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Biology

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Population Genetics Of A Recent Range Expansion By The Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus Frontalis, Into The Northeastern United States, Megan Stubbs May 2020

Population Genetics Of A Recent Range Expansion By The Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus Frontalis, Into The Northeastern United States, Megan Stubbs

Honors Theses

Population genetics as a field of study aims to determine the genetic variation among individuals in a population, and differences among populations. Certain population genetic analyses can provide such information and be used to better understand the biological aspects to a species’ expansion beyond its native range. The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, has become an invasive pest to pine forests in northeastern United States with its recent range expansion. Nine microsatellite loci were first developed and then used in analyses. To determine what the genetic variation is among individuals in SPB populations across its entire range, including ones ...


An Investigation Of The Impacts Of Traditional, Virtual, And Hybrid Biological Laboratories On College Students’ Achievement And Motivation To Learn Biology, Shavonda Jackson Apr 2020

An Investigation Of The Impacts Of Traditional, Virtual, And Hybrid Biological Laboratories On College Students’ Achievement And Motivation To Learn Biology, Shavonda Jackson

Dissertations

Virtual courses function in a different manner than traditional courses, therefore they require teaching methods and assessment techniques geared specifically to maximize this learning experience. Internet-based learning and distance-education are no longer new concepts in the science field. Because of this, many collegiate biology programs have created courses that can be taken virtual or hybrid. A number of experimental studies have had great influence in terms of the effects and impacts of educational technology in relation to virtual laboratories.

However, not many studies emphasize the impact of hybrid laboratories on student achievement or assess students’ motivation to learn in a ...


Floral Trait Architecture In Crop Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) Under Drought Conditions, Lauren Segarra Jan 2020

Floral Trait Architecture In Crop Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) Under Drought Conditions, Lauren Segarra

All Master's Theses

Longer and more intense droughts are predicted to become more common in the coming century due to anthropogenic climate change. Drought can reduce crop yield and decrease food security. In order to mitigate the negative effects of drought on crop production, it is important to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that promote drought stress resistance in crop plants. Floral traits impact yield, especially in oilseed crops such as sunflower (Helianthus annuus), but their susceptibility to drought stress is understudied. The goal of this study was to describe the floral trait architecture of H. annuus crop lines under drought versus well-watered conditions ...


Biology Of Binge Eating Related Disorders And Proposal For Integration Into Treatment, Karlyne Morawe Jan 2020

Biology Of Binge Eating Related Disorders And Proposal For Integration Into Treatment, Karlyne Morawe

Graduate School of Professional Psychology: Doctoral Papers and Masters Projects

The concerningly low recovery and high cross over rates of eating disorders with binge eating behaviors suggests there might be a missing element in current treatment approaches commonly used to address eating disorders. Research supports the existence of significant biological correlation between disorders that are characterized by binge eating behaviors. This paper examines some of the biological processes in which these disorders show the most significant correlations. These include the organism’s response to caloric restriction, the brain’s response to feeding, the biological drive for reproduction, sensory association to feeding, and habituated responding to the feeding process. Additionally, we ...


Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal Jan 2020

Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Here I characterized the central neuroanatomy of the Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus striatus, native to French Polynesia. The neuroanatomy of E. striatus has not been studied prior to this paper. I used several histology and antibody staining techniques to accomplish this, including Crystal Violet, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Bielschowsky’s Silver Nitrate staining. This paper describes the most successful techniques used, identifies major structures in the species’ neuroanatomy, and also explains why studying E. striatus is important in the future of vertebrate research.


Brown Booby Family Units: Comparing Mothers, Fathers, And Chicks Through Stable Isotopes, Erin Taylor Jan 2020

Brown Booby Family Units: Comparing Mothers, Fathers, And Chicks Through Stable Isotopes, Erin Taylor

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Seabird behavior and diet is important to study in order to determine where to focus conservation efforts in a rapidly changing climate. A primary aim of my project is to understand how brown booby family members from a breeding colony on Islas Marietas, Mexico relate to each other isotopically and in terms of their diet. Comparing the family units (mother, father, and chick from the same nest) of these seabirds and sex trends overall will help develop the big picture to determine the best conservation efforts for this species. I also aim to improve our ability to compare seabird plasma ...


The Evolution Of Dragons, Laura J. Mayfield Jan 2020

The Evolution Of Dragons, Laura J. Mayfield

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Dragons have been depicted in human art as early as 4500 BCE. For centuries, these fantasy creatures have inspired countless folk and fantasy tales, as well as appearing in the art of different cultures around the world. Now there are thousands of different depictions of these huge, flying, fire-breathing lizards, but are any of them possible? In this study, I reference peer-reviewed scientific articles, phylogenetic analysis, and paleoart studies to create biologically-sound dragons. Basing the dragon lineage on a real branch of webbed-winged scansoriopterygids—an extinct family of climbing and gliding maniraptoran dinosaurs—I explored the possible wing-structure, fire-breathing abilities ...


