancer Syndrome Genes Via Tumor Molecular Profiling, Carol Nowlen May 2019

Identifying Pathogenic Variants In Hereditary Cancer Syndrome Genes Via Tumor Molecular Profiling, Carol Nowlen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tumor molecular profiling is often performed in order to direct cancer treatment options. However, because many of the genes analyzed on tumor molecular profiling overlap with genes known to be associated in the germline with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes, tumor molecular profiling can unknowingly uncover germline predisposition to cancer development. In this study, we determined the number of patients with pathogenic variants (PVs) identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) via tumor molecular profiling at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, then performed a retrospective chart review to determine the proportion of such patients that received germline testing ...


Computational Strategies To Investigate The Genetic Cause Of Human Eye Disease, Wesley Andrew Goar May 2019

Computational Strategies To Investigate The Genetic Cause Of Human Eye Disease, Wesley Andrew Goar

Theses and Dissertations

It is estimated that 4000 genetic diseases/syndromes affect humans with one third of these diseases involving the eye. Many eye disorders, such as age-related macular degeneration that affects an estimated 170 million elderly adults worldwide, are associated with genetic variants. Since the conception of the human genome project we have learned a great deal about the genetic make-up of the human race and have identified over ~20,000 genes. Over 270 of these genes have been implicated in retinal diseases alone with many more genes involved in other forms of ocular disease. Though we have made a great deal ...


The Role Of T-Cell Lymphoma Invasion And Metastasis 2 (Tiam2) In The Barrier Function Of Mammary Epithelial Cells Following Streptococcus Uberis Inoculation, Catherine E. Donnell May 2019

The Role Of T-Cell Lymphoma Invasion And Metastasis 2 (Tiam2) In The Barrier Function Of Mammary Epithelial Cells Following Streptococcus Uberis Inoculation, Catherine E. Donnell

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Using Genetic Diversity To Understand Susceptibility To Cognitive Decline In Aging And Alzheimer’S Disease, Sarah M. Neuner May 2019

Using Genetic Diversity To Understand Susceptibility To Cognitive Decline In Aging And Alzheimer’S Disease, Sarah M. Neuner

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

An individual's genetic makeup plays an important role in determining susceptibility to cognitive aging and transition to dementia such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identifying the specific genetic variants that contribute to cognitive aging and AD may aid in early diagnosis of at-risk patients, as well as identify novel therapeutics targets to treat or prevent development of symptoms. Challenges to identifying these specific genes in human studies include complex genetics, difficulty in controlling environmental factors, and limited access to human brain tissue. Here, we turned to genetically diverse mice from the BXD genetic reference panel (GRP) to overcome some ...


X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston Apr 2019

X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston

Thinking Matters Symposium Archive

To prevent abnormal development caused by expressing both X chromosomes, female mammals inactivate one of their X chromosomes using an epigenetic process called dosage compensation. This literature review examines how X chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs during the formation and development of an embryo. This condensation of DNA is marked by histone tail modifications, DNA methylation, and the arrival of structural proteins resulting in extraordinarily stable heterochromatin. X-inactivation is regulated in cis by the X-inactivation center (Xic) that contains the Xist gene and its antisense gene, Tsix. On one X chromosome, Xist RNA is expressed and coats the center of the ...


The Influence Of Stressful Life Events On The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes, Joshua Minks Mar 2019

The Influence Of Stressful Life Events On The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes, Joshua Minks

Dissertations

This study examined the relationship between distress and the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the presence of established risk factors. Distress secondary to mental health disparities, stressful life events, and work conditions has been shown to promote insulin resistance and the development of T2DM.

Subjects (N=79) diagnosed with T2DM within the previous six months were recruited from SSM Health Centers and VA Medical Centers in the greater St. Louis area. They completed the Recent Life Changes Questionnaire, ENRICHD Social Support Instrument, and a demographic survey and analyses were conducted to determine differences between the veteran and ...


