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Theses/Dissertations

Kinesiology

2019

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Benefits Of Physical Activity And Sport On Mental Health And Well-Being In School-Aged Children, Ian Gilhousen Dec 2019

The Benefits Of Physical Activity And Sport On Mental Health And Well-Being In School-Aged Children, Ian Gilhousen

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

There is research that concludes that there are benefits of physical activity for young children. However, there is an area of research which is lacking the benefits that physical activity and sport have on mental health and well-being in school-aged children, specifically. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the benefits of physical activity and sport on mental health and well-being in school-aged children. Results determined that there are significant benefits, and a correlation between physical activity participation and overall mental health in school-aged children.


Concussion Assessment Management In High School And Collegiate Athletics, Erin Mcneely Dec 2019

Concussion Assessment Management In High School And Collegiate Athletics, Erin Mcneely

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Research indicates that protocol regarding concussion assessment management at the high school and collegiate level is advancing, however, there are holes in consistency that need to be filled in order to ensure accuracy. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on concussion assessment management in high school and collegiate athletics. The results indicate that the lack of consistency comes as a direct result of key factors including a school’s lack of funding and lack of resources, the emphasis placed on the self-efficacy of athletic trainers, and the willingness of athletic trainers to follow guidelines provided for ...


Parents' Understanding Of The Impact On Sport Specialization, Samuel Lacelle Dec 2019

Parents' Understanding Of The Impact On Sport Specialization, Samuel Lacelle

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on parents’ understanding of the impact on sport specialization. An extensive literature review was completed in order to properly examine all the information available regarding the parent’s role when it comes to their child’s participation in sport and whether or not they are specializing in a specific sport. This review was done so by examining 16 peer reviewed articles on multiple web data bases. The research concluded that there should be a high emphasis on the child’s motor development at an early age (Goodway and Robinson ...


Barriers To Physical Activity In Adolescents, Nicole Vojtisek Dec 2019

Barriers To Physical Activity In Adolescents, Nicole Vojtisek

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Abstract

Physical activity is an important component to living a healthy lifestyle; however, adolescents’ physical activity levels are often very low. Thus, the purpose of this synthesis was to examine barriers adolescents face when it comes to being physically active and find out how they can be prevented or overcome. The critical mass revealed several internal and external barriers that adolescents face. These include lack of motivation/interest, lack of resources, and increased screen time. Since the research is examining adolescents, parents also played a large role in the studies. In order to address some of the barriers, strategies focused ...


The Impact Of Performance Anxiety On Female Athletes, Nina Barbero Dec 2019

The Impact Of Performance Anxiety On Female Athletes, Nina Barbero

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis is to examine the impact of performance anxiety on female athletes. Articles reviewed were aimed at answering two questions, what are the major sources that contribute to performance anxiety, and how does anxiety impact female athletes. Delimiting variables were used to do an exhaustive data-based search which yielded 10 articles. The research studies synthesized through this project were analyzed with the goal of concluding about the impact of performance anxiety on female athletes. It was revealed that while females experience higher levels of cognitive anxiety compared to males, cognitive and somatic anxiety increases from training ...


Parent’S Perspectives Of Physical Activity Recreational Programs For Their Children With Disabilities, Scott Caracci Dec 2019

Parent’S Perspectives Of Physical Activity Recreational Programs For Their Children With Disabilities, Scott Caracci

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis was to examine parent's perspectives of physical activity recreational programs for their children with disabilities. The studies in the critical mass reviewed the different perceptions that parents relayed including benefits and positive outcomes such as, children being able to see themselves be successful and having their social skills increase as well as barriers to successful inclusion such as, not having the right equipment, not finding a program that works with their child or not being able to trust staff know how to appropriately work with their child. They also identified opportunities that could enhance ...


Positive Relationship Physical Activity Has On Cognitive Function In High School Students, Nicholas Zaccarella Dec 2019

Positive Relationship Physical Activity Has On Cognitive Function In High School Students, Nicholas Zaccarella

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Research shows a link between physical activity and cognitive function. This connection sheds light on the idea that physical activity can improve cognitive function. Penning et al., (2017) mentions that adolescents have high levels of sedentary behavior which makes them vulnerable for health concerns. During the school day students spend most of their time sitting and staying at a resting heart rate. Vazou, Pesce, Lakes, and Smiley-Owen (2019) found consistent evidence that aerobic or motor skill physical activity, enhanced children’s spatial abilities and working memory. Many hours were spent searching through data bases to find articles on this topic ...


