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Theses/Dissertations

2013

Inflammation

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Activation Of Nucleotide Binding Oligomerization Domain Containing Protein 1 In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes: Effects On Adipocyte Differentiation And Lipolysis, Jaanki Shamb Purohit Aug 2013

Activation Of Nucleotide Binding Oligomerization Domain Containing Protein 1 In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes: Effects On Adipocyte Differentiation And Lipolysis, Jaanki Shamb Purohit

Masters Theses

Obesity, defined as having excess adipose tissue, is associated with chronic inflammation. Adipose tissue is made up of many cell types, including preadipocytes and adipocytes. Both preadipocytes and adipocytes express pattern recognition receptors that play important roles in innate immunity. Two families of pattern recognition receptors that have been studied in adipose tissue are Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs). Activation of TLR2 and TLR4 has been shown to lead to proinflammatory response in adipocytes, which is shown to suppress adipocyte differentiation and stimulate lipolysis, one of the major physiological functions of adipocytes. However, the effects of NOD activation ...


Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic Jun 2013

Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has been implicated in metabolic and inflammatory regulation. The molecular and physiological mechanisms by which PPARδ activation regulates lipid metabolism, inflammatory signaling and protection from atherosclerosis in states of metabolic disturbance such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, were investigated in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PPARδ activation inhibits atherogenic lipoprotein-induced lipid accumulation and the associated proinflammatory responses. The primary mechanisms for these effects were increased fatty acid β-oxidation, decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, reduced MAPK signaling and improved insulin ...


Inflammatory Breast Cancer: The Immune Perspective, Evan N. Cohen May 2013

Inflammatory Breast Cancer: The Immune Perspective, Evan N. Cohen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most insidious form of locally advanced disease. Although rare and less than 2% of all breast cancer, IBC is responsible for up to 10% of all breast cancer deaths. Despite the name, very little is known about the role of inflammation or immune mediators in IBC. Therefore, we analyzed blood samples from IBC patients and non-IBC patients, as well as healthy donor controls to establish an IBC-specific profile of peripheral blood leukocyte phenotype and function of T cells and dendritic cells and serum inflammatory cytokines.

Emerging evidence suggests that host factors in the microenviromement ...


Molecular Basis Of Nod1 And Nod2 Signaling, Aaron Martin Ver Heul May 2013

Molecular Basis Of Nod1 And Nod2 Signaling, Aaron Martin Ver Heul

Theses and Dissertations

NOD1 and NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins 1 and 2) are related innate immune receptors responsible for initiating a response to bacterial infection. They belong to a class of receptors known as Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), which are germline encoded immune receptors that mediate various innate immune responses. These receptors recognize conserved microbial motifs known as Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs). The PRR-PAMP paradigm forms the bedrock of how innate immunity is understood today. As two of the first intracellular PRRs discovered, NOD1 and NOD2 came to define an entire subclass of PRRs, the NOD-like receptors (NLRs). PRRs relay their signals ...


Local Macrophage Proliferation In Adipose Tissue Is A Characteristic Of Obesity-Associated Inflammation: A Dissertation, Shinya U. Amano Mar 2013

Local Macrophage Proliferation In Adipose Tissue Is A Characteristic Of Obesity-Associated Inflammation: A Dissertation, Shinya U. Amano

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Obesity and diabetes are major public health problems facing the world today. Extending our understanding of adipose tissue biology, and how it changes in obesity, will hopefully better equip our society in dealing with the obesity epidemic. Macrophages and other immune cells accumulate in the adipose tissue in obesity and secrete cytokines that can promote insulin resistance. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are thought to originate from bone marrow-derived monocytes, which infiltrate the tissue from the circulation. Much work has been done to demonstrate that inhibition of monocyte recruitment to the adipose tissue can ameliorate insulin resistance. While monocytes can enter ...


Role Of Inflammation In Diet-Induced Obesity: A Dissertation, Sophia Kogan Mar 2013

Role Of Inflammation In Diet-Induced Obesity: A Dissertation, Sophia Kogan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Obesity results from expansion of white adipose tissue. The inability of white adipose tissue to adequately store lipids leads to ectopic deposition of lipids in non-adipose tissue that can lead to systemic insulin resistance. It is well known that insulin resistance correlates with inflammation of adipose tissue in obese animals and humans. Decreasing inflammation in the adipose tissue has been proven as a therapeutic strategy for improvement of insulin sensitivity in vivo. Numerous factors secreted by immune cells, including macrophages, have been suggested as regulating adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

In the first part of my thesis, I describe the role ...


