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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Spatial And Temporal Comparisons Of Gopher Rockfish (Sebastes Carnatus) Life History And Condition In South Central California, Natasha Leigh Meyers-Cherry Dec 2014

Spatial And Temporal Comparisons Of Gopher Rockfish (Sebastes Carnatus) Life History And Condition In South Central California, Natasha Leigh Meyers-Cherry

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Recent studies have shown environmental factors influence life history traits in fishes. Understanding intraspecific variability of life history characteristics and condition is necessary to determine local fisheries management strategies. Gopher rockfish, Sebastes carnatus, comprise 50% of the estimated shallow nearshore recreational rockfish catch in California, yet insufficient local data exist regarding life history traits and condition of this species. Our study locally defines growth parameters (maximum size and age), size (age) at reproductive maturity, and condition (hepatosomatic indices) for gopher rockfish in south central California. The growth parameter values of gopher rockfish from our study are similar to previously published ...


Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson Dec 2014

Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Packed-bed digesters are an alternative to covered lagoon digesters for methane production and anaerobic treatment of dilute wastewaters such as dairy barn flush water. The physical media of packed-beds retain biofilms, often allowing increased treatment rates. Previous studies have evaluated several types of media for digestion of dilute wastewaters, but cost and media fouling have setback commercial development. A major operational cost has been effluent recirculation pumping.

In the present effort, a novel approach to anaerobic digestion of flush dairy water was developed at pilot-scale: broken walnut shells were used as a low-cost packed-bed medium and effluent recirculation was replaced ...


Studies To Characterize Heavy Metal Content And Migration From Recycled Polyethyleneterephthalate, Michael John-Ross Whitt Dec 2014

Studies To Characterize Heavy Metal Content And Migration From Recycled Polyethyleneterephthalate, Michael John-Ross Whitt

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Packaging Materials account for 31% of the world’s municipal solid waste. Agencies like the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) are pushing for the increased use of recycled thermoplastic materials. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a commonly recycled thermoplastic which is used to package ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables. Most recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET) packaging materials contain heavy metal catalysts, the most common being antimony. The recent increased use of recycled plastic materials has been suspected as the source of increased human heavy metal exposure. In this study, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and ...


Seasonal Variation Of Milk In Central Valley California And The Association Of Milk Variation With The Composition And Texture Of Low Mositure Part Skim Mozzarella, Vaideki Jai Dec 2014

Seasonal Variation Of Milk In Central Valley California And The Association Of Milk Variation With The Composition And Texture Of Low Mositure Part Skim Mozzarella, Vaideki Jai

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The chemical composition of milk (specifically casein, fat, and calcium) is known to affect the quality and functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. Therefore, concentrations of total nitrogen, casein nitrogen, non-casein nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, true nitrogen, casein nitrogen to total nitrogen ratio, casein nitrogen to true nitrogen ratio, fat, total calcium, total solids, somatic cells, and pH were measured in silo milk samples collected weekly over 18-months from a large dairy plant in Central Valley, California from July 2008 to December 2009 to verify changes and correlate to low moisture part skim Mozzarella (LMPS) characteristics. LMPS mozzarella cheese from the same ...


Evaluating Five Years Of Soil Hydrologic Response Following The 2009 Lockheed Fire In The Coastal Santa Cruz Mountains Of California, Mary Theresa Crable Dec 2014

Evaluating Five Years Of Soil Hydrologic Response Following The 2009 Lockheed Fire In The Coastal Santa Cruz Mountains Of California, Mary Theresa Crable

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The Lockheed Fire burned 31 km2 (7,660 acres) of the Scotts Creek watershed in August 2009. 4.5 km2 (1,100 acres) of California Polytechnic State University’s educational and research facility at Swanton Pacific Ranch. The burned region presented an opportunity for studying the hydrologic response of burned soils in the Santa Cruz Mountains where there is insufficient post-fire studies regarding fire-effects on watershed processes such as infiltration and near-surface runoff. Soil infiltration and soil water repellency were evaluated with rainfall simulations, Mini-disk Infiltrometer (MDI) and water drop penetration time tests (WDPT) at sites represented by ...


A Comparison Of Fatigue During Cardiocerebral Resuscitation With Different Compression Rates Among Layperson And Professional Rescuers, Christopher Cassidy Aug 2014

A Comparison Of Fatigue During Cardiocerebral Resuscitation With Different Compression Rates Among Layperson And Professional Rescuers, Christopher Cassidy

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Quality chest compressions during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) are vital to maintaining adequate perfusion of oxygenated blood to the organs of the body to sustain life. Over the years, the compression rate recommended in Basic Life Support (BLS)/ Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) protocols for the best possible outcome has risen, and with that increase there are questions regarding rescuer fatigue and the effectiveness of compressions. Layperson and professional rescuers, answering to an emergency, both maintain continuous chest compressions until advanced life support arrives. Depending on the location, this arrival time would most likely be longer than the two minute standard ...


