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Saponin Removal From Quinoa By Abrasion Processing, Luke Lundberg Jun 2019

Saponin Removal From Quinoa By Abrasion Processing, Luke Lundberg

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Quinoa is coated with a thin layer of saponins, glycosylated triterpenoids, that produce a bitter flavor when consumed. The average saponin content in commercial varietals from Bolivia average around 2.7% saponins and organoleptic testing shows the threshold for noticing a bitter flavor is below 0.12% (Medina-Meza et al., 2016). Current industrial processing methods use a combination of abrasion and turbulent water flow to remove saponin. This study will address the following research question: How will grain-to-grain and grain-to-surface abrasion affect the processing time to remove saponin from quinoa? In particular, can effective saponin removal be achieved in less ...


The Effect Of Alcohol And Bitterness Levels On Brewing Yeast Viability, Nichole Elizabeth Bryant Mar 2019

The Effect Of Alcohol And Bitterness Levels On Brewing Yeast Viability, Nichole Elizabeth Bryant

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Two of the most popular beer styles within the craft brewing industry are India Pale Ales (IPA’s) and those with high alcohol by volume (ABV). Production of these styles requires high gravity fermentation and high amounts of bittering hops in order to reach the required values for ABV and International Bitterness units (IBU) respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of high gravity fermentation and high IBU levels on yeast viability and repitching cycles.

An initial experiment on high gravity fermentations was done in order to assess the effects this variable had alone. Successive five ...


Parental Perspective And Feeding Practices Effects On Food Neophobia In Elementary-Age School Children, Farnoosh Ayoughi Oct 2018

Parental Perspective And Feeding Practices Effects On Food Neophobia In Elementary-Age School Children, Farnoosh Ayoughi

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The Food neophobia (FN) behaviors in children are developed during childhood and can be influenced by parental FN and feeding behaviors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FN and fruit and vegetable neophobia (FVN) among parents, the parents-reports on child's behavior and child self-reports. The effect of parental feeding practices and demographic variables on children’s FN and FVN were evaluated. Sixty-eight parents paired with their elementary school children (aged 7-12 years) in San Luis Coastal Unified School District participated in this study. Results indicated that parents reported their children more neophobic than children ...


Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell Aug 2018

Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Captive insectivores may consume invertebrates as all, or part of their overall diet. The challenge with feeding captive insectivores involves the limited number of invertebrate species that are commercially available, and the lack of key nutrients provided by these insects. Among these insects, a naturally occurring low concentration of calcium and an inverse calcium to phosphorus ratio may put insectivores at the risk of developing hypocalcemia. A strategy to correct this nutrient imbalance involves supplementing the insect diet with high concentrations of targeted nutrients – a term referred to as gut-loading. Current industry guidelines recommend feeding a supplemented diet for 48 ...


The Effect Of Destoning And Enzymatic Pretreatments On The Biofuel Production From Olive Cake, Patrick Tai Jul 2018

The Effect Of Destoning And Enzymatic Pretreatments On The Biofuel Production From Olive Cake, Patrick Tai

Master's Theses and Project Reports

More than 16,000 tons of olive cake was produced in the United States in 2017. Olive cake is a by-product of olive oil extraction, which has limited animal feed potential, and poses an environmental threat when landfilled due to its high organic load and polyphenol content. This residue has potential for biofuel (bioethanol and biomethane) production because it is rich in polysaccharides such as pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. Yet, olive cake contains olive stones that can impede its conversion to biofuel. Therefore, two methods of destoning, centrifugation and screening by horizontal screw press, were first compared. Both methods removed ...