Modulators Of The Acute Inflammatory Response: A Dissertation, Dipti Karmarkar Feb 2013

Modulators Of The Acute Inflammatory Response: A Dissertation, Dipti Karmarkar

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Acute inflammatory response is caused by the rapid recruitment of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils and monocytes, from blood to the tissue site. Diverse agents, including invading pathogens, injured or dead cells, and other irritants, may stimulate this response. In the ensuing inflammatory response, the recruited leukocytes and their secreted molecules help in eliminating or containing the injurious agents and promoting tissue regeneration. But often this response is imprecise and can lead to bystander tissue damage. Unchecked neutrophil activation is implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory conditions. An in-depth understanding of the pathways regulating this response, therefore, becomes critical in identifying ...


The Effects Of Heat Stress In Redox Balance And Inflammatory Signaling In Porcine Skeletal Muscle, Sandra Isabel Rosado Montilla Jan 2013

The Effects Of Heat Stress In Redox Balance And Inflammatory Signaling In Porcine Skeletal Muscle, Sandra Isabel Rosado Montilla

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) is a major concern for human health as well as for the swine industry. In 2012, HS resulted in the largest number of weather related human fatalities in the US. Animal production is also compromised as HS leads to poor sow performance, decreased carcass value and increased veterinary costs. However, the molecular effects of HS on skeletal muscle are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the extent to which HS disrupted redox balance and initiated an inflammatory response in oxidative and glycolytic porcine skeletal muscle. Moreover, we quantified the contribution of reduced feed intake to the ...


The Role Of Tipe2 In The Regulation Of Inflammation And Tumorigenesis, Derek Johnson Jan 2013

The Role Of Tipe2 In The Regulation Of Inflammation And Tumorigenesis, Derek Johnson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

TIPE2 is a recently discovered regulator of immunity and inflammation. Here we describe a new function of TIPE2 in the regulation of Ras signaling and Tumorigenesis. By using various stimuli and inhibitors in T Cells and macrophages we discovered that TIPE2 is regulated at both the message and protein level by inflammatory stimuli. TIPE2 mRNA is regulated in the short to intermediate term by an NF-Kappa B induced micro RNA, and TIPE2 is also ubiquitylated and degraded, possibly by SCF-Beta TRCP. Mechanistically TIPE2 interacts with and inhibits the Ras-interacting domain of the RalGDS family of Ras effectors, leading to a ...


Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris Jan 2013

Obesity And Adipose Tissue Expansion In Ossabaw Swine, Richard Joel Faris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Obesity is characterized as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, which originates in adipose tissue from adipocyte dysfunction as a consequence of adipocyte hypertrophy. Although rodent models have been pivotal to understanding the etiology of obesity and its co-morbidities, and the roles of specific genes, distinct differences between rodents and humans underscore the need for alternative comparative models. Swine are an attractive comparative model because of similar physiology and anatomy with humans. Ossabaw swine are of particular interest due to their "thrifty" genotype and predisposition to multiple risk factors for the metabolic syndrome.

Saturated fatty acids have the distinct ability ...


Potential Influence Of Blueberry And Black Raspberry Pomace Phenolics On Inflammatory Cytokines In Coronary Cells, Adriana Soto Rodriguez Gil Jan 2013

Potential Influence Of Blueberry And Black Raspberry Pomace Phenolics On Inflammatory Cytokines In Coronary Cells, Adriana Soto Rodriguez Gil

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) in obesity are known risk factors associated with chronic inflammatory conditions including cardiovascular inflammation and thus cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in the US. Anthocyanins from berries have the potential to provide protection against inflammation in various tissues; however they are poorly absorbed and undergo major transformations by the microbiome. The work presented in this dissertation involves the development and utilization of an in vitro model to characterize the products of colonic fermentation and absorption of blueberry and black raspberry pomace phenolics, and evaluate the potential efficacy of these products compared to ...


Differential Effect Of 14 Free Fatty Acids In The Expression Of Inflammation Biomarkers On Human Coronary Arterial Cells, Adriana Soto Rodriguez Gil Jan 2013

Differential Effect Of 14 Free Fatty Acids In The Expression Of Inflammation Biomarkers On Human Coronary Arterial Cells, Adriana Soto Rodriguez Gil

LSU Master's Theses

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the US, and circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) are known risk factors associated with cardiovascular inflammation. The influence of 14 dietary FFAs (including saturated, mono-, poly-unsaturated and trans), on the expression of inflammatory markers in human coronary arterial smooth muscle (HACSM) and endothelial (HCAEC) cells using a cell culture model was investigated. HACSM and HCAEC cell cultures were incubated with 200 μM of each FFA for 8 or 24 h respectively at 37 °C in a 5% CO2 humidified incubator. Inflammatory biomarkers were assessed by ELISA or Western Blot in the ...


