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Kinesiology

Electromyography

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Examining The Effectiveness Of Electromyography Biofeedback At Improving The Upper Trapezius To Serratus Anterior Muscle Activation Ratio, Julia Evelyn Holton Aug 2019

Examining The Effectiveness Of Electromyography Biofeedback At Improving The Upper Trapezius To Serratus Anterior Muscle Activation Ratio, Julia Evelyn Holton

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Purpose: The upper trapezius to serratus anterior muscle activation ratio is essential for optimal shoulder function. An alteration of this ratio, specifically a decrease in upper trapezius and increase in serratus anterior activation, is a main area of focus in shoulder rehabilitation (Kibler, 1998; Paine & Voight, 1993). Electromyography (EMG) biofeedback has been shown to be an effective rehabilitation technique to address many musculoskeletal disorders but there is limited research on the retention of improvements seen with EMG biofeedback (Ma et al., 2011; Lim et al., 2014; Weon, et al., 2011). The purpose of this study was to determine if EMG biofeedback can be used to improve scapular control by decreasing the upper trapezius to serratus anterior activation ratio. A secondary purpose was to determine if these predicted improvements in the ratio can be retained beyond the timeframe ...


Effect Of Caffeine Supplementation On Vertical Jump Performance, Heart Rate Variability, And Electromyography, Collin T. Garner Aug 2019

Effect Of Caffeine Supplementation On Vertical Jump Performance, Heart Rate Variability, And Electromyography, Collin T. Garner

Master's Theses

Research into caffeine’s ability to improve anaerobic performance is inconclusive. Eleven anaerobically trained individuals (mean age: 23.45 ± 1.51 years) participated in this study. Assessments of resting heart rate variability (HRV), exercise heart rate variability, surface electromyography (sEMG), static vertical jump (SJ), and countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) were conducted before and after administration of placebo and caffeinated treatments. Three trials of each vertical jump technique were performed before and after treatment administration. A 60-minute absorption period was utilized for absorption of the treatment following its ingestion. All participants performed testing on two separate occasions, once under the placebo ...


An Investigation Of The Biomechanics Of Kinesiology Tape, Jessa Ward Apr 2019

An Investigation Of The Biomechanics Of Kinesiology Tape, Jessa Ward

Graduate Theses - Biology & Biomedical Engineering

Kinesiology tape has grown in popularity since its widespread use at the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games. Manufacturers of these colorful tapes have advertised biomechanical benefits for athletes, including pain relief and muscle support, without much quantitative evidence to support these claims. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the biomechanical aspects of kinesiology tape and how it affects subjects’ muscle activity. This research study evaluated the muscle activity of subjects’ low back before and after tape application during targeted, bodyweight exercises. Each subject’s muscle activity, measured through electromyography (EMG), was normalized and assessed using nonparametric statistical ...


Effects Of Instability On Core Muscle Activation In A Side Bridge, Erin E. Kishman Jun 2018

Effects Of Instability On Core Muscle Activation In A Side Bridge, Erin E. Kishman

Master's Theses

Training the musculature of the core continues to be perceived as an essential component of conditioning and rehabilitation settings (11). A popular way to train the core is with the use of instability devices, such as Swiss ball or suspension trainer. However, there is limited research on the effects of these devices on core muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to examine core muscle activity during side bridge variations with and without instability devices (Floor, Swiss Ball, and TRX) through electromyography (EMG) of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi. 39 participants performed three variations ...


Motor Affordance For Grasping A Safety Handle, Doug W. Mcdannald May 2018

Motor Affordance For Grasping A Safety Handle, Doug W. Mcdannald

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Observation of objects in our environment can potentiate movement, a fact reflected by increased activity in motor cortical networks when participants simply view a graspable object. This suggests that specific areas in the motor cortex play an important role in processing visual information to rapidly determine an appropriate action. The present study was conducted to test if visual access to a wall-mounted safety handle results in activation of motor cortical networks. We hypothesized that the hand area of the primary motor cortex would be facilitated shortly after visual access to a safety handle versus when no handle was visible. To ...