Strategies For Increasing The Release Of Pigments In Red Wine, Briana Heywood Aug 2017

Strategies For Increasing The Release Of Pigments In Red Wine, Briana Heywood

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The perception of wine’s quality is directly influenced by its color. Anthocyanin molecules are responsible for imparting color to red wines. They are extracted from grape skins during alcoholic fermentation. This work compares the effects of three parameters: berry integrity, enzyme addition, and fermentation temperature, on phenolic compound extraction (total phenol, tannin and anthocyanin) during the production of Paso Robles’ Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Analyses on phenolic compounds were completed during alcoholic fermentation and barrel aging over the course of eighteen months. Berry integrity compared the degree of berry crushing (whole destemmed berries versus fully crushed berries). Results showed that ...


The Recovery Of Protein From Egg Yolk Protein Extraction Granule Byproduct, Irene Jennifer Kaufman Jun 2017

The Recovery Of Protein From Egg Yolk Protein Extraction Granule Byproduct, Irene Jennifer Kaufman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In addition to proving an excellent source of nutrients, eggs are used in the food, cosmetic, and biotechnology industries for their rheological and bioactive properties. Much of the potential for the added value is in individual components of the egg, rather than the whole egg. At low speed centrifugation, yolk separates into two distinct fractions—granules and plasma. It is becoming increasingly popular in the industry to remove the plasma fraction of the egg yolk to use for its livetins, particularly immunoglobulin Y, leaving behind a granule by-product (“yellow cake”). Previous research has shown potential added-value from the granule fraction ...


The Use Of Lactic Acid Bacteria To Control The Growth Of Foodborne Pathogens On Fresh-Cut Fruits And Sprout Vegetables, Franca Gabriela Rossi Jun 2016

The Use Of Lactic Acid Bacteria To Control The Growth Of Foodborne Pathogens On Fresh-Cut Fruits And Sprout Vegetables, Franca Gabriela Rossi

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Growing consumer awareness of the health benefits associated with fruits and vegetables and demand for easy to prepare products has prompted the development of a wide variety of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are often peeled, cut, or diced which compromise the produces’ natural protective barriers, exposing a nutrient rich medium and providing an ideal environment for the growth of microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens. The germination conditions of sprout vegetables consisting of relatively high temperatures and humidity, low light and abundance of nutrients are also conducive to the proliferation of foodborne pathogens. Recent outbreaks and ...


Effect Of Reduced Sodium Cheese On The Growth Of Pathogenic Bacteria And Inactivation Of Listeria Innocua Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction With Co2, Suyapa Padilla Antunez Apr 2016

Effect Of Reduced Sodium Cheese On The Growth Of Pathogenic Bacteria And Inactivation Of Listeria Innocua Using Supercritical Fluid Extraction With Co2, Suyapa Padilla Antunez

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Listeria monocytogenes continues to challenge the dairy industry in causing post-process contamination of cheeses. To reduce risk of contamination, it is crucial to understand the growth and survival of pathogenic bacteria in cheese products and to develop post-process mitigation strategies. This study evaluated the fate of pathogens in reduced and regular sodium Mozzarella cheese, and the potential of Supercritical Fluid Extraction with CO2 (SFE) to reduce Listeria innocua on Mozzarella and Queso Fresco. The survival of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and E.coli O157:H7 (2-3 log CFU/g) in reduced sodium Mozzarella (1.62%), compared to regular sodium Mozzarella ...


Screening Of Biocontrol Organisms For The Management Of Phytopathogenic Fungi And Foodborne Pathogens On Produce, Antoinette Boyee De Senna Jun 2015

Screening Of Biocontrol Organisms For The Management Of Phytopathogenic Fungi And Foodborne Pathogens On Produce, Antoinette Boyee De Senna

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The multibillion dollar agricultural industry is an important part of the United States economy, and the management of factors that affect crop and human health is imperative to maintaining this economic sector. The fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum, and Fusarium moniliforme are the causative agents of several plant diseases and can cause significant crop loss both before and after harvest in commodities such as strawberries, lettuce, citrus, and grains. Fungicides are employed to control these phytopathogens, but the use of these chemicals has led to an increase in fungicide resistance and may negatively affect the environment and human health. In ...