Phylogenetic History Of The Amy Gene Cluster In Catarrhines, Christian M. Gagnon Feb 2019

Phylogenetic History Of The Amy Gene Cluster In Catarrhines, Christian M. Gagnon

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study phylogenetically analyzed 30 AMY-related genes from 11 primates. The results show the gradual expansion of the AMY gene family which could have allowed primates to adapt to various ecological landscapes and maximize energy intake from starch-rich foods in periods of food scarcity.


A Trio Of Sigma Factors Control Hormogonium Development In Nostoc Punctiforme, Alfonso Gonzalez Jr. Jan 2019

A Trio Of Sigma Factors Control Hormogonium Development In Nostoc Punctiforme, Alfonso Gonzalez Jr.

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, and for many species, nitrogen fixation, giving cyanobacteria an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Furthermore, multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria are developmentally complex, capable of differentiation into different cell types, including cells capable of nitrogen fixation and cells for motility, making them an ideal platform for studying development, as well as for practical use in biotechnology. Understanding how developmental programmes are activated require an understanding of the role of alternative sigma factors, which are required for transcriptional activation in bacteria. In order to investigate the gene regulatory network and to determine the ...


Genetic Insights Into Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults, Rajashree Mishra Jan 2019

Genetic Insights Into Latent Autoimmune Diabetes In Adults, Rajashree Mishra

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

‘Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults’ (LADA) is a controversial subtype of diabetes characterized by initial insulin independency and the presence of diabetes associated autoantibodies. As a result, LADA is often misclassified and can represent 5-10% of apparent type 2 diabetes (T2D) cases and is potentially more prevalent than childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). Despite LADA sharing features with the two better characterized classic diabetes subtypes, the genetic etiology of LADA remains largely unknown. Once there is a more accurate definition of LADA, there will be an improvement in diabetes classification and consequently better treatment and therapeutic interventions. The objective of ...


Genotyping For Response To Physical Training, Stacy Simmons Jan 2019

Genotyping For Response To Physical Training, Stacy Simmons

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the inter-individual variability in physical fitness performance has been the focus of scientific research for decades especially in the United States military. Injury and physical inadequacy cost the U.S military millions of dollars every year. The project PHITE (Precision High Intensity Training through Epigenetics) was funded to investigate this personal complex trait by combing the genetic and epigenetic (non-shared environmental factors) contributions into a single model for physical training response. This project is set up as having 150 male and female recruits between the ages of 18-27 years old. Each participant is randomly put blind into either a ...


Crispr-Cas Technology For Plant Breeding, Tiffani Hull Jan 2019

Crispr-Cas Technology For Plant Breeding, Tiffani Hull

Creative Components

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, or CRISPR, is a relatively new gene-editing technology that has the possibility of making a large impact to plant breeding. This paper will introduce how the CRIPSR system works, and will give a few examples of how the technology is currently being used in plant breeding. It will also look at the current regulatory systems and how that might affect the use of CRISPR technology in our food system. Finally, this paper will look at consumer acceptance of GMOs; how GMOs have been perceived in the past, and what learnings we can take as ...


Tiger Monitoring In Bhutan Using Non-Invasive Genetic Tools, Tashi Dhendup Jan 2019

Tiger Monitoring In Bhutan Using Non-Invasive Genetic Tools, Tashi Dhendup

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Large carnivores are one of the most threatened group of animals in the world. They suffer from prey depletion, persecution by humans, and habitat loss and fragmentation which are extensively driven by anthropogenic activities. One such species is the tiger Panthera tigris. Tigers are found in thirteen countries in Asia and are protected across the range; however, tiger numbers have declined as an after effect of habitat loss, prey depletion and poaching. Human-induced changes have reduced the tiger's historical range to about 7% in which a little more than 3900 tigers are found. Most of these individuals currently exist ...


