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Theses/Dissertations

2013

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Articles 121 - 142 of 142

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effect Of Brand And Caloric Information On Flavor Perception And Food Consumption In Restrained And Unrestrained Eaters, Kevin Vincent Cavanagh Jan 2013

The Effect Of Brand And Caloric Information On Flavor Perception And Food Consumption In Restrained And Unrestrained Eaters, Kevin Vincent Cavanagh

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Cognitive And Physiological Moderators Of Daily Smokers' Early Neural Attentional Biases To Smoking And Nonsmoking Cues, Patrick John Hammett Jan 2013

Cognitive And Physiological Moderators Of Daily Smokers' Early Neural Attentional Biases To Smoking And Nonsmoking Cues, Patrick John Hammett

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Prenatal Stress, Depression, And Herpes Viral Titers, Pao-Chu Hsu Jan 2013

Prenatal Stress, Depression, And Herpes Viral Titers, Pao-Chu Hsu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies suggest that some cases of prenatal depression may be associated with reactivation of latent infections of the herpesvirus family. The possible relationships among stress, prenatal depression, and herpes viral reactivation in pregnancy are understudied and the molecular pathways such as the neuroimmune biogenic amine pathway are unidentified. Chronic stress shifts the T helper-1 cell (Th1) cytokine profile to a Th2 profile, which favors virus induced pathogenesis and survival. Pregnancy is also associated with a similar Th2 dominance. In non-pregnant individuals, exposure to psychological or physical stress may be associated with latent herpes viral reactivation and could result in ...


"They Come, But They Don't Spend As Much Money": Livelihoods, Dietary Diversity, Food Security, And Nutritional Status In Two Roatan Communities In The Wake Of Global Crises In Food Prices And Finance, Racine Marcus Brown Jan 2013

"They Come, But They Don't Spend As Much Money": Livelihoods, Dietary Diversity, Food Security, And Nutritional Status In Two Roatan Communities In The Wake Of Global Crises In Food Prices And Finance, Racine Marcus Brown

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

This dissertation explores the associations between recent global crises in staple food prices and finance and the following aspects of life in two communities on the island of Roatàn, Islas de La Bahia (Bay Islands), Honduras: household livelihoods; food commoditization; dietary diversity; food security; and nutritional status. The aims of this study are: ) assess the geographic and economic source(s) of foods consumed by two different communities on Roatàn; b) discover how the most recent economic and food crises have affected foodways and nutrition on Roatàn; c) assess how these crises have affected economic growth of the tourism sector ...


Connecting Pixels To People: Management Agents And Social-Ecological Determinants Of Changes To Street Tree Distributions, Shawn Landry Jan 2013

Connecting Pixels To People: Management Agents And Social-Ecological Determinants Of Changes To Street Tree Distributions, Shawn Landry

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Street trees are an important component of the urban forest that can provide direct and indirect benefits to social and ecological sustainability in cities. Temporal and spatial interactions between human and non-human management agents determine the distribution and health of street tree populations in urban areas. This dissertation seeks to enhance our understanding of the spatial patterns and processes affecting street trees by investigating the agents and social-ecological determinants of changes to street tree distributions in urban residential neighborhoods. The research was guided by three primary questions: (1) Are recent changes to the spatial distribution of street trees influenced by ...


Evaluating Habitat Vulnerability And Sustainability Of Urban Seagrass Resources To Sea Level Rise, Cynthia A. Meyer Jan 2013

Evaluating Habitat Vulnerability And Sustainability Of Urban Seagrass Resources To Sea Level Rise, Cynthia A. Meyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The seagrass resource provides essential ecosystem functions for many marine species. This research evaluated the vulnerability and sustainability of the seagrass resource in an urbanized area to the effects of sea level rise. The assessment required analysis of information regarding the biogeography of the seagrass resource, and developing a method to model the spatial extent of the suitable habitat for seagrass, and applying the model to predict the implications of simulated sea level rise scenarios on the seagrass resource.