Insulin Secretagogue Activity Of Ellagic Acid-Rich Muscadine (Vitis Rotundifolia) And Indian Gooseberry (Emblica Officinalis) Extracts On Pancreatic Beta Cells, Srikanth Earpina Jan 2013

Insulin Secretagogue Activity Of Ellagic Acid-Rich Muscadine (Vitis Rotundifolia) And Indian Gooseberry (Emblica Officinalis) Extracts On Pancreatic Beta Cells, Srikanth Earpina

LSU Master's Theses

Diabetes is an inflammatory disease associated with hyperglycemia. Chronic exposure of pancreatic â-cells to glucolipotoxicity stimulates a low-grade inflammation associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1â (IL-1â). Increased levels of IL-1â can initially lead to decreased insulin secretion and finally â-cell death. Ellagic acid and quercetin have been reported to be anti-inflammatory in several studies. Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine) or Emblica officinalis (amla) are good sources of ellagic acid and quercetin. Ellagic acid or quercetin is bioavailable as is or are metabolized into bioavailable urolithins or isorhamnetin, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect ...


The Effects Of A High Fat Diet On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Inflammation In The Brain., Lauren Suzanne Vervaecke Jan 2013

The Effects Of A High Fat Diet On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Inflammation In The Brain., Lauren Suzanne Vervaecke

Theses and Dissertations

INTRO: High fat diets (HFD) ingested over long periods of time have been shown to cause diet induced obesity leading to excessive adiposity and chronic low grade inflammation. Here we have shown how differing levels of saturated fats (SF), which are common storage fats, affect markers of inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis. IL-1â and TNF-alpha are pro-inflammatory cytokines that have been shown to increase with a HFD, while molecular signalers, PGC-1alpha, cyt c, and SIRT1, related to mitochondrial biogenesis have been shown to decrease. Despite the risks of consuming a diet high in SF's, consumers continue to buy energy dense ...


Injury Establishes Constitutive Μ-Opioid Receptor Activity Leading To Lasting Endogenous Analgesia And Dependence, Gregory F. Corder Jan 2013

Injury Establishes Constitutive Μ-Opioid Receptor Activity Leading To Lasting Endogenous Analgesia And Dependence, Gregory F. Corder

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Injury causes increased pain sensation in humans and animals but the mechanisms underlying the emergence of persistent pathological pain states, which arise in the absence of on-going physical damage, are unclear. Therefore, elucidating the physiological regulation of such intractable pain is of exceptional biomedical importance. It is well known that endogenous activation of µ-opioid receptors (MORs) provides relief from acute pain but the consequences of prolonged endogenous opioidergic signaling have not been considered. Here we test the hypothesis that the intrinsic mechanisms of MOR signaling promote pathological sensitization of pain circuits in the spinal cord. We found that tissue inflammation ...


Post-Traumatic Sleep Following Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury, Rachel K. Rowe Jan 2013

Post-Traumatic Sleep Following Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury, Rachel K. Rowe

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability throughout the world with few pharmacological treatments available for individuals who suffer from neurological morbidities associated with TBI. Cellular and molecular pathological processes initiated at the time of injury develop into neurological impairments, with chronic sleep disorders (insomnia, hypersomnolence) being among the somatic, cognitive and emotional neurological impairments. Immediately post-injury, TBI patients report excessive daytime sleepiness, however, discordant opinions suggest that individuals should not be allowed to sleep or should be frequently awoken following brain injury. To provide adequate medical care, it is imperative to understand the role ...


An Investigation Into The Influence Of Dietary Saturated Fat And Quercetin Supplementation On Adiposity, Macrophage Behavior, Inflammation, And Non-Alcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease, Reilly Enos Jan 2013

An Investigation Into The Influence Of Dietary Saturated Fat And Quercetin Supplementation On Adiposity, Macrophage Behavior, Inflammation, And Non-Alcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease, Reilly Enos

Theses and Dissertations

The overall objective of this dissertation was to examine the degree to which manipulation of the saturated fat content of a high-fat diet influenced obesity-related outcomes as well as to see if the naturally-occurring flavonoid, quercetin, could attenuate the resulting obesity and related metabolic and inflammatory side effects. Specifically, these studies examined 1) the influential role of saturated fat on macrophage function, inflammation, and other obesity-related comorbidities, including non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease, and 2) the potential benefits of quercetin supplementation. Overall, results from these studies suggest that adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease progression can be greatly ...