Consumer Evaluation: The Link Between Body Mass Index, Reward Sensitivity, Product Liking And Emotion, Malori Comer Jun 2015

Consumer Evaluation: The Link Between Body Mass Index, Reward Sensitivity, Product Liking And Emotion, Malori Comer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate consumer acceptance of cheeses varying in fat and sodium levels, (2) to determine if sensitivity to reward and body mass index has an effect on product liking based on fat or salt content, (3) to evaluate the use of FaceReader technology during consumer evaluation and, (4) to determine if consumer’s self-selected, conscious emotions matched with the expressed, subconscious emotions acquired by FaceReader.

Consumer acceptance testing (n=108) was conducted on two medium cheddar cheeses with varying fat levels and two low-moisture part-skim mozzarella cheeses varying in sodium levels. Attributes were ...


High Moisture Extrusion Of Oatmeal, Brandon F. Coleman Jun 2015

High Moisture Extrusion Of Oatmeal, Brandon F. Coleman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Oats are considered to be a highly nutritious breakfast food available to consumers. Heightened consumer interest in functional food products and advances in human nutrition have led to increased levels of interest in the development of new oat based products (Webster and Wood 2011). Developments in technology have led to manufacturing of instant oatmeal, making the product more convenient to consumers. Low moisture extrusion processing is one of the most widely used methods to produce ready to eat breakfast cereals; however, there has been little research carried out to determine if high moisture extrusion methods would be viable. This study ...


Seasonal Variation Of Milk In Central Valley California And The Association Of Milk Variation With The Composition And Texture Of Low Mositure Part Skim Mozzarella, Vaideki Jai Dec 2014

Seasonal Variation Of Milk In Central Valley California And The Association Of Milk Variation With The Composition And Texture Of Low Mositure Part Skim Mozzarella, Vaideki Jai

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The chemical composition of milk (specifically casein, fat, and calcium) is known to affect the quality and functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. Therefore, concentrations of total nitrogen, casein nitrogen, non-casein nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, true nitrogen, casein nitrogen to total nitrogen ratio, casein nitrogen to true nitrogen ratio, fat, total calcium, total solids, somatic cells, and pH were measured in silo milk samples collected weekly over 18-months from a large dairy plant in Central Valley, California from July 2008 to December 2009 to verify changes and correlate to low moisture part skim Mozzarella (LMPS) characteristics. LMPS mozzarella cheese from the same ...


The Effects Of 8 Weeks Of Low Dose Supplementation Of Creatine And Sodium Bicarbonate On Exercise Performance, Amanda Jessica Morris Dec 2013

The Effects Of 8 Weeks Of Low Dose Supplementation Of Creatine And Sodium Bicarbonate On Exercise Performance, Amanda Jessica Morris

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Short-term (3-7 days), high doses of creatine (20g/d) and/or sodium bicarbonate (0.5g/kg body weight) supplementation increase exercise performance during short term high intensity activities; however, it remains unclear whether long-term, low doses of these supplements have a positive impact on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of long-term (8 weeks), low dose creatine supplementation on exercise performance, and whether combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation has an additive effect. Sixty-three healthy, habitually active, adults (28 M, 35 W; 22+2 years; 23+ 3 BMI) were randomly assigned by sex to ...


Effect Of Antimicrobials And Sodium Replacement Agents On The Survival Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Low Sodium Low-Moisture Part-Skim (Lmps) Mozzarella Cheese, Tiffany M J Taylor Dec 2013

Effect Of Antimicrobials And Sodium Replacement Agents On The Survival Of Pathogenic Bacteria In Low Sodium Low-Moisture Part-Skim (Lmps) Mozzarella Cheese, Tiffany M J Taylor

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Recent increases in chronic cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, have put pressure on the food industry to reduce sodium levels. Dairy products, though full of vital nutrients, are perceived as being high in sodium. However, the reduction of salt in dairy products could potentially alter the microbial stability, as well as cause unfavorable changes in flavor. In order to reduce the sodium level, while maintaining acceptable flavor and microbial stability, salt replacers and alternative antimicrobial agents may need to be introduced into the food matrix. To identify potential antimicrobials for use in reduced sodium dairy products, this study evaluated the ...