Examining The Impacts Of State Route 101 On Wildlife Using Road Kill Surveys And Remote Cameras, Sara Ann Snyder Aug 2014

Examining The Impacts Of State Route 101 On Wildlife Using Road Kill Surveys And Remote Cameras, Sara Ann Snyder

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Roads can negatively impact the survival of wildlife populations through additional mortality from road kill and population fragmentation caused by road avoidance behaviors. The 11.9 mile section of State Route 101 between the towns of San Luis Obispo and Atascadero, CA, USA, cross a mountain lion movement corridor and an area important to maintaining ecological connectivity between protected lands in the Los Padres National Forest to the north and south.

I examined the spatial patterns and landscape and roadway factors associated with road kill occurrence for six taxa; large mammals, mesocarnivores, squirrels, rabbits, birds and raptors. Between 1 May ...


Behavioral And Hormonal Flexibility Across Light Environments In Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata), Julia C. Walz Aug 2014

Behavioral And Hormonal Flexibility Across Light Environments In Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata), Julia C. Walz

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Behavior may be dramatically influenced by changing environments, and differences in light intensity environments may have important behavioral consequences. One approach to understanding changes in behavior is by studying behavioral syndromes, suites of correlated behaviors reflecting between individual consistencies in behavior expressed within a behavioral situation (e.g., correlations between antipredator behaviors in different habitats), or across behavioral contexts (e.g., correlations among feeding, antipredator, or mating behavior) (Sih et al. 2004a). Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) provide a great model system to study behavior. Guppies are small, freshwater tropical fish that inhabit still pools in swift-flowing streams, and the backwaters of ...


A Multicultural Nutrition And Culinary Intervention For Middle School Students: Pink And Dude Chefs, Phase 2, Jaime Lynn Lockhart Aug 2014

A Multicultural Nutrition And Culinary Intervention For Middle School Students: Pink And Dude Chefs, Phase 2, Jaime Lynn Lockhart

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The prevalence of adolescent obesity in the United States has more than quadrupled in the past 30 years, growing from 5% to nearly 21% in 12-19 year olds. Although obesity has many interrelated causes, a lack of knowledge and practical skill to prepare healthy food from scratch is an important factor. Research indicates that nutrition and culinary interventions based on behavioral change theories may improve mediators of healthful eating in adolescents.

Pink and Dude Chefs, Phase 2, an eight-week after-school nutrition and culinary intervention targeted towards middle school students in a predominantly low-income, Hispanic community, was developed and evaluated. The ...


Proliferation, Migration, And Survival Of Cells In The Telencephalon Of The Ball Python, Python Regius, Thomas B. Bales Jul 2014

Proliferation, Migration, And Survival Of Cells In The Telencephalon Of The Ball Python, Python Regius, Thomas B. Bales

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Reptiles exhibit neurogenesis throughout the brain during adulthood. However, very few studies have quantified telencephalon-wide neurogenesis in adulthood, and no studies have performed these investigations in snakes. Quantifying neurogenesis in the adult snake is essential to understanding class-wide adult neurogenesis and providing insight into the evolution of this trait. The thymidine analog 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to quantify cell proliferation, migration, and survival in the ball python (Python regius). First, to determine the proper dose of BrdU for injection we subcutaneously injected 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, and 250mg/kg into 15 adult male P. regius. We found the 250mg ...


The Role Of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4 In Flower Color Of The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Leanne Denice Fogg Jul 2014

The Role Of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 4 In Flower Color Of The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Leanne Denice Fogg

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Allopolyploids are formed by interspecific hybridization and whole genome duplication, with the resulting organism contains multiple distinct subgenomes in one nucleus. Subgenomic interactions result in massive genetic and epigenetic reconstruction, contributing to variable phenotypic traits noted in newly formed allopolyploids. To better understand these mechanisms in the context of molecular biology, evolution, and plant breeding, plant biologists study the model organism Brassica napus (farmed as canola or oilseed rape). With white-flowering and yellow-flowering progenitors, flower color phenotype of B. napus presents an opportunity to examine subgenomic interactions. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 4 (CCD4) is known to play a major role in ...