Functional Anatomy Of Palmar Musculature, Colin W. Moore Apr 2018

Functional Anatomy Of Palmar Musculature, Colin W. Moore

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The palmaris longus (PL) and palmaris brevis (PB) are upper limb muscles considered atavistic remnants of those found in animal species. Despite their use in surgical grafting and tendon transfer procedures, the functional role of the PL and PB have not been investigated comprehensively in vivo. Using a multi-modal experimental approach consisting of indwelling fine wire electromyography (EMG), ultrasonography and immunohistochemical muscle staining techniques, the function of the PL and PB in the hand was evaluated both in in vivo and in situ.

The purpose of Study 1 was to determine whether the PL provides synergistic contributions to thenar contractions ...


Muscle Synergy During A Single Leg Standing Test In Ambulatory Children With Cerebral Palsy, Brennan L. Smith Jan 2018

Muscle Synergy During A Single Leg Standing Test In Ambulatory Children With Cerebral Palsy, Brennan L. Smith

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by dysfunctional motor coordination, balance problems, and loss of selective motor control. Motor coordination exhibited as co-contraction, has been subjectively quantified using gait analysis, but recent studies have begun to objectively analyze the amount of co-contraction by collecting electromyography (EMG) data. Center of pressure excursion (COPE) measurements collected during a single leg standing test (SLST) have shown to be more valid measurements of balance in populations with motor disabilities than a SLST alone. A recent study has correlated increased COPE velocity with a lower fall risk as determined by reported fall ...


Muscle Activation Analysis With Kinematic Comparison Between Wind-Up And Stretch Pitching With Respect To The Upper And Lower Extremities, Megan M. Smidebush Jan 2018

Muscle Activation Analysis With Kinematic Comparison Between Wind-Up And Stretch Pitching With Respect To The Upper And Lower Extremities, Megan M. Smidebush

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

Introduction: Baseball pitching is considered one of the most intense aspects within the game of baseball, as well as the most complicated dynamic throwing task in all of sports. The biomechanics of pitching have been heavily investigated in an attempt to identify optimal pitching mechanics in terms of pitching performance. Previous quantified upper body kinetics research has concluded that improved muscle strength is needed in attempting to achieve adequate upper body kinetics and efficient pitching performances. Therefore, it is the purpose of this research study to compare the lower extremity muscle and upper extremity muscle activation patterns and kinematic variables ...


The Effect Of Treadmill Vs. Nustep Recumbent Cross Trainer On Gait And Lower Extremity Electromyography After Chronic Stroke, Nicholas Joseph Siekirk Jan 2018

The Effect Of Treadmill Vs. Nustep Recumbent Cross Trainer On Gait And Lower Extremity Electromyography After Chronic Stroke, Nicholas Joseph Siekirk

Wayne State University Dissertations

Pilot Part 1: The purpose was to investigate the effect of a perceived exertion based cadence on lower extremity muscle activation, as measured by surface electromyography (EMG) on a recumbent cross trainer. The purpose of this investigation was to study the EMG activity of 12 lower extremity muscles during five different stepping protocols; perceived exertion based self-selected (SS) cadence with level 1 resistance (SSL1), SS cadence with level 8 resistance (SSL8), +20% SS cadence (SS+20), -20% SS cadence (SS-20), and at a set 80 steps per minute at resistance level 1 (80L1). In order to determine SS cadence each ...


Differences In The Muscle Activity For Baseball Hitters Of Varying Skill, Ethan M. Stewart Jan 2017

Differences In The Muscle Activity For Baseball Hitters Of Varying Skill, Ethan M. Stewart

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

INTRODUCTION: Muscle activity and timing of the swing phases may contribute to the differences we see in athletes at different skill levels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences between mean muscle activity, peak muscle active and time to peak muscle activity for select muscles in the lower extremity as well as the differences between start times for swing phases and bat velocity prior to impact for a skilled and recreational group. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were split into two groups based on competitive level and analyzed hitting off of a tee. RESULTS: No significant differences were ...


Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk Aug 2016

Constraining Kinematics During Single-Leg Squats And Step-Ups Can Reduce Quadratus Lumborum Activation And Facilitate Gluteal Activation, Shaylyn Kowalchuk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increased quadratus lumborum activation and decreased gluteal activation may lead to lateral pelvic drop and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during single-leg exercises. These activation patterns and motions are associated with low back pain or lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if mechanically restricting hip adduction and internal rotation of the femur affected muscle activation. Twenty female track and field athletes performed single-leg squats and step-ups, and the quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius and maximus muscles activations were measured with surface electromyography. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanically restricted exercises would decrease quadratus lumborum ...


Electromyography Study Of Muscle Fatigue During Isometric Exercises In Swimmers And Non-Swimmers, Tiffany Aeling Jan 2016

Electromyography Study Of Muscle Fatigue During Isometric Exercises In Swimmers And Non-Swimmers, Tiffany Aeling

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The use of electromyography (EMG) techniques offer strong evaluation of musculature fatigue during activity in different exercises. Studies show that EMG can be used to monitor fatigue patterns in muscles composing the upper extremities and thoracic areas of the human body by analyzing median frequency values. Advances in muscle fatigue research have been critical for improving rehabilitation programs for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Despite these developments, many collegiate athletes are still at high risk for muscle injury on and off the playing field. Therefore, in order to help reduce injury numbers, it is important that current research focus on the ...


Central And Peripheral Weight Gain Affect Trunk Kinematics And Lower-Extremity Muscle Activation Differently During Sit-To-Stand, Michelle Christine Walaszek Jan 2016

Central And Peripheral Weight Gain Affect Trunk Kinematics And Lower-Extremity Muscle Activation Differently During Sit-To-Stand, Michelle Christine Walaszek

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

Background: Obesity-induced alterations in biomechanics and muscle recruitment during activities of daily living, such as sit-to-stand (STS) are often attributed to increases in adipose tissue (AT) mass. Central or peripheral distribution of AT may differently affect biomechanics and muscle recruitment.

Methods: Fifteen healthy, normal weight (BMI 22.4 ± 1.9 kg/m2, 24.1 ± 4.2 years) subjects volunteered. External loads equivalent to a 5 kg/m2 BMI increase were applied in three conditions: unloaded (UN), centrally loaded (CL), and peripherally loaded (PL). Subjects completed three successful STS movements in a backless chair under each load condition in ...


A Complete Kinematic, Kinetic, And Electromyographical Analysis Of The Football Throw In Collegiate Quarterbacks, Kyle R. Bohnert Jan 2016

A Complete Kinematic, Kinetic, And Electromyographical Analysis Of The Football Throw In Collegiate Quarterbacks, Kyle R. Bohnert

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

The biomechanics of the overhead throw has been extensively studied in regards to baseball pitching. However, an understanding of the proper mechanics needed to successfully throw a football has not previously been investigated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography of the football throws in elite quarterbacks. Three collegiate quarterbacks were evaluated using a multi-camera motion capture system and electromyography electrodes. The results of this study are able to give a breakdown in the types of mechanics needed in each of the phases of the throw. This study demonstrated that during the early ...


Static Stretching And Preconditioning Exercise Augments Power Output In Recreational Athletes, Mark R. Mason Jan 2016

Static Stretching And Preconditioning Exercise Augments Power Output In Recreational Athletes, Mark R. Mason

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and combined effects of performing a preconditioning exercise and antagonist stretching on vertical jump (VJ) performance. Twenty club rugby players performed a VJ in four conditions: control condition, following static stretching, following a preconditioning exercise, and following the combined treatment of static stretching and a preconditioning exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in the gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior during the VJ trials. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare VJ and EMG outcomes across conditions. A Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple post-hoc ...