The Effects Of Microfluidization And Homogenization On The Composition And Structure Of Liposomal Aggregates From Whey Buttermilk And Commercial Buttermilk, Tracey Mai T. Nguyen Aug 2013

The Effects Of Microfluidization And Homogenization On The Composition And Structure Of Liposomal Aggregates From Whey Buttermilk And Commercial Buttermilk, Tracey Mai T. Nguyen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Milk derived ingredients from the production of cheese and butter can be used as vehicles for nutrients. Buttermilk is a nutritious product of milk that comes from the churning of cream into butter. One of the advantages of buttermilk is that it is enriched in milk fat globule components, such as phospholipids and forms emulsions with fat when treated with high shear. The objective of this work was to explore the effects of shear on regular buttermilk and whey buttermilk in terms of liposomal aggregate size and chemical composition. The effects of microfluidization at 2000 psi and homogenization at 2000 ...


Effects Of Chelating Agents On Texture Of Lowfat Cheddar Cheese, Mariela Fernanda Poveda Jun 2013

Effects Of Chelating Agents On Texture Of Lowfat Cheddar Cheese, Mariela Fernanda Poveda

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Effects of two types of chelating agents on proteolysis and texture properties of low fat Cheddar cheese (LFC) were analyzed and compared to full fat Cheddar (FFC) control during ripening for 120 days at 8°C. We hypothesized that chelating agents would bind calcium ions from cheese matrix to give a softer curd due to a decrease of protein-protein interactions and simultaneously increasing moisture content. Cheese milk containing (0.59% fat) was divided into three lots (A, B & C). Sodium citrate (3Na) and disodium EDTA (EDTA) were added to A & B at the rate of (0.02% and 0.2 ...


Effect Of Ph And Temperature On The Binding Interactions Of Caffeine And Chlorogenic Acid With Sodium Caseinate, Emily S. Kong May 2013

Effect Of Ph And Temperature On The Binding Interactions Of Caffeine And Chlorogenic Acid With Sodium Caseinate, Emily S. Kong

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Coffee is a popular and well-loved beverage consumed worldwide by millions of people every day. While most patrons of coffee do so because of its unique and satisfying taste, consumers may be unaware of the potential beneficial health effects it also imparts. The antioxidants found in green coffee beans collectively known as chlorogenic acids (CGA) and caffeine are two of the most abundant bioactive compounds present in coffee. Both these bioactive compounds have been implicated in many studies to impart a wide range of health benefits, from reducing the risk of Type 2 diabetes, to their use as aides in ...


Consumer Evaluation Of Low Sodium Mozzarella Cheese And Development Of A Novel Method For Evaluating Emotions, Lauren Alyse Collinsworth Mar 2013

Consumer Evaluation Of Low Sodium Mozzarella Cheese And Development Of A Novel Method For Evaluating Emotions, Lauren Alyse Collinsworth

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Mozzarella cheese is currently the highest consumed cheese in the United States. The popularity of mozzarella cheese is typically attributed to the high consumption rates of pizza cheese and string cheese; both of which are low moisture part skim (LMPS) mozzarella cheese. A single serving of LMPS mozzarella cheese contains approximately 8% of the daily value (DV) for sodium, a mineral which is currently consumed in excess among most Americans. On average, one in three Americans has hypertension. This condition is strongly associated with excessive sodium intake, and it is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke in ...