Influenza: The Changes To The Flu Season, Kara Fonseca Dec 2019

Influenza: The Changes To The Flu Season, Kara Fonseca

Honors Theses

In this paper, the changes in flu season were examined. Additionally, reasons for changes to the flu season were explored. Data gathered from the Influenza Research Database was used to form graphs that show the changes in influenza cases yearly from 2008-2009 flu season to the 2018-2019 flu season in Massachusetts. A background for H1N1 and H3N2 including the difference between neuraminidase (N) and hemagglutinin (H), the excepted current timeline of flu season is provided. There are a number of factors that play a role in the changing flu season length, such as vaccination rates, effectiveness of that particular year ...


Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding Dec 2019

Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Belize is a small country, but it is extremely ecologically diverse. Based on the few studies conducted in Belize, the abundance of mammals is low but diversity is high. Particular findings note the number and identity of species differed between four sites in the Maya Mountains of Belize, indicating that a data set from a single site is not representative of the Neotropical region. Insufficient data is available to estimate current species richness of many areas in Belize, including Billy Barquedier National Park (BBNP). The objective of this study was to explore trapping and documentation methods of terrestrial mammals in ...


Exploring Secondary Structure In Bacteriophage Programmed Frameshift Elements, Samuel Okabayashi, Sean Mcclory Nov 2019

Exploring Secondary Structure In Bacteriophage Programmed Frameshift Elements, Samuel Okabayashi, Sean Mcclory

HON499 projects

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and reproduce using host bacterial components. Part of the bacteriophage reproduction is assembly of the tail complex, which requires two assembly chaperone (TAC) proteins. In many phages the TAC’s are produced from a single gene through a non-canonical process called programmed translational frameshifting (PTF). The SEA-PHAGES program has produced hundreds of TAC genes that are accessible through phagesdb, a database of sequenced and annotated phage genomes. The sequences for the TAC gene were gathered from phagesdb and analyzed using ClustalOmega; a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) tool which revealed several positions where total conservation ...


Study Of Blood Viscosity With Added Sodium Nitrate And Temperature Variance: A Potential Therapy To Regulate Blood Flow After Induced Hypothermia, Brianna Munnich Jul 2019

Study Of Blood Viscosity With Added Sodium Nitrate And Temperature Variance: A Potential Therapy To Regulate Blood Flow After Induced Hypothermia, Brianna Munnich

Pence-Boyce STEM Student Scholarship

The human body has natural systems for vasodilation which are fueled by nitric oxide production, but in cases of cardiac disfunction and stress nitric oxide can be inhibited. In this study, nitric oxide was studied as a mediator for the blood rush experienced from the warming after induced hypothermia. Nitric oxide (NO) was introduced through sodium nitrate, which was aimed to reduce the speed and turbulence of blood flow through interaction between NO and the active site of hemoglobin. A viscometer was used to examine the rate of blood flow, while the temperature was varied to simulate the conditions of ...


Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore May 2019

Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The largest U.S. cancer health disparity exists in prostate cancer, with African American men having the highest incidence and mortality rates. The present study evaluated the effects of ZIC2 and the underlying mechanisms in the E006 parental African-American cell line that produces tumors at accelerated growth rates because of the increase of ZIC2 genes in African-American males. We analyzed the experimental research that the overexpression of ZIC2 contributes to progression of prostate cancer. E006AA cells with overexpressed or suppressed ZIC2 were analyzed to determine phenotypic differences, PCR, cell proliferation and immunoblot assays. The expression levels of ZIC2 were analyzed ...


A Review Of The Global Commercial Cephalopod Fishery, With A Focus On Apparent Expansion, Changing Environments, And Management, Corey Clark May 2019

A Review Of The Global Commercial Cephalopod Fishery, With A Focus On Apparent Expansion, Changing Environments, And Management, Corey Clark

HCNSO Student Capstones

Cephalopods are both important predators and prey in many marine environments and important fishery resources in many countries. The global fishery has expanded almost continuously from landings of 580,000 metric tonnes in 1950 to over 4 m.t. in 2007. Cephalopods are ecological opportunists with highly plastic biological characteristics and varied population dynamics. Nearly all commercially harvested species are short-lived and can reproduce quickly, enabling them to evolve more rapidly under high selection pressure relative to many fish competitors and predators. As a result, they may have the biological means to be successful under conditions of long-term global climate ...