Examining the biogeography of the seagrass resource required the development of a seagrass monitoring and assessment field survey and a comprehensive ...


Protective Effects Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Adh1b Allele, Neil Dodge Jan 2013

Protective Effects Of The Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Adh1b Allele, Neil Dodge

Wayne State University Theses

Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to African Americans, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against alcohol teratogenicity in African American infants and children. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of the ADH1B*3 allele ...


"Here Stands A High Bred Horse": A Theory Of Economics And Horse Breeding In Colonial Virginia, 1750-1780; A Statistical Model, Lily Kleppertknoop Jan 2013

"Here Stands A High Bred Horse": A Theory Of Economics And Horse Breeding In Colonial Virginia, 1750-1780; A Statistical Model, Lily Kleppertknoop

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of Technical Assistance Providers In Copanch'orti' Guatemala, Victoria Lebeaux Jan 2013

An Analysis Of Technical Assistance Providers In Copanch'orti' Guatemala, Victoria Lebeaux

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Guatemala has the fourth highest rate of chronic under-nutrition for children under five in the world. One region particularly impacted is the Copanch'orti' area of eastern Guatemala where chronic under-nutrition affected 61% of the population in 2008. Although efforts to solve the malnutrition problem have been underway for several decades, there is a persistent need for greater and better coordination and integration of food security programming, within and across sectors (agriculture, education, environment, health, etc.), as well as across local, regional, and national platforms. In this dissertation I addressed the question of how the actions of development practitioners can ...


Sagebrush Ecosystem Characterization, Monitoring, And Forecasting With Remote Sensing: Quantifying Future Climate And Wildlife Habitat Change, Collin G. Homer Jan 2013

Sagebrush Ecosystem Characterization, Monitoring, And Forecasting With Remote Sensing: Quantifying Future Climate And Wildlife Habitat Change, Collin G. Homer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems constitute the largest single North American shrub ecosystem and provide vital ecological, hydrological, biological, agricultural, and recreational ecosystem services. Disturbances continue to alter this ecosystem, with climate change possibly representing the greatest future disturbance risk. Improved ways to characterize and monitor gradual change in this ecosystem are vital to its future management. A new remote sensing sagebrush characterization approach was developed in Wyoming which integrates three scales of remote sensing to derive four primary continuous field components (bare ground, herbaceousness, litter, and shrub), and four secondary components (sagebrush, big sagebrush, Wyoming sagebrush, and shrub height) using ...


Agroforestry And Smallholder Farmers: Climate Change Adaptation Through Sustainable Land Use, Colin Mccabe Jan 2013

Agroforestry And Smallholder Farmers: Climate Change Adaptation Through Sustainable Land Use, Colin Mccabe

Capstone Collection

Agriculture in the developing world will be extremely hard hit by climate change, and smallholder farmers in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are among the most vulnerable to its impacts. There is a range of agricultural adaptations to climate change, and each context demands a unique appraisal of impacts and adaptations based on specific geography, local climate variability and expected change, and social conditions. The term “climate-smart agriculture” (CSA) has come to embody a set of practices in crop and livestock cultivation that 1) reduce greenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation), 2) build resilience to the impacts of climate change for ...


The Effect Of Visual Wulst Lesions And Trigeminal Nerve Sectioning On The Discrimination Of Magnetic Inclination In The Homing Pigeon (Columba Livia), Merissa Acerbi Jan 2013

The Effect Of Visual Wulst Lesions And Trigeminal Nerve Sectioning On The Discrimination Of Magnetic Inclination In The Homing Pigeon (Columba Livia), Merissa Acerbi

Honors Projects

The ability of homing pigeons to return to their loft from unknown places has fascinated scientists for centuries. It is well established that homing pigeons, like migratory birds, posses an innate magnetic inclination compass to determine direction by measuring the angle between the magnetic field vector and the Earth's surface. Recent work has indicated that the avian magnetic compass is light mediated and appears to mediate magnetic information to the brain. This occurs via a visual pathway with processing in the visual Wulst area of the forebrain. There is, however, also evidence from other avian species that magnetic direction ...


