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Phenotypic plasticity

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth Oct 2019

A Potential Role For Phenotypic Plasticity In Invasions And Declines Of Social Insects, Fabio Manfredini, Marina Arbetman, Amy L. Toth

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality, a form of animal social organization involving sterile and reproductive castes, is a rare, but highly ecologically successful form of life. There are striking examples of eusocial species with populations that are ecologically dominant in their native ranges, as well as remarkably successful globally as invasive species; prominent examples include fire ants and yellowjacket wasps. At the same time, there have been startling population declines in other social insects, notably bumble bees. Here, we explore the possible role of phenotypic plasticity in invasion biology and declines of social insect species. This topic is of particular interest, because social insects ...


The Effects Of Diet And Mating System On Reproductive (And Post‐Reproductive) Life Span In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld Dec 2018

The Effects Of Diet And Mating System On Reproductive (And Post‐Reproductive) Life Span In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld

Biology Faculty Publications

The length of the reproductive life span, along with the number/frequency/magnitude of reproductive events, quantifies an individual’s potential contribution to the next generation. By examining reproductive life span, and distinguishing it from somatic life span, we gain insight into critical aspects of an individual’s potential fitness as well as reproductive and somatic senescence. Additionally, differentiating somatic and reproductive life spans can provide insight into the existence of a post‐reproductive period and factors that shape its duration. Given the known importance of diet and mating system on resource allocation, I reared individual freshwater snails (Physa acuta ...


Conserved Genes Underlie Phenotypic Plasticity In An Incipiently Social Bee, S. M. Rehan, K. M. Glastad, M. A. Steffen, C. R. Fay, B. G. Hunt, A. L. Toth Sep 2018

Conserved Genes Underlie Phenotypic Plasticity In An Incipiently Social Bee, S. M. Rehan, K. M. Glastad, M. A. Steffen, C. R. Fay, B. G. Hunt, A. L. Toth

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Despite a strong history of theoretical work on the mechanisms of social evolution, relatively little is known of the molecular genetic changes that accompany transitions from solitary to eusocial forms. Here we provide the first genome of an incipiently social bee that shows both solitary and social colony organization in sympatry, the Australian carpenter bee Ceratina australensis. Through comparative analysis, we provide support for the role of conserved genes and cis-regulation of gene expression in the phenotypic plasticity observed in nest-sharing, a rudimentary form of sociality. Additionally, we find that these conserved genes are associated with caste differences in ...


Thermal Physiology And Developmental Plasticity Of Pigmentation In The Harlequin Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Carly D. Sibilia, Kelly A. Brosko, Christopher J. Hickling, Lily M. Thompson, Kristine L. Grayson, Jennifer R. Olson Jul 2018

Thermal Physiology And Developmental Plasticity Of Pigmentation In The Harlequin Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Carly D. Sibilia, Kelly A. Brosko, Christopher J. Hickling, Lily M. Thompson, Kristine L. Grayson, Jennifer R. Olson

Biology Faculty Publications

Traits that promote the maintenance of body temperatures within an optimal range provide advantages to ectothermic species. Pigmentation plasticity is found in many insects and enhances thermoregulatory potential as increased melanization can result in greater heat retention. The thermal melanism hypothesis predicts that species with developmental plasticity will have darker pigmentation in colder environments, which can be an important adaptation for temperate species experiencing seasonal variation in climate. The harlequin bug (Murgantia histrionica, Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, Hahn 1834) is a widespread invasive crop pest with variable patterning where developmental plasticity in melanization could affect performance. To investigate the impact of temperature ...


Predators Modify The Temperature Dependence Of Life-History Trade-Offs, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong Jun 2018

Predators Modify The Temperature Dependence Of Life-History Trade-Offs, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Although life histories are shaped by temperature and predation, their joint influence on the interdependence of life-history traits is poorly understood. Shifts in one life-history trait often necessitate shifts in another—structured in some cases by trade-offs— leading to differing life-history strategies among environments. The offspring size–number trade-off connects three traits whereby a constant reproductive allocation (R) constrains how the number (O) and size (S) of offspring change. Increasing temperature and size-independent predation decrease size at and time to reproduction which can lower R through reduced time for resource accrual or size-constrained fecundity. We investigated how O, S, and ...