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia From The Perspective Of Immune Cells: A Book To Help Children Understand Cancer, Irune Aparicio May 2019

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia From The Perspective Of Immune Cells: A Book To Help Children Understand Cancer, Irune Aparicio

Honors Theses

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer. According to the American Cancer Society 3 out of 4 childhood leukemia cases are ALL, and the main treatment for these patients is chemotherapy. There are various tools that doctors and nurses use in order to effectively communicate with these young patients and their families about what this type of leukemia is, and what chemotherapy will do in order to help. There are children’s books on cancer, but they are mostly coping aids or answer general questions. My children’s e-book however invites the young reader (6 ...


Dueling Decapods: Observing Aggression Levels In One-On-One Interactions Between The European Green Crab Carcinus Maenus And The Asian Shore Crab Hemigrapsus Sanguineus In The Gulf Of Maine, Caitlyn Wilkins May 2019

Dueling Decapods: Observing Aggression Levels In One-On-One Interactions Between The European Green Crab Carcinus Maenus And The Asian Shore Crab Hemigrapsus Sanguineus In The Gulf Of Maine, Caitlyn Wilkins

Honors Theses

European green crabs Carcinus maenus have invaded the shores of the Gulf of Maine since the early 1800’s, devastating native crab populations in the sandy shores and rocky intertidal zones. In the early 2000’s the Asian Shore Crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus was introduced to the Gulf of Maine, and has since dominated rocky intertidal zones, overtaking the green crab populations in those areas. A study performed at the Cat Cove Marine Lab at Salem State University looked into the level of aggressive behavior between these crab species. An individual of each species was introduced into a round glass arena ...


The Role Of Oxytocin On Social Behavior Associated With The Formation Of A Social Pair-Bond In The Socially Monogamous Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania Nigrofasciata), Christopher Garcia May 2019

The Role Of Oxytocin On Social Behavior Associated With The Formation Of A Social Pair-Bond In The Socially Monogamous Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania Nigrofasciata), Christopher Garcia

Graduate Theses

The mechanisms for monogamy have evolved several times throughout history across various taxa in accordance with selective pressures. In vertebrates, monogamy is facilitated by the formation and the maintenance of social pair-bonds between mates. Social pair-bonds are a form of selective attachment that require complex neurobiological pathways in order to develop and continue. These neurobiological pathways are often regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms, such as the release of the two neuroendocrine nonapeptides, oxytocin and arginine vasopressin, in specific parts of the brain or body. These neuroendocrine peptides play a big role in social and sexual behaviors. In prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster ...


Isolation And Characterization Mutants Defective In Cilia Regeneration In Chlamydomonas Reindhartii, Ellen Acheampong May 2019

Isolation And Characterization Mutants Defective In Cilia Regeneration In Chlamydomonas Reindhartii, Ellen Acheampong

Honors Theses

Cilia and flagella are identical brush-like organelles found on the surfaces of eukaryotic cells and are involved in motility, sensing, and signaling. Defects in cilia assembly or function lead to polycystic kidney disease, congenital heart disease, Bardet Biedl syndrome, and other emerging ciliopathies. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, one of the most well-studied flagella model organisms, regeneration of flagella to normal length and normal function occurs within 90 minutes of acid-shock deflagellation. During this process hundreds of genes are induced. Much is left to be determined about how cells regulate expression of these genes: How do cells detect the presence or absence ...


Understanding The Human Immune System: The Power That Influences The Endurance Of The Species, Jordan Cierpich May 2019

Understanding The Human Immune System: The Power That Influences The Endurance Of The Species, Jordan Cierpich

Honors Theses

Evolution has influenced the human immune system and allowed our species to endure amidst numerous plagues, but also to coexist with ubiquitous microbial symbionts on the human animal. Estimates of the ratio of human cells to resident microbial cells in the human body range from 1:1 to 1:10, and within the numerous bacterial species that exist, only a small percentage are pathogenic. The work of the 2018 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine allowed for the production of new tools to understand how to stimulate the immune system to fight cancerous cells; human cells gone ‘rogue’, through ...


Effects Of Low Ph Water On European Green Crabs (Carcinus Maenas): An Assessment Of Survival And Post-Ecdysis Cuticle Properties, Santiago Pineda May 2019

Effects Of Low Ph Water On European Green Crabs (Carcinus Maenas): An Assessment Of Survival And Post-Ecdysis Cuticle Properties, Santiago Pineda

Honors Theses

Excess of carbon emissions drives not only global warming but also ocean acidification (OA). In addition to that, it has been established that OA negatively affects a variety of organisms that depend on calcium carbonate to build their shells. However, the effects of low pH water on crustaceans is not well understood. These marine organisms do not rely exclusively on calcium carbonate to build their carapaces, which are also composed of a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds. In this study, the effects of low pH water on the carapaces of European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) as well as ...