Photosynthetic Thermal Tolerance And Recovery To Short Duration Temperature Stress In Desert And Montane Plants: A Comparative Study, David William Gallagher Jun 2014

Photosynthetic Thermal Tolerance And Recovery To Short Duration Temperature Stress In Desert And Montane Plants: A Comparative Study, David William Gallagher

Master's Theses and Project Reports

  • Climate change models predict an increase in frequency and amplitude of extreme weather events, including heat waves. To better predict how the composition and distribution of plant assemblages might respond to these changes in temperature, it is important to understand how species currently respond to these extremes. Photosynthetic thermal tolerance (T25)and photosynthetic recovery (RT25) were quantified in 27 species. We also studied the relationships between T25, RT25 and leaf mass per area (LMA). Leaf temperature was also monitored in the field.
  • Leaves used in this study were collected from two distinct environments representing desert and ...


Investigation Of Chromosome Size Effect On The Rate Of Crossovers In The Meiotic Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Lanie Maria Galland Jun 2014

Investigation Of Chromosome Size Effect On The Rate Of Crossovers In The Meiotic Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Lanie Maria Galland

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division characterized by a single round of DNA replication and two rounds of chromosome segregation, ultimately resulting in four haploid cells. During meiosis I, chromosomes align and reciprocal recombination results in the formation of a crossover, creating the tension required to properly segregate homologs during the first round of meiosis.

Two mechanisms involved in regulating the occurrence of crossing over are assurance and interference. Crossover assurance describes the phenomenon that at least one crossover will form between each pair of homologous chromosomes during prophase I. Crossover interference, on the other hand, describes the ...


Optimization Of Growth Parameters For Algal Regrowth Potential Experiments, Chadwick D. Boggess Jun 2014

Optimization Of Growth Parameters For Algal Regrowth Potential Experiments, Chadwick D. Boggess

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Water cost is one of the key deterrents in making algal biofuels a feasible alternative to traditional petroleum fuels. Research into recycling of algal media was conducted in a laboratory setting at the California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo. A growth assay was created to allow for algal cultures, specifically Ward’s Chlorella sp., to proliferate in sealed culture vessels. Bold’s Basal Medium (BBM) was selected as the media due to its extensive use with freshwater algal strains. However, this medium can limit algal growth through nutrient limitation and it became necessary to augment the original recipe ...


Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes Jun 2014

Developent Of A Phospholipid Encapsulation Process For Quantum Dots To Be Used In Biologic Applications, Logan Grimes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The American Cancer Society predicts that 1,665,540 people will be diagnosed with cancer, and 585,720 people will die from cancer in 2014. One of the most common types of cancer in the United States is skin cancer. Melanoma alone is predicted to account for 10,000 of the cancer related deaths in 2014. As a highly mobile and aggressive form of cancer, melanoma is difficult to fight once it has metastasized through the body. Early detection in such varieties of cancer is critical in improving survival rates in afflicted patients. Present methods of detection rely on visual ...


Assessing Rodent Species Counts And Diversity In The Not-Grazed Montana De Oro State Park And The Rotationally Grazed Pecho Ranch, Nancy Marie Lemos Jun 2014

Assessing Rodent Species Counts And Diversity In The Not-Grazed Montana De Oro State Park And The Rotationally Grazed Pecho Ranch, Nancy Marie Lemos

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The available data examining the influence of rotational grazing on rodent responses are limited. This study investigated how rotational livestock grazing practices influence small mammal rodent abundances and species diversity. We looked for evidence of variation in the occurrence and/or numbers of certain rodent species among three plant community types (grassland, shrubland, grass-shrub mix), managed with or without grazing. We used Sherman live traps over a total of eight trapping sessions. We totaled 486 trapnights for each of the six plant community and grazing management combinations. The three plant community types were identified by visual cover.

Out of the ...


Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus) Tree Preference And Intersite Movement At California Overwintering Sites, Jessica Lynn Griffiths Jun 2014

Monarch Butterfly (Danaus Plexippus) Tree Preference And Intersite Movement At California Overwintering Sites, Jessica Lynn Griffiths

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Managing Monarch butterfly overwintering groves: making room among the eucalyptus

Proper management and conservation of the coastal California overwintering sites used by western Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) is critical for continued use of these sites by monarchs. Many management efforts are currently concentrating on eucalyptus-only sites because of the prevailing notion that monarchs prefer eucalyptus over native tree species. Yet, whether a preference exists or not has never been tested. Herein, we test the “eucalyptus preference” hypothesis with data from five overwintering sites comprised of blue gum eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and at least one other native tree species from ...