An Evaluation Of Modern Day Kitchen Knives: An Ergonomic And Biomechanical Approach, Olivia Morgan Janusz Jan 2016

An Evaluation Of Modern Day Kitchen Knives: An Ergonomic And Biomechanical Approach, Olivia Morgan Janusz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this study was to evaluate how different knife characteristics affect the consumer's ability to slice vegetables. There are many variables to a knife and there are beliefs about what makes for a better knife. There are two common multipurpose knives used for slicing vegetables, the chef knife and the santoku knife. The aim of the first portion of the study was to investigate if there is a difference in cutting between a chef knife and a santoku knife, a ceramic knife and a stainless steel knife, and a sharp and dull knife in terms of muscle ...


Neural Recovery Rates Of Knee Extensors Following A Resistance Exercise Protocol, Darren Michael Polk Jan 2016

Neural Recovery Rates Of Knee Extensors Following A Resistance Exercise Protocol, Darren Michael Polk

LSU Master's Theses

Fatigue can manifest in the human body in a multitude of ways, one of these is neural-based fatigue. Neural-based fatigue occurs when the nerve fails to activate a muscle (Brooks et al., 2005). The purpose of this research is to investigate rates of neural recovery following a resistance exercise protocol. A pre-test consisting of a 5-second maximum voluntary isometric knee extension was performed. Next, each subject performed a resistance exercise protocol consisting of 5 sets of 10 repetitions of isokinetic knee extensions. Post-tests following the resistance exercise protocol consisted of 5-second maximum voluntary isometric knee extensions after 1, 5, 10 ...


Relationship Between Metabolic By-Products And Nervous System Failure/Fatigue, Tyler Mitchell Farney Jan 2016

Relationship Between Metabolic By-Products And Nervous System Failure/Fatigue, Tyler Mitchell Farney

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Fatigue has generally been defined as an acute impairment of exercise/sport performance that includes both an increase in the perceived effort necessary to exert a desired force or power output, and the inability to produce the desired force or power output. The majority of research to date looking at fatigue has focused upon substrate utilization, however, what is relatively unknown is the contribution the nervous system has upon fatigue. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was to investigate potential mechanisms that relate to neural fatigue. An additional purpose was to determine if there were any relationships between metabolic by-products ...


Lower Extremity Biomechanics In Individuals With And Without Previous Hamstring Injury, Jessica A. Mutchler Jul 2015

Lower Extremity Biomechanics In Individuals With And Without Previous Hamstring Injury, Jessica A. Mutchler

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Primary risk factors for hamstrings strains such as fatigue, previous injury and strength deficits have been identified in the research, yet re-injury rates remain high among the physically active. Sub-acute analysis of the hip, knee and ankle biomechanics following a hamstrings strain have been largely overlooked and may provide additional insight into re-injury risks. It was the aim of this dissertation to explore long-term adaptations in walking and running tasks following a hamstrings strain, and to develop a hip endurance test that could be used in future studies.

Project one used a cross-sectional study with test-retest design to develop and ...


Lower Extremity Neuromechanics During A Forward-Side Jump Following Functional Fatigue In Patients With Ankle Instability, Hyun Kim Jun 2015

Lower Extremity Neuromechanics During A Forward-Side Jump Following Functional Fatigue In Patients With Ankle Instability, Hyun Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Ankle instability (AI) and fatigue impair neuromuscular control as well as dynamic joint stability of the lower extremity. No one has comprehensively examined the effects of AI and fatigue on neuromechanics of the lower extremity during a functional activity. Deficits associated with AI and fatigue could be additive in increasing the risk for injury in patients with AI. PURPOSE: To examine the interaction of AI and fatigue on lower extremity muscle activity, kinematic, and kinetic patterns during a forward-side jump. METHODS: 25 AI (23.3 ± 1.9 yrs, 176.5 ± 10.5 cm, 70.9 ± 11.4 kg), and 25 ...