An Evaluation Of Elemental Composition Of Soils Associated With Ground Nesting Ants In The Family Formicidae In Somerset County, Maine, Haley H. Depner Apr 2019

An Evaluation Of Elemental Composition Of Soils Associated With Ground Nesting Ants In The Family Formicidae In Somerset County, Maine, Haley H. Depner

All Theses & Dissertations

Ants are keystone organisms and engineers in many ecosystems, playing an important role in nutrient cycling and rearrangement of organic and inorganic materials through foraging, waste management and, in subterranean species, nest construction and maintenance. In this study, I conducted elemental analysis of soils for calcium, copper, iron, potassium, manganese and zinc in and around the colonies of subterranean nesting ants. The two-step analysis used in this study utilizes the efficiency of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometry to look for overall trends in elemental composition followed by Flame Atomic Absorbance (AA) to achieve higher resolution of select elements of interest as ...


A Trio Of Sigma Factors Control Hormogonium Development In Nostoc Punctiforme, Alfonso Gonzalez Jr. Jan 2019

A Trio Of Sigma Factors Control Hormogonium Development In Nostoc Punctiforme, Alfonso Gonzalez Jr.

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, and for many species, nitrogen fixation, giving cyanobacteria an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Furthermore, multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria are developmentally complex, capable of differentiation into different cell types, including cells capable of nitrogen fixation and cells for motility, making them an ideal platform for studying development, as well as for practical use in biotechnology. Understanding how developmental programmes are activated require an understanding of the role of alternative sigma factors, which are required for transcriptional activation in bacteria. In order to investigate the gene regulatory network and to determine the ...


Characterization And Analysis Of Proteins Secreted By The Mutant Pichia Pastoris Strain, Bgs13, Christopher Alan Naranjo Jan 2019

Characterization And Analysis Of Proteins Secreted By The Mutant Pichia Pastoris Strain, Bgs13, Christopher Alan Naranjo

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has been utilized for heterologous protein expression for research, clinical, and industrial purposes to produce thousands of recombinant protein products. Because P. pastoris secretes very few of its own proteins, the exported recombinant protein is the major polypeptide in the extracellular medium, making purification relatively easy. Unfortunately, a disadvantage to the programmed export is that some recombinant proteins intended for secretion are retained within the cell and may be subsequently degraded. A mutant strain isolated in our lab, containing a pREMI-derived disruption of the BGS13 gene, has displayed elevated levels of secretion for a variety ...


Effects Of Coral Reef Habitat Complexity On The Community Composition And Trophic Structure Of Marine Fish Assemblages In Indonesia’S Wakatobi Marine National Park, Kuyer Josiah Fazekas Jr. Jan 2019

Effects Of Coral Reef Habitat Complexity On The Community Composition And Trophic Structure Of Marine Fish Assemblages In Indonesia’S Wakatobi Marine National Park, Kuyer Josiah Fazekas Jr.

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The coral reefs within Indonesia’s Wakatobi Marine National Park support a high diversity of reef-building hard corals and associated marine fish. Climate change threatens to dramatically affect coral reef ecosystems by altering the interactions between reef fish and the specific microhabitats they depend on for survival. To examine the spatially varied effects of habitat complexity on the community composition and trophic structure of marine fish assemblages, I analyzed fish community and habitat complexity data across reef zones. Habitat complexity metrics were: structural complexity, the percentage of hard coral (HC) cover, HC genera richness, HC genera diversity (Shannon index), and ...


Bat Species Diversity And Habitat Use Assessment With Focus On Endangered Indiana Bats In The Wright State University Woods, Megan R. Rude Jan 2019

Bat Species Diversity And Habitat Use Assessment With Focus On Endangered Indiana Bats In The Wright State University Woods, Megan R. Rude

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The goals of my thesis are to: 1) identify species of bats in Wright State University’s (WSU) campus woods via acoustic surveys to compare to detections from previous years (Chapter 1) (2) analyze occupancy and detection probabilities of Indiana bats in different areas throughout the woods (Chapter 1), and 3) create an acoustical approach to analyze habitat use through bat social calls (Chapter 2). In Chapter 1, I conducted stationary acoustic surveys in the Wright State University woods in hydric (riparian), edge, and old growth habitats to record bat vocalizations. The WSU woods have a diverse bat community as ...