Effect Of Post Manufacture Thermal Dip Treatment On Proteolysis Of Commercial String Cheese During Storage, Melissa Karen Hsu Mar 2013

Effect Of Post Manufacture Thermal Dip Treatment On Proteolysis Of Commercial String Cheese During Storage, Melissa Karen Hsu

Master's Theses and Project Reports

String cheese, a Mozzarella cheese, has the unique ability to string in fibrous strands when pulled apart. Graders judge string cheese by its stringy texture; samples with copious amounts of string are awarded high ratings. But just as the texture of natural cheeses softens with time, the stringy texture of string cheese can diminish with age too.

Age related softening in cheese is due primarily to an important biochemical event known as proteolysis, which is attributed to inherent milk proteinases, residual coagulant activity, and enzymes from the lysis of starter culture microorganisms. It is hypothesized that a post manufacture heat ...


Strawberry Growth, Yield, Fruit Nutrition, And Control Of Verticillium Wilt With Pre-Plant Soil Fumigants, Ozone, And Biological Control, Justin J. Scurich Apr 2012

Strawberry Growth, Yield, Fruit Nutrition, And Control Of Verticillium Wilt With Pre-Plant Soil Fumigants, Ozone, And Biological Control, Justin J. Scurich

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Verticillium wilt is a widespread soilborne disease of strawberry historically controlled by soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB). MB was banned by the United Nations in 1995 and will be completely phased out by 2015. Research has concentrated on alternative methods of disease control without finding a single alternative able to replace MB in widespread disease control and yield increase. For the current study, strawberries were greenhouse grown in container pots filled with soil from both infested and non-infested areas of a commercial strawberry field in Watsonville, CA. Treatments included pre-plant soil fumigation with commercially available formulations of methyl bromide ...


Evaluation Of Vacuum Packaging On The Physical Properties, Solubility, And Storage Space Of Dairy Powders, Hadi Eshpari Jul 2011

Evaluation Of Vacuum Packaging On The Physical Properties, Solubility, And Storage Space Of Dairy Powders, Hadi Eshpari

Master's Theses and Project Reports

As many of the dairy powders manufactured have to travel long distances to reach their customers, both domestically and internationally, there is considerable interest among dairy powder manufacturers to maintain the quality of their products for relatively long storage periods. Dairy powders can have a long shelf life if packaged and stored properly. Vacuum packaging can be an attractive packaging strategy to maintain the quality of dairy powders and provide added value by improving the efficiency of using the storage space; because of the inherent compactness of these products. Vacuum packaged dry dairy ingredients may also have added ease of ...


Effects Of Milk Processing On The Milk Fat Globule Membrane Constituents, Xiomara E. Elías-Argote Jul 2011

Effects Of Milk Processing On The Milk Fat Globule Membrane Constituents, Xiomara E. Elías-Argote

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

Effects of Milk Processing on the Milk Fat Globule Membrane Constituents

Xiomara E. Elías-Argote

The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is avidly studied by many groups of scientists around the world due to its unprecedented nutritional and functional properties; however, limited research has been performed on the effects of milk processing on the chemical changes of the MFGM. Thus, this study highlights the changes that lipids and proteins undergo from the time milk leaves cow’s udders. Cooling (4 °C) was included along with subsequent pasteurization by different traditional thermal processes and cold pasteurization by pulse light ultra violet ...


The Effect Of Processing Parameters And Methylcellulose On Texture And Consumer Acceptability Of A Non-Melting Dairy Protein Gel, Joshua Goldman Jun 2011

The Effect Of Processing Parameters And Methylcellulose On Texture And Consumer Acceptability Of A Non-Melting Dairy Protein Gel, Joshua Goldman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The overall goal was to understand the capabilities of a dairy based meat alternative. This was done in three phases: 1) the production of a dairy protein gel as a base for a dairy based meat alternative, 2) texturization of the dairy protein gel base to produce a nugget like texture, and 3) a consumer test to determine the acceptability of the dairy based nugget compared to meat and meat alternatives on the market.

For phase I, a dairy protein gel base was tested to understand the textural attributes. Milk to whey percentages and level of acidification were examined to ...