Investigating Single-Leg Landing Strategies And Movement Control Across Changes In Task Demands, Andrew D. Nordin May 2015

Investigating Single-Leg Landing Strategies And Movement Control Across Changes In Task Demands, Andrew D. Nordin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Variability is an intrinsic characteristic of human movement, with hypothesized connections to neuromotor functioning and mechanisms of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in movement variability among kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic (EMG) variables following mechanical task demand manipulations during single-leg drop landings. Biomechanical outcome variables included 3 kinematic (sagittal, hip, knee, and ankle angles), 4 kinetic (sagittal hip, knee, ankle moments and vertical ground reaction force; GRFz), and 5 EMG variables (gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles). Mechanical task demands were altered using load and landing height manipulations, computed as ...


Acute Effects Of Dynamic Stretching On Flexibility And Agonist-Antagonist Muscle Activity, Lance T. Beisley Jan 2015

Acute Effects Of Dynamic Stretching On Flexibility And Agonist-Antagonist Muscle Activity, Lance T. Beisley

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

"Flexibility is an important determinant of health and important in sport performance. ADS and SPST are the methods most often used in training flexibility for sport. Although ADS appears to dominate SPST in measures of power and agility, the mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of this study was to delineate the effects of ADS on AROM and agonist-antagonist mean and peak EMG. The ADS protocol involved three sets of ten repetitions of leg kicks while in the supine position with the pelvis and contralateral limb fixed in extension. Participants moved the leg at the hip in a kicking motion to ...


Active Versus Passive Control Of Arm Swing: Implication Of The Restriction Of Pelvis Rotation During Human Locomotion, Stephen Paul Canton Jan 2015

Active Versus Passive Control Of Arm Swing: Implication Of The Restriction Of Pelvis Rotation During Human Locomotion, Stephen Paul Canton

LSU Master's Theses

To date, it remains unclear how passive dynamics and active neural control contribute to arm swing during human locomotion. The passive hypothesis attributes arm swing to the passive transfer of energy from the legs to the arms via biomechanical linkages, while the active hypothesis states that arm swing is actively driven by muscles via neural mechanisms. The present study aims to investigate this phenomenon further by disrupting the biomechanical linkages, thereby directly challenging the passive hypothesis. Ten healthy individuals walked on a treadmill with and without an apparatus that constrained pelvis rotation at 3 different speeds (2 mph, 3 mph ...


Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Shake Weight Protocol In Senior Populations, Isaac F. Cook

Theses and Dissertations

The Shake Weight® (SW®) is designed to improve muscular fitness in a quick and inexpensive way. This study aimed to determine if the SW® was an effective tool at improving muscular fitness, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal women. Participants were 17 healthy, post-menopausal women from aMidwestern University and divided into two training (SW® and HIT) interventions that lasted 10 weeks. HIT participants performed three sets of 8 repetitions at 80% of their estimated 1RM for the chest press, leg press, lat pulldown, and seated row. SW® participants performed the exercises prescribed by the SW® manufacturer. Changes ...


The Effect Of Anterior Knee Pain On Serum Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein And Muscular Cocontraction During Running, Scott T. Woodland Jun 2013

The Effect Of Anterior Knee Pain On Serum Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein And Muscular Cocontraction During Running, Scott T. Woodland

Theses and Dissertations

Knee pain can alter lower-extremity neuromechanics and often results in functional disability. The relationship between lower-extremity neuromechanical alterations, due to anterior knee pain, and articular cartilage condition is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent effect of anterior knee pain during running on articular cartilage condition, as reflected by serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein concentrations and muscle cocontraction duration. Seven men and five women completed a 30-min run in three different sessions: control (no infusion), sham (isotonic saline infusion), and pain (hypertonic saline infusion). Saline was infused into the right infrapatellar fat pad for the duration ...