Energy In The Corn Belt: Is Maize Production Sustainable?, Matthew Bernau Jan 2013

Energy In The Corn Belt: Is Maize Production Sustainable?, Matthew Bernau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Technological and scientific innovation has transformed agricultural production. Corn production methods changed from a sustainable, nutrient recycling production system to one reliant on imported fossil energy inputs. Located in the Western Corn Belt, Union County, South Dakota was chosen as the study area. Changes in production methods are represented by four technological epochs: 1) The Draft Horse Epoch, 1890-1920; 2) The Tractor Epoch, 1920-1950; 3) The Fertilizer Epoch, 1950-1980; and 4) The Biotechnology and Precision Agriculture Epoch, 1980-2010. The energy budget method was used to measure the energy sustainability of corn production. The findings show that the volume of corn ...


Correction For Rapid-Growth Vegetation And Testing Of An Upscaling Method With A Cosmos Probe, Samantha Lou Irvin Jan 2013

Correction For Rapid-Growth Vegetation And Testing Of An Upscaling Method With A Cosmos Probe, Samantha Lou Irvin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

COSMOS (COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System) probes are a developing instrument in the field of remote sensing and are currently the only source of field scale soil moisture data. A COSMOS probe is essentially a hydrogen particle counter with a measurement depth ranging from 10-70 cm and a spatial resolution approaching 700 m in diameter. A majority of the hydrogen detected is in the form of water molecules. As vegetation contains both hydrogen in the vegetative dry matter and water, in addition to sitting above the ground, it may influence what is measured by the COSMOS probe as soil moisture ...


How Population Density Influences Agricultural Intensification And Productivity: Evidence From Ethiopia, Anna Leigh Josephson Jan 2013

How Population Density Influences Agricultural Intensification And Productivity: Evidence From Ethiopia, Anna Leigh Josephson

Open Access Theses

We use household-level panel data to estimate how population density impacts agricultural intensification and farm income in Ethiopia. We hypothesize that increases in population density affect agricultural intensification and farm income directly through information flows, institutional development, and reduction in transactions costs. Increases in population density also affect agricultural intensification and farm income indirectly through farm size, agricultural wage rates, and staple crop prices. We find that increases in population density lead to lower farm sizes, which has major implications for agricultural intensification and household well-being. Our analysis indicates that increases in population density cause farmers to purchase more inorganic ...


Expression Of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms Across The Ovulatory Cycle: A Multilevel Investigation, Tory A. Eisenlohr-Moul Jan 2013

Expression Of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms Across The Ovulatory Cycle: A Multilevel Investigation, Tory A. Eisenlohr-Moul

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a disabling condition characterized by chronic emotion dysregulation and behavioral impulsivity. Prospective studies that test proposed mechanisms of within-person change in BPD hold the key to improving symptom predictability and control in this disorder. A small body of evidence suggests that fluctuations in estradiol such as those occurring naturally at ovulation during the monthly female reproductive cycle may increase symptoms in women with BPD (DeSoto et al., 2003). Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence that both self-esteem and feelings of social rejection are highest at ovulation, when estradiol peaks (Durante and Hill, 2009; Eisenlohr-Moul et al ...


Applying The Principles Of Spatial Modelling To The Management Of Biodiversity In The Fragmented Landscapes Of South-Western Australia, Shaun Molloy Jan 2013

Applying The Principles Of Spatial Modelling To The Management Of Biodiversity In The Fragmented Landscapes Of South-Western Australia, Shaun Molloy

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Biodiversity conservation throughout the world is challenged by the impacts of a changing climate on fragmented landscapes. To mitigate these threats, conservation managers require models which can demonstrate the consequences of both negative impacts and management actions. This need can be addressed through spatial modelling applications. Unfortunately, throughout much of the world, spatial modelling is forgone, being seen as requiring skills and resources beyond the means of many conservation planners and managers. This thesis seeks to address this dilemma by delivering criteria for a successful modelling application and by providing case studies which demonstrate how appropriate modelling can be undertaken ...


