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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Phenotypic Plasticity And Contemporary Evolution In Introduced Populations: Evidence From Translocated Populations Of White Sands Pupfish (Cyrpinodon Tularosa), Michael Lloyd Collyer, Craig A. Stockwell, Dean C. Adams, M. Hildegard Reiser Nov 2007

Phenotypic Plasticity And Contemporary Evolution In Introduced Populations: Evidence From Translocated Populations Of White Sands Pupfish (Cyrpinodon Tularosa), Michael Lloyd Collyer, Craig A. Stockwell, Dean C. Adams, M. Hildegard Reiser

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Contemporary evolution has been shown in a few studies to be an important component of colonization ability, but seldom have researchers considered whether phenotypic plasticity facilitates directional evolution from the invasion event. In the current study, we evaluated body shape divergence of the New Mexico State-threatened White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa) that were introduced to brackish, lacustrine habitats at two different time in the recent past (approximately 30 years and 1 year previously) from the same source population (saline river environment). Pupfish body shape is correlated with environmental salinity: fish from saline habitats are characterized by slender body shapes, whereas ...


Phenotypic Plasticity Of Native Vs. Invasive Purple Loosestrife: A Two-State Multivariate Approach, Young Jin Chun, Michael L. Collyer, Kirk A. Moloney, John D. Nason Jun 2007

Phenotypic Plasticity Of Native Vs. Invasive Purple Loosestrife: A Two-State Multivariate Approach, Young Jin Chun, Michael L. Collyer, Kirk A. Moloney, John D. Nason

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The differences in phenotypic plasticity between invasive (North American) and native (German) provenances of the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) were examined using a multivariate reaction norm approach testing two important attributes of reaction norms described by multivariate vectors of phenotypic change: the magnitude and direction of mean trait differences between environments. Data were collected for six life history traits from native and invasive plants using a split-plot design with experimentally manipulated water and nutrient levels. We found significant differences between native and invasive plants in multivariate phenotypic plasticity for comparisons between low and high water treatments within low ...


Environmental And Genetic Influences On Mating Strategies Along A Replicated Food Availability Gradient In Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata), Gita R. Kolluru, Gregory F. Grether, Heidy Contreras Mar 2007

Environmental And Genetic Influences On Mating Strategies Along A Replicated Food Availability Gradient In Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata), Gita R. Kolluru, Gregory F. Grether, Heidy Contreras

Biological Sciences

Food availability is expected to influence the relative cost of different mating tactics, but little attention has been paid to this potential source of adaptive geographic variation in behavior. Associations between the frequency of different mating tactics and resource availability could arise because tactic use responds directly to food intake (phenotypic plasticity), because populations exposed to different average levels of food availability have diverged genetically in tactic use, or both. Different populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in Trinidad experience different average levels of food availability. We combined field observations with laboratory “common garden” and diet experiments to examine how this ...


Phenotypic Plasticity May Facilitate Invasion By Aegilops Triuncialis, Andrew R. Dyer Jan 2007

Phenotypic Plasticity May Facilitate Invasion By Aegilops Triuncialis, Andrew R. Dyer

Faculty Publications

One great obstacle to understanding the invasion of nonnative species into native ecosystems is the lack of information on the population biology of the invading species. In particular, morphological and physiological adaptations and potential for phenotypic plasticity will strongly influence a species’ ability to persist and spread in newly invaded ecosystems. Phenotypic plasticity can buffer populations from selection thereby allowing them to survive the establishment phase of the invasion. The annual grass Aegilops triuncialis (Poaceae, Triticeae) has become highly invasive in California (USA) and provides an opportunity to investigate the importance of phenotypic plasticity to persistence and spread in new ...


Feeding In Extreme Flows: Behavior Compensates For Mechanical Constraints In Barnacle Cirri, Luke P. Miller Jan 2007

Feeding In Extreme Flows: Behavior Compensates For Mechanical Constraints In Barnacle Cirri, Luke P. Miller

Faculty Publications

Plastic morphological changes in response to environmental cues can allow organisms to adapt to their local environment. Barnacle feeding legs (cirri) exhibit substantial plasticity in size and shape along wave exposure gradients on rocky shores, but only up to a certain limit in maximum water velocities. Above the limit, the morphology of the cirri becomes invariant. Behavioral observations of barnacles feeding at a wave-exposed shore indicate that the fast response time for feeding motions allows barnacles to avoid potentially damaging flows associated with breaking waves, while still allowing feeding between wave impacts. The ability of barnacles to avoid individual waves ...


Testing The Persistence Of Phenotypic Plasticity After Incubation In The Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus Occidentalis, Christine R. Buckley, Maddalena Jackson, Mina Youssef, Duncan J. Irschick, Stephen C. Adolph Jan 2007

Testing The Persistence Of Phenotypic Plasticity After Incubation In The Western Fence Lizard, Sceloporus Occidentalis, Christine R. Buckley, Maddalena Jackson, Mina Youssef, Duncan J. Irschick, Stephen C. Adolph

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

Hypothesis: Phenotypic variation in traits induced by different incubation temperatures does not persist into the lifetime of young lizards, and therefore contributes little to variation in long-term fitness.

Organism: Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

Methods: Split-clutch laboratory incubation experiment including eggs from two different populations under two different incubation regimes, measurement of morphological traits at hatching, and tracking of morphology and temperature preference behaviour for 7 weeks after hatching.

Results: Several morphological traits, including body mass, hindlimb length, inter-limb length, and tail length, initially differed between the two incubation treatments, but only the difference in tail length persisted to age ...