Physical Activity Patterns Of Students From Low-Socioeconomic Status, Elizabeth Johnson Dec 2019

Physical Activity Patterns Of Students From Low-Socioeconomic Status, Elizabeth Johnson

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Research indicates that in today’s society, there is less and less physical activity happening amongst young children from low-socioeconomic households. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on physical activity patterns and behaviors of children from low socioeconomic families. Teachers, families, and communities can have an impact on the lives of these children. Results indicate that there are ways we can increase physical activity and positive behaviors amongst low-socioeconomic youth.


Narratives Of Canadian Identity At The Ultimate Fighting Championship, Jared V. Walters Dec 2019

Narratives Of Canadian Identity At The Ultimate Fighting Championship, Jared V. Walters

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the use of representations and symbols of Canadian identity within the event coverage produced by the Ultimate Fighting Championship Corporation, in the context of its two key events, Ultimate Fighting Championship, and Fight Night, produced in Canada. To establish the historical context in which the sport developed in Canada, a narrative historiography of the political and legal struggles that led to the legalization and increasing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts, and the UFCC’s version of the sport, in particular. This first major part of the dissertation is contained in Study 1 ...


The Training Of A Para Powerlifter: A Case Study Of Adaptive Monitoring, Training And Overcoming, Derek Wilcox Dec 2019

The Training Of A Para Powerlifter: A Case Study Of Adaptive Monitoring, Training And Overcoming, Derek Wilcox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Paralympic athletes (PA) appear to be more prone to chronic overuse injuries from daily wheelchair or crutch use. Over half of these injuries are shoulder related which can deleteriously impact quality of life. Adaptive powerlifters (AP) are a subdivision of Paralympic athletes and are at a higher risk for catastrophic injuries as compared to their counterparts, due to the compound of fatigue and lifting of maximal weights. For this reason, it is vital to have well-designed training plans for these athletes in order to preserve quality of life and maximize performance in competition. Unfortunately, there is a lack of literature ...


The Effects Of Physical Activity On Inappropriate Behaviors Of School-Aged Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Rachel Sherman Dec 2019

The Effects Of Physical Activity On Inappropriate Behaviors Of School-Aged Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Rachel Sherman

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Abstract

The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the effects of physical activity on inappropriate behaviors of school-aged students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Inappropriate behaviors can include: hitting, biting, screaming, kicking and swearing. In particular the following research questions were examined: What types of inappropriate behaviors are exhibited by students with Autism Spectrum Disorder during physical activity? Does physical activity help to eliminate or reduce inappropriate behaviors of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder during physical activity? Which forms of physical activity have demonstrated the most effective ways to eliminate or reduce inappropriate behaviors of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder ...


The Effects Of Peer Tutoring On School-Aged Students With Moderate To Severe Disabilities In Physical Education, Abbey Hume Dec 2019

The Effects Of Peer Tutoring On School-Aged Students With Moderate To Severe Disabilities In Physical Education, Abbey Hume

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the existing scholarly knowledge regarding impact of peer tutoring programs on students with disabilities and typically developing students in physical education. Previous research identified several factors that contributed to the benefits and barriers of peer tutoring programs in physical education. Studies reviewed within the critical mass had common themes such as increase in socialization among students, engagement in activities, and improvement of skills. Common barriers that were discovered included, time consuming program, non-trained peer tutors, and peer tutors not participating in activities. Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that is thought to ...


Sexual Dimorphism And The Shape Of The Proximal Tibia In A Radiographic Sample, Emily Eiseman Dec 2019

Sexual Dimorphism And The Shape Of The Proximal Tibia In A Radiographic Sample, Emily Eiseman

Theses and Dissertations

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM AND THE SHAPE OF THE PROXIMAL TIBIA IN A RADIOGRAPHIC SAMPLE

This study investigates the use of radiographs to determine sexual dimorphism in the shape of the tibia. The goal of the research was to identify a small set of markers that would allow researchers to efficiently and accurately determine a person’s sex from a radiograph of the proximal tibia.