Angiostatin Like Peptides In Milk: Potential Development For Dairy Products Capable Of Cancer Prevention, Erin Stefanutti Mar 2011

Angiostatin Like Peptides In Milk: Potential Development For Dairy Products Capable Of Cancer Prevention, Erin Stefanutti

Master's Theses and Project Reports

For the past 40 years, antiangiogenic approaches have been of major interest in the development of methods to cure and prevent cancer. Angiogenesis, the development of blood vessels from pre-existing vascularization, is essential for cancer growth and spread of metastasis through the delivery of nutrients and oxygen essential to sustain the metabolic activity of these malignant cells. Blocking access to blood will cause cancerous cells to assume a dormant state creating inactive micro-tumors innocuous to the host. Angiostatin, the internal fragment of the fibrinolytic zymogen plasminogen, has shown great potential in reducing cancer size and number of metastatic colonies in ...


Effect Of Sodium Chloride Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate, Scott J. Gualco Dec 2010

Effect Of Sodium Chloride Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate, Scott J. Gualco

Master's Theses and Project Reports

There is considerable interest among food manufacturers to incorporate protein into food products in both developed and developing countries. Dairy proteins are excellent choices for many different applications, as they are known to have several nutritional and functional benefits. Membrane filtration techniques are often utilized as the preferred method of fractionation, due to the high throughput and continuous nature of the process. One such product produced from membrane filtration of skim milk is called milk protein concentrate. This product is valued for its high protein content, but it has historically exhibited poor solubility when reconstituted into water, which severely restricts ...


Development And Validation Of A Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready To Eat (Rte) Bar, Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick Dec 2010

Development And Validation Of A Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready To Eat (Rte) Bar, Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick

Master's Theses and Project Reports

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A LIGHT WEIGHT, ENERGY DENSE, READY TO EAT (RTE) BAR

Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick

Providing additional calories in the form of an RTE bar to endurance athletes will increase performance and muscle re-synthesis, reduce muscle breakdown, and shorten recovery time. An RTE bar containing a blend of dairy proteins and carbohydrates will create a product with superior functionality, including bioactive and immunity enhancing properties from dairy derived ingredients. The protein will provide benefits in the form of easily digestible calories, essential amino acids and physical satiate.

A formulation was developed and optimized, resulting in a final product ...


Effect Of Processing Parameters On Texture, Composition And Applicability Of High Protein Dairy Food, Maulik Shah Mar 2009

Effect Of Processing Parameters On Texture, Composition And Applicability Of High Protein Dairy Food, Maulik Shah

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of key process parameters on the flow properties of a novel High Protein Dairy Food (HPDF). HPDF was manufactured by an approach similar to that of manufacture of Halloumi cheese (a semi hard cheese originally from Cyprus). The effect of pasteurization condition, pH of acidification and homogenization were investigated on flowability, composition and texture of the HPDF. The study consisted of three different stages. After each stage of experimentation, the HPDF was analyzed for compositional, textural (by texture profile analysis) and flow properties during heating by microwave, oven and hot ...


Effects Of Filtration Temperature And Heat Treatment On Composition And Rheological Properties Of Whole Milk Ultrafiltration Retentates, John W. Montella Oct 2008

Effects Of Filtration Temperature And Heat Treatment On Composition And Rheological Properties Of Whole Milk Ultrafiltration Retentates, John W. Montella

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

Effects of Filtration Temperature and Heat Treatment on Composition and Rheological Properties of Whole Milk Ultrafiltration Retentates

John William Montella

For the first part of my thesis, the effects of filtration temperature and heat treatment on the compositional properties of whole milk Ultrafiltration retentate (UF) were studied. Ultrafiltration is primarily run at temperatures in the range of 50-55°C but more and more plants are starting to filter at refrigeration temperatures. In the ultrafiltration of milk, filtration temperature can affect the composition of the retentate by affecting the chemistry of milk components. The application of a pasteurization step can ...