Structural Characterization Of Black Widow Spider Dragline Silk Proteins Crp1 And Crp4, Mikayla Shanafelt Jan 2019

Structural Characterization Of Black Widow Spider Dragline Silk Proteins Crp1 And Crp4, Mikayla Shanafelt

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Spider dragline silk is a biomaterial with outstanding material properties, possessing high-tensile strength and toughness. In nature, dragline silk serves a central role during spider locomotion and web construction. Today, scientists are racing to elucidate the molecular machinery governing silk extrusion, attempting to translate this knowledge into a mimicry process in the laboratory to create synthetic fibers for a wide range of different applications. During extrusion, it has been established that biochemical and mechanical forces govern spidroin folding, aggregation, and assembly. In black widow spiders, at least 7 different proteins have been identified as constituents of dragline silk fibers. These ...


Transgenerational Plasticity Is Sex-Dependent And Persistent In Yellow Moneyflower (Mimulus Guttatus), Kayla Akkerman Jan 2019

Transgenerational Plasticity Is Sex-Dependent And Persistent In Yellow Moneyflower (Mimulus Guttatus), Kayla Akkerman

All Master's Theses

Transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, whereby environmental cues experienced by parents alter the phenotype of their progeny, has now been documented in diverse organisms. Transmission of environmentally determined responses is known to occur through both maternal and paternal gametes, but the underlying mechanisms have rarely been compared. In addition, the persistence of induction over multiple generations appears to vary widely but has been characterized for relatively few systems. Yellow monkeyflower (Mimulus guttatus) is known to exhibit transgenerational induction of increased glandular trichome production in response to simulated insect damage. Here we test for differences between maternal and paternal transmission of this response ...


Regional Patterns Of Vascularity Within The Limb Bones Of Small And Large-Bodied Bats, Logan Usher Jan 2019

Regional Patterns Of Vascularity Within The Limb Bones Of Small And Large-Bodied Bats, Logan Usher

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Bats have humeri and femora that are poorly vascularized or avascular compared to birds, with only larger bats typically displaying vascular canals. Vascular canals provide passageways for blood vessels and nerves, which help maintain bone homeostasis, and support bones by resisting torsional stresses placed on them. The presence of a greater number of canals in large bats suggests that they may have a larger need for the support of nutrient and waste exchange than their dense lacunar-canalicular system can provide on its own. The focus of the current project will be to analyze SR micro-CT data from various bat humeri ...


City Limits: Heat Tolerance Is Influenced By Body Size And Hydration State In An Urban Ant Community, Dustin Jerald Johnson Jan 2019

City Limits: Heat Tolerance Is Influenced By Body Size And Hydration State In An Urban Ant Community, Dustin Jerald Johnson

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Cities are rapidly expanding, and global warming is intensified in urban environments due to the urban heat island effect. Therefore, urban animals may be particularly susceptible to warming associated with ongoing climate change. Thus, I used a comparative and manipulative approach to test three related hypotheses about the determinants of heat tolerance or critical thermal maximum (CTmax) in urban ants—specifically, that (1) body size, (2) hydration status, and (3) preferred micro-environments influence CTmax. I further tested a fourth hypothesis that native species are particularly physiologically vulnerable in urban environments. I manipulated water access and determined CTmax for 11 species ...


Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade Jan 2019

Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Increasing anthropogenic disturbance in marine ecosystems such as fishing, oil-drilling, and noise pollution can have detrimental effects on the reproduction and survival of apex predators such as marine mammals. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in increased circulating glucocorticoid (GCs) hormones, which alter expression of target genes encoding metabolic enzymes and other mediators of stress. Prolonged HPA axis stimulation may increase catabolism of nutrient stores and suppress immune and reproductive functions, impacting the fitness of marine mammals. GCs measurements are used to identify wild animals experiencing stress. However, these measurements may not be sensitive enough to distinguish between an ...


Phylogenomic Analyses Clarify Butterfly Species Within The Genus Speyeria Despite Evidence Of A Recent Adaptive Radiation, Erin Thompson Jan 2019

Phylogenomic Analyses Clarify Butterfly Species Within The Genus Speyeria Despite Evidence Of A Recent Adaptive Radiation, Erin Thompson

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

The North American genus Speyeria is an especially challenging radiation of butterflies due to ongoing hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, and similar morphological characters among species. Adaptive radiations often require considerable evidence in order to resolve the evolutionary relationships of closely related individuals. Previous studies of this genus have found paraphyly among species and have been unable to disentangle these taxa due to a lack of data and/or incomplete sampling of the genus. As a result, the interspecific relationships among Speyeria remain unresolved. In an attempt to achieve phylogenetic resolution of the genus, we conducted population genomic and phylogenomic analyses ...