The sample consisted of radiographs including 75 females and 46 males ranging in age from 21 to 81. Measurements were taken on 27 points around the area of the knee including the tibia, patella, and femur. The ...


Does Macronutrient Consumption Affect Aerobic Capacity?, Jordan Bush-Means Dec 2019

Does Macronutrient Consumption Affect Aerobic Capacity?, Jordan Bush-Means

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Fitness in the United States is declining as the prevalence of obesity rises. It is known generally that exercise and diet both play a part in becoming fit, therefore veering away from being obese and/or overweight. Although people are aware they need to eat healthy foods and participate in physical activity, the role that dietary behaviors have on exercise, particularly aerobic capacity, remains unresolved. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze dietary behaviors and to examine associations with maximal aerobic capacity. We hypothesize that those who consume each food group will have a higher volume of ...


Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington Dec 2019

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction (UCLR) is a surgical procedure on one of the main ligaments that provides normal stability for the elbow joint against excessive valgus stress. Damage to this ligament is common in athletes performing overhead throwing activities, primarily baseball players, due to excessive valgus stress during the throwing motion. The most common form of treatment for this type of injury is reconstructive surgery of the ligament, especially if athletes wish to return to sport participation. This type of surgery is extremely invasive and requires extensive post-operative rehabilitation in order to facilitate return to play. To date, many ...


A Profile Of Physical Activity In The City Of Knoxville's Lonsdale Park, Carly Scot Eakin Dec 2019

A Profile Of Physical Activity In The City Of Knoxville's Lonsdale Park, Carly Scot Eakin

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Executive Dysfunction Following A Sport-Related Concussion Is Independent Of Task-Based Symptom Burden, Naila Ayala Angumba Nov 2019

Executive Dysfunction Following A Sport-Related Concussion Is Independent Of Task-Based Symptom Burden, Naila Ayala Angumba

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present work examined whether oculomotor deficits associated with a sport-related concussion (SRC) reflect an impairment to executive-based planning mechanisms or a task-based increase in concussion symptomology (e.g., headache, vertigo). Therefore, I employed a standardized measure of SRC symptom severity (SCAT-5), antisaccade performance and pupillometry metrics in persons with a SRC during early (i.e., initial assessment: ≤12 days post-SRC) and later (i.e., follow-up assessment: 14-30 days post-SRC) stages of recovery. In the initial assessment, the SRC group yielded longer reaction times (RT) (p=0.001), increased directional errors (p=0.002) and larger task-evoked pupil dilations (TEPD ...


The Grand Experiment: Jerome Dwight Davis And The Young Men’S Christian Association’S War Prisoner Aid Sports Programing For German Pows In Canadian Camps During World War Two, Courtney Hope Van Waas Nov 2019

The Grand Experiment: Jerome Dwight Davis And The Young Men’S Christian Association’S War Prisoner Aid Sports Programing For German Pows In Canadian Camps During World War Two, Courtney Hope Van Waas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Jerome Davis, head of the Young Men’s Christian Association War Prisoner Aid program, was a devout Congregationalist dedicated to providing for the basic sport and recreation endeavours of German Prisoners of War interned in Canadian POW camps during the Second World War. Having worked with German Prisoners of War in Russia during the First World War, Davis firmly believed that WWII Allies the world over needed to change their generally antagonistic point of view towards German POWs, indeed, a point of view that required “moral revisionism.” Davis believed that the vilification and demeaning status of German POWs was not ...


Mechanisms That Limit Oxidative Phosphorylation During High-Intensity Muscle Contractions In Vivo, Miles F. Bartlett Oct 2019

Mechanisms That Limit Oxidative Phosphorylation During High-Intensity Muscle Contractions In Vivo, Miles F. Bartlett

Doctoral Dissertations

Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity plays a critical role in human health and disease. Although current models of oxidative phosphorylation sufficiently describe skeletal muscle energetics during moderate-intensity contractions, much is still unknown about the mechanisms that control and limit oxidative phosphorylation during high-intensity contractions. In particular, the oxygen cost of force generation is augmented during exercise at workloads above the lactate threshold. Presently, it is unclear whether this augmentation in muscle oxygen consumption is driven by increased rates of oxidative ATP synthesis (ATPOX) or by decreases in the efficiency of ATPOX due to mitochondrial uncoupling. To address this gap ...