Concussion Knowledge In Amateur Motocross, Kristina Miller Jan 2013

Concussion Knowledge In Amateur Motocross, Kristina Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that there are 1.6-3.8 million sports related traumatic brain injuries in the United States annually which occur in both mainstream and extreme sports. Many of these concussions have been associated with collisional sports, like football, but high risk extreme sports, like motocross, also have many opportunities for collisions to occur. Unlike traditional varsity sports motocross races, especially at the amateur level, do not require more than advanced life support at a race in case of emergency situation leaving the amateur rider to recognize and decide on concussion management. Purpose of ...


The Threat Of Domestic Bioterrorism: Fact Or Fiction, Stacy M. Langston Jan 2013

The Threat Of Domestic Bioterrorism: Fact Or Fiction, Stacy M. Langston

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The threat of a domestic bioterrorist attack can be a daunting issue to cover. Using the analytic technique What If? Analysis a scenario was created for a domestic bioterrorism attack in Houston, TX. Indicators were developed to determine how to mitigate and respond to the attack. Recommendations were provided following the attack that can be used to prevent future attacks that were conducted in the scenario. Having a hindsight view of an attack is the best way to prevent and respond to the attack.


The Impact Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury On Neuronal Networks And Neurobehavior, Tapan P. Patel Jan 2013

The Impact Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury On Neuronal Networks And Neurobehavior, Tapan P. Patel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Despite its enormous incidence, mild traumatic brain injury is not well understood. One aspect that needs more definition is how the mechanical energy during injury affects neural circuit function. Recent developments in cellular imaging probes provide an opportunity to assess the dynamic state of neural networks with single-cell resolution. In this dissertation, we developed imaging methods to assess the state of dissociated cortical networks exposed to mild injury. We probed the microarchitecture of an injured cortical circuit subject to two different injury levels, mild stretch (10% peak) and mild/moderate (35%). We found that mild injury produced a transient increase ...


The Impact Of Motivation On Object-Based Visual Attention Indexed By Continuous Flash Suppression., Vanessa Troiani Jan 2013

The Impact Of Motivation On Object-Based Visual Attention Indexed By Continuous Flash Suppression., Vanessa Troiani

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Motivationally-relevant stimuli summon our attention and benefit from enhanced processing, but the neural mechanisms underlying this prioritization are not well understood. Using an interocular suppression technique and functional neuroimaging, this work has the ultimate aim of understanding how motivation impacts visual perception. In Chapter 2a, we demonstrate that novel objects with a more rich reward history are prioritized in awareness more quickly than objects with a lean reward history. In Chapter 2b, we show that faces are prioritized in awareness following social rejection, and that the amount faces are prioritized correlates with individual differences in social motivation. Chapters 3 & 4 ...


Scaling Food Security: A Political Ecology Of Agricultural Policies And Practices In Bukidnon, Philippines, Ryan Ehrhart Jan 2013

Scaling Food Security: A Political Ecology Of Agricultural Policies And Practices In Bukidnon, Philippines, Ryan Ehrhart

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Debates over food security strategies in the Philippines have pitted the neoliberal paradigm of trade liberalization, export cropping, and chemical and biotech agricultural methods against the food sovereignty paradigm of protectionism, staple cropping, and sustainable agriculture methods.

The Philippine government has long pushed for yield increases of staples. However, there has been dissonance between governmental desires for rice self-sufficiency and pursuit of a more export-oriented agricultural economy. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank, and the World Trade Organization have pressured the government of the Philippines to adopt various tenets of neoliberalism (trade liberalization, privatization, deregulation ...