Genome-Wide Systems Genetics Of Alcohol Consumption And Dependence, Kristin Mignogna Jan 2019

Genome-Wide Systems Genetics Of Alcohol Consumption And Dependence, Kristin Mignogna

Theses and Dissertations

Widely effective treatment for alcohol use disorder is not yet available, because the exact biological mechanisms that underlie this disorder are not completely understood. One way to gain a better understanding of these mechanisms is to examine the genetic frameworks that contribute to the risk for developing this disorder. This dissertation examines genetic association data in combination with gene expression networks in the brain to identify functional groups of genes associated with alcohol consumption and dependence.

The first study took advantage of the behavioral complexity of human samples, and experimental capabilities provided by mouse models, by co-analyzing gene expression networks ...


Associations Between Income, Acculturation, Country Of Origin, And Type Ii Diabetes Among African Immigrants To Ontario, Canada, Girma Aman Goshe Jan 2019

Associations Between Income, Acculturation, Country Of Origin, And Type Ii Diabetes Among African Immigrants To Ontario, Canada, Girma Aman Goshe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Diabetes has become a longstanding public health challenge around the world. Over the last 3 decades, the number of people with Type II diabetes (T2DM) has grown to an epidemic level in Canada. Prior research indicated African immigrants residing in Ontario, Canada experienced a 2-4 times higher prevalence of T2DM than Canadian-born individuals. The social determinants of health theoretical framework guided this study assessing the relationship of the risk factors with T2DM. A quantitative, cross-sectional design was employed using the 2007-2014 Canadian Community Health Survey data. The random sample included 1,526 African immigrants residing in Ontario, Canada. Descriptive, bivariate ...


Evidence-Based Practice Self-Study Education Program For Staff Nurses On Genomics, Nancy L. Norman-Marzella Jan 2019

Evidence-Based Practice Self-Study Education Program For Staff Nurses On Genomics, Nancy L. Norman-Marzella

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Nurses routinely obtain genomic data when collecting family health histories. However, they report low confidence in their knowledge and understanding of genomics and the genetically engineered medications prescribed for their patients. The purpose of this project was the development and implementation of an evidence-based online education program about genetics and genomics to increase the nurses' understanding and ability to provide competent care for their patients receiving treatments based on the science of genomics. Knowles's principles of adult learning theory guided the development and delivery of the online education project to 12 medical-surgical registered nurses employed in a hospital in ...


Endogenous Gene Tagging Of Pfr2 And Pfr5 In Trypanosoma Cruzi Using Crispr/Cas9, Naomi Bryant Jan 2019

Endogenous Gene Tagging Of Pfr2 And Pfr5 In Trypanosoma Cruzi Using Crispr/Cas9, Naomi Bryant

All Master's Theses

The flagellum of Trypanosoma cruzi contains the paraflagellar rod (PFR) an extra-axonemal scaffolding. The PFR consists of a lattice of cytoskeletal filaments that lies alongside the (9 + 2) microtubular axoneme, beginning at the flagellar pocket and extending to the flagellar tip. The PFR has only been observed within the phylums Euglenozoa and Dinoflagellata, although many eukaryotic organisms with long flagella have extra-axonemal structures that accommodate enzymes and regulatory proteins along with serving as scaffolding. The exact function and basic molecular composition of the PFR has yet to be determined although the major structural components, PFR1 and PFR2 and several minor ...


Evaluation Of Genetic And Environmental Influences On Broiler Meat Quality, Sara Katherine Orlowski Dec 2018

Evaluation Of Genetic And Environmental Influences On Broiler Meat Quality, Sara Katherine Orlowski

Theses and Dissertations

The effect of both genetic and environmental influences on broiler meat quality were evaluated over three experiments. Selection response was assessed for broiler lines selected for high (HBY4) and low (LBY4) four day percentage breast yield which were formed from a random bred control (RAN). A modern random bred population (MRB) created in 2015 was evaluated for differences in 4 day percentage breast yield and the resulting differences in the incidence and severity of the woody breast and white striping myopathies. Additionally, the use of embryonic thermal manipulation to impact cell division and early caloric feed restriction to slow growth ...