The Effects Of Acidosis On Calcium Dependent Binding Of A Single Crossbridge, Matthew Unger Oct 2019

The Effects Of Acidosis On Calcium Dependent Binding Of A Single Crossbridge, Matthew Unger

Masters Theses

Intracellular acidosis is a putative agent of skeletal muscle fatigue, in part, because acidosis depresses the calcium (Ca2+) sensitivity and force production of muscle (18, 50). However, the molecular mechanisms behind this depression in Ca2+ sensitivity and force production are unknown. This gap in knowledge poses a significant challenge in generating a complete understanding of the fatigue process. To close this gap, the ability of myosin to bind to a single actin filament was measured under acidic conditions, in a laser trap assay, with and without regulatory proteins. Decreasing pH from 7.4 to 6.5 reduced the ...


Strains In Regions Of The Brain Modelled From Female Youth Soccer Players Performing Purposeful Headers In Season, Wayne Allison Oct 2019

Strains In Regions Of The Brain Modelled From Female Youth Soccer Players Performing Purposeful Headers In Season, Wayne Allison

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Soccer is the world's most popular sport, and intentional heading of the ball is exclusive to it. Head impacts in youth players are riskier than adults as their brains are developing. Finite element models can quantify parameters, like strains within regions of the brain, that are otherwise difficult to assess. The purpose of this stay was to examine the relationship between head kinematics collected by wireless head impact sensors and brain strains in regions of interest related to concussion. As well, we assessed head impact strains in regions of interest related to concussion for headers from various game scenarios ...


Analysis Of Connectivity In Emg Signals To Examine Neural Correlations In Muscular Activation Of Lower Leg Muscles For Postural Stability, Diana Mccrumb Oct 2019

Analysis Of Connectivity In Emg Signals To Examine Neural Correlations In Muscular Activation Of Lower Leg Muscles For Postural Stability, Diana Mccrumb

Masters Theses

In quiet standing the central nervous systems implements a pre-programmed ankle strategy of postural control to maintain upright balance and stability. This strategy is comprised of a synchronized common neural drive being delivered to synergistically grouped muscles. In this study connectivity between EMG signals of unilateral and bilateral homologous muscle pairs, of the lower legs, during various standing balance conditions was evaluated using magnitude squared coherence (MSC) and mutual information (MI). The leg muscles of interest were the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the soleus (S) of both legs. MSC is a linear measure of the phase relation ...


The Barriers To Physical Activity For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Strategies For Overcoming These Barriers, Bridgette Varin Oct 2019

The Barriers To Physical Activity For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders And Strategies For Overcoming These Barriers, Bridgette Varin

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis is to examine the barriers to physical activity (PA) for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Individuals with ASD face more barriers to PA than their typically developing peers, and therefore, tend to lead less active lifestyles (Must et al., 2015). This can lead to limited motor coordination, health-related issues, and hypokinetic diseases for individuals with ASD (Case & Yun, 2015). The research studies synthesized through this project were analyzed in hopes of uncovering commonly cited barriers to PA for individuals with ASD and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Understanding ...


The Impact Of Extrinsic Motivation On Athletic Performance, Timothy Petranchuk Jr. Oct 2019

The Impact Of Extrinsic Motivation On Athletic Performance, Timothy Petranchuk Jr.

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Youth participation in sports include recreational, organized, informal programs as well as Olympic hopefuls. These young athletes can have positive or negative experiences from their participation in sports. Perhaps an important aspect of what makes those experiences either positive or negative is how they are motivated to participate in these activities. Motivation in these young athletes can come in various ways. One main theme found in the literature that has a direct influence on their experiences is extrinsic motivation. It is important to understand how these athletes' performances are affected by outside influences, such as parents, coaches and peers. This ...