Environmental Effects On The Biomechanics And Motor Physiology Of Elastically Powered Movements In Chameleons, Christopher Van Anderson Jan 2013

Environmental Effects On The Biomechanics And Motor Physiology Of Elastically Powered Movements In Chameleons, Christopher Van Anderson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Environmental temperature exhibits profound effects on the activity and ecology of ectotherms through its impact on muscle contractile physiology. While the performance of locomotor behaviors powered by muscle contraction directly decreases by at least 33% over a 10°C drop in body temperature, chameleons are known to feed, presumably with high performance, at body temperatures where sympatric lizard species remain inactive. I propose that ballistic movements that are powered by the recoil of preloaded elastic and collagenous tissues are less thermally dependent than movements that rely on direct muscular power. Despite the reduced thermal sensitivity of the elastic-recoil powered movement ...


Biomechanical And Neuromuscular Changes In Jump Landings Due To Short Or Long Term Ankle Bracing And Fatigue, Elizabeth Decatur Stafford Jan 2012

Biomechanical And Neuromuscular Changes In Jump Landings Due To Short Or Long Term Ankle Bracing And Fatigue, Elizabeth Decatur Stafford

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In order to prevent ankle sprain, prophylactic ankle bracing is common practice for many sports. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate changes in loading and neuromuscular activation at the knee and at the hip when the ankle is braced. Additionally, fatigue is a known risk factor for both ankle sprain and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear at the knee. The first two studies examined whether or not there was an interaction between the ankle brace and fatigue. Unwanted adaptation to long term bracing is also a concern. Thus, the third study addressed the question, does long term prophylactic ...


Comparative Forelimb Muscle Function In Turtles: Tests Of Environmental Variation And Neuromotor Conservation, Angela Rivera May 2011

Comparative Forelimb Muscle Function In Turtles: Tests Of Environmental Variation And Neuromotor Conservation, Angela Rivera

All Dissertations

Novel locomotor functions in animals may evolve through changes in morphology, muscle activity, or a combination of both. The idea that new functions or behaviors can arise solely through changes in structure, without concurrent changes in the patterns of muscle activity that control movement of those structures, has been formalized as the `neuromotor conservation hypothesis'. In vertebrate locomotor systems, evidence for neuromotor conservation is found across transitions in terrestrial species and into fliers, but transitions in aquatic species have received little comparable study to determine if changes in morphology and muscle function were coordinated through the evolution of new locomotor ...


Effect Of Tilted Surfaces On Ankle Kinematics And Emg Activities In Landing, Divya Bhaskaran Aug 2010

Effect Of Tilted Surfaces On Ankle Kinematics And Emg Activities In Landing, Divya Bhaskaran

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of landing on a combined inverted and plantarflexed surface on the ankle kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the medial gastrocnemius (MG), peroneal longus (PL) and anterior tibialis muscles (TA). Twelve recreational athletes performed five drop landings from an overhead bar of 30 cm height on to each of these surfaces: a flat surface, a 25° inversion surface (inverted), and a combined surface (combined) of 25° inversion and 25° plantarflexion. The three dimensional kinematic variables and integrated EMG (IEMG) of the three muscles were assessed using one-way repeated measures analysis ...


Differences In Muscle Activation In The Lower Extremities While Performing Traditional Squats And Non-Traditional Squats, Christopher M. Scotten Aug 2010

Differences In Muscle Activation In The Lower Extremities While Performing Traditional Squats And Non-Traditional Squats, Christopher M. Scotten

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: To determine if muscle activation in the lower back and lower extremities differ when performing traditional squats compared to non-traditional (forward center of pressure on foot) squats. The erector spinae, hamstrings, quadriceps, adductor longus, gastrocnemius, and gluteus maximus muscles were monitored for differences in this study. There are several variations of the back squat and each variation may possibly target muscles differently. Determining if non-traditional squats leads to larger erector spinae muscle activation, which in turn may lead to more lower back fatigue and possible lower back injury is a major aim of this study. Participants: Thirteen healthy males ...