The Role Of Sirtuin Inhibitors On The Proteomic Responses Of The Mussels Mytilus Galloprovincialis And Mytilus Trossulus To Menadione Induced Oxidative Stress, Hayley C. Chilton Jun 2014

The Role Of Sirtuin Inhibitors On The Proteomic Responses Of The Mussels Mytilus Galloprovincialis And Mytilus Trossulus To Menadione Induced Oxidative Stress, Hayley C. Chilton

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Global climate change imposes physiological constraints on marine ecosystems that can alter the distribution of intertidal organisms. In one such instance, the native cold-adapted mussel Mytilus trossulus is being replaced along its southern range by the invasive warm-adapted Mytilus galloprovincialis. These blue mussels occur throughout rocky intertidal zones where they are subjected to greatly varying environmental conditions known to induce oxidative stress. We hypothesize that while under acute stress, related Mytilus congeners undergo a shift in redox potential from NADH-fueled respiratory pathways to pathways producing NADPH as a way to decrease the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide ...


An Examination Of An Environmental Change In Beverages Available To High School Students In Santa Maria, California On Their Consumption Behavior, Susan Eileen Klucker Jun 2014

An Examination Of An Environmental Change In Beverages Available To High School Students In Santa Maria, California On Their Consumption Behavior, Susan Eileen Klucker

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Hypothesis: "By an environmental change in high school vending machines, making water available, students will choose water over the sugar sweetened sodas."

This document highlights a case study analysis of vendor-provided refill data for forty-five beverage vending machines at two campus sites in one high school district in 2003 and 2004. The innovative study and publicized negotiated soda contract of a 50:50 (healthy to unhealthy) beverage ratio stipulation became the “Win-Win-WEAN” compromise, in which exposure to healthier beverage options for students might prove to provide the same income opportunity for the school district.

An overview of the political climate ...


Evaluation Of Red Alder Mortality In The Little Creek Watershed Following The 2009 Lockheed Fire, Dylan Robert Theobald Mar 2014

Evaluation Of Red Alder Mortality In The Little Creek Watershed Following The 2009 Lockheed Fire, Dylan Robert Theobald

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Five hundred eighty red alder along a 2.16 km portion of the Little Creek riparian zone were assessed for mortality following the 2009 Lockheed Fire near Davenport, California. The study area was divided into burn severity zones and every red alder within the riparian zone was observed and assessed for mortality. Height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and age were collected on selected trees. An estimation of red alder large woody debris (LWD) input to Little Creek since a 2010 LWD survey (Smith, 2010) was calculated using average red alder tree dimensions applied to Smalian’s formula (MLNRO, 2011 ...


Territorial Behavior And Cortical Brain Plasticity In Adult Male Sceloporus Occidentalis, Daniel R. Pfau Mar 2014

Territorial Behavior And Cortical Brain Plasticity In Adult Male Sceloporus Occidentalis, Daniel R. Pfau

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The hippocampus is a brain region that can undergo tremendous plasticity in adulthood. The hippocampus is related to the formation of spatial memories in birds and mammals. In birds, plasticity in the hippocampus occurs when formation of such memories is directly relevant to survival or reproduction, such as for breeding or food caching. In reptiles, the homologues to the hippocampus are the dorsal and medial cortices (DC and MC). In several lizard, snake and turtle species, these structures have been related to spatial memory. Experimental investigations indicate that differences in DC volume are related to space use associated with differing ...


The Ecological Effects Of Cattle Grazing On Reptiles And Small Mammals In A San Joaquin Valley Grassland, Michael William Tom Feb 2014

The Ecological Effects Of Cattle Grazing On Reptiles And Small Mammals In A San Joaquin Valley Grassland, Michael William Tom

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Livestock grazing is a common and extensive land use practice in the United States occurring in a wide range of habitat types. As such, livestock grazing has the potential to alter ecosystem structure, function and community composition. The primary component (Chapter 1) of this thesis examined the effects of cattle grazing in a San Joaquin Valley grassland on two target taxa: reptiles and small mammals. The study took place on the Chimineas Unit of the Carrizo Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California during Fall 2009 and Spring 2010. These taxa were sampled on matched pairs of two grazed and ...


Proteomic Analysis Of Mammary Epithelial Cell Development, Alyssa Kay Conly Jan 2014

Proteomic Analysis Of Mammary Epithelial Cell Development, Alyssa Kay Conly

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In this set of studies, a proteomic approach was used to investigate the protein profile of the mammary epithelial cell (MEC) through different stages of mammary development. The HC11 cell line was used to investigate protein changes between undifferentiated and differentiated MEC, which represent the pregnant and lactating states of the cells. This comparison revealed an interesting differential expression profile underscoring many recognized processes that occur in differentiated MECs, while others unveiled differences between MEC differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Primary MEC were also isolated from virgin, pregnant, and primiparous quiescent mice to compare the virgin state of the ...