The Effect Of Patient Financial Liability On Physical Therapy Utilization And Patient Reported Outcomes For Patients With Low Back Pain: An Instrumental Variable Analysis, Adam D. Lutz Oct 2019

The Effect Of Patient Financial Liability On Physical Therapy Utilization And Patient Reported Outcomes For Patients With Low Back Pain: An Instrumental Variable Analysis, Adam D. Lutz

Theses and Dissertations

Low back pain (LBP) is the most common orthopedic complaint managed by physical therapists in the United States. Insurance plans that require greater patient financial liability per physical therapy visit are thought to disincentivize participation in recommended physical therapy plans of care. The primary purpose of this investigation was to use instrumental variable regression to investigate the effect of insurancemediated patient financial liability per visit on physical therapy visit count and functional patient reported outcomes. The secondary purpose of the study was to examine the generalizability of results to the broader excluded patient population—and beyond to patients that seek ...


Reproducibility And The Effects Of Exercise On The Endurance Index, Michael Dean Smith, Jr. Oct 2019

Reproducibility And The Effects Of Exercise On The Endurance Index, Michael Dean Smith, Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

Background: The Endurance Index (EI%) is a method to objectively assess a muscle’s ability to resist fatigue. The purpose of these studies was to determine the reproducibility of the EI% and determine the influence of muscular fatigue on the EI%. Methods Study 1: sixteen apparently healthy participants (18-30yrs) completed three nonconsecutive visits each with 3 bouts of 5-minute electrical muscle stimulations (EMS) and accelerometer-based mechanomyography (aMMG) of the vastus lateralis at 4 Hz and low amperage (25-35mA) on the hamstrings of the dominant leg; peak torque was measured at each visit. Study 2: fifteen apparently healthy participants (ages 18-30yrs ...


The Effects Of Exercise Training Versus Intensive Insulin Treatment On Skeletal Muscle Fibre Content In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rodents, David P. Mcbey Sep 2019

The Effects Of Exercise Training Versus Intensive Insulin Treatment On Skeletal Muscle Fibre Content In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rodents, David P. Mcbey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In patients with Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) undergoing intensive insulin therapy, the development of insulin resistance (IR) is linked to the improper storage of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) species. While both IR and IMCL are improved with combined aerobic and resistance training, it is unclear how these adaptations relate to individual fibre-type transitions and metabolic function. This study aimed to compare the effects of combined exercise training versus conventional and intensive insulin therapy on skeletal muscle fibres in T1DM rodents. Seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups: Control-Sedentary (CS; n=4), conventionally-treated T1DM sedentary (DCT; n=4), intensively-treated T1DM sedentary ...


Investigating The Simulated Diving Reflex In Professional Divers, Sydney O. Smith Sep 2019

Investigating The Simulated Diving Reflex In Professional Divers, Sydney O. Smith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background: Submergence underwater activates the diving response (DR) in both diving mammals and humans in order to preserve oxygen. Some evidence suggests that the DR can be trained in humans to provide a larger magnitude of bradycardia during submergence.

Hypothesis: Individuals with breath holding experience will have a greater magnitude of bradycardia during the DR than untrained, age-matched controls.

Methods: Participants performed three different protocols: 1) an apnea to volitional end point, or until 30 seconds of involuntary breathing movements were observed (APNEA), 2) one minute of cold pack to the forehead (COLD), and 3) one minute of cold pack ...


Tracking Center Of Mass With Limited Inertial Measurement Units, Connor Nathaniel Morrow Sep 2019

Tracking Center Of Mass With Limited Inertial Measurement Units, Connor Nathaniel Morrow

Dissertations and Theses

Wearable motion tracking systems pose an opportunity to study and correct human balance and posture during movement. Currently, these observations are either being conducted in laboratories with the use of camera systems and markers placed on the body, or through the use of suits containing large numbers (15-20) of inertial measurement units. However, to aid with rehabilitation of individuals with impaired balance, there needs to be an option to collect these observations outside of clinics and without incurring much cost from the user. I have focused on three inertial measurement units, one placed on each shank and one placed on ...


The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain Aug 2019

The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

The ways in which new members are integrated into a particular group environment—also known as organizational socialization processes—have been shown to be a powerful predictor of newcomer adjustment in the workplace. Yet, there is a scarcity of research on how sport teams manage the integration of new team members, and the consequences of different tactics. The current research uses the recently developed Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ) to evaluate how socialization processes are systematically related to youth athletes’ perceptions of their group environment. Across two time points, 202 competitive adolescent ice hockey players (Mage = 14 ...