Predators Modify The Temperature Dependence Of Life-History Trade-Offs, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong Jun 2018

Predators Modify The Temperature Dependence Of Life-History Trade-Offs, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Although life histories are shaped by temperature and predation, their joint influence on the interdependence of life-history traits is poorly understood. Shifts in one life-history trait often necessitate shifts in another—structured in some cases by trade-offs— leading to differing life-history strategies among environments. The offspring size–number trade-off connects three traits whereby a constant reproductive allocation (R) constrains how the number (O) and size (S) of offspring change. Increasing temperature and size-independent predation decrease size at and time to reproduction which can lower R through reduced time for resource accrual or size-constrained fecundity. We investigated how O, S, and ...


Predators Modify The Temperature Dependence Of Life-History Trade-Offs, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong Jun 2018

Predators Modify The Temperature Dependence Of Life-History Trade-Offs, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Although life histories are shaped by temperature and predation, their joint influence on the interdependence of life-history traits is poorly understood. Shifts in one life-history trait often necessitate shifts in another—structured in some cases by trade-offs— leading to differing life-history strategies among environments. The offspring size–number trade-off connects three traits whereby a constant reproductive allocation (R) constrains how the number (O) and size (S) of offspring change. Increasing temperature and size-independent predation decrease size at and time to reproduction which can lower R through reduced time for resource accrual or size-constrained fecundity. We investigated how O, S, and ...


Altered Spring Phenology Of North American Freshwater Turtles And The Importance Of Representative Populations, Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker, Gordon R. Ultsch Jun 2018

Altered Spring Phenology Of North American Freshwater Turtles And The Importance Of Representative Populations, Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker, Gordon R. Ultsch

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon,Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting season initiation occurs earlier in more recent years, with 11 of the populations advancing phenology. The onset of nesting for nearly ...


Fast Plants And Gene X Environment Interactions For The Biology 202 Laboratory, Toni R. Gohman Apr 2018

Fast Plants And Gene X Environment Interactions For The Biology 202 Laboratory, Toni R. Gohman

Celebrating Scholarship and Creativity Day

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability for a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes in response to environmental variation. The phenotypic plasticity of a genotype is described by its norm of reaction, and norms of reaction for different genotypes might suggest that each is favored by a different environment. In this experiment, we established a fertility gradient and produced norms of reaction for a variety of measures of plant performance using two strains of Wisconsin Fast Plants (“Astro” and “Dwarf”). The Dwarf variety performed best at low fertility levels, while the Astro variety performed best at high fertility levels. Using these ...


Energy Demand And The Context-Dependent Effects Of Genetic Interactions Underlying Metabolism, Luke A. Hoekstra, Cole R. Julick, Katelyn M. Mika, Kristi L. Montooth Jan 2018

Energy Demand And The Context-Dependent Effects Of Genetic Interactions Underlying Metabolism, Luke A. Hoekstra, Cole R. Julick, Katelyn M. Mika, Kristi L. Montooth

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Genetic effects are often context dependent, with the same genotype differentially affecting phenotypes across environments, life stages, and sexes.We used an environmental manipulation designed to increase energy demand during development to investigate energy demand as a general physiological explanation for context-dependent effects of mutations, particularly for those mutations that affect metabolism. We found that increasing the photoperiod during which Drosophila larvae are active during development phenocopies a temperature-dependent developmental delay in a mitochondrial-nuclear genotype with disrupted metabolism. This result indicates that the context-dependent fitness effects of this genotype are not specific to the effects of temperature and may generally ...


You Are What You Eat: Food-Drug Interaction In Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera), Allison G. Kelley, Liao Ling-Hsiu, May Berenbaum Jul 2017

You Are What You Eat: Food-Drug Interaction In Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera), Allison G. Kelley, Liao Ling-Hsiu, May Berenbaum

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

The research featured in this poster examined how phytochemicals in nectar and pollen (quercetin and p-coumaric acid), which are known to upregulate cytochrome P450 detoxification enzymes, affect honey bee survival in combination with the pesticides propiconazole, a fungicide, and chlorantraniliprole, an insecticide. While consuming either phytochemical in the absence of pesticides can prolong longevity, consumption of pesticides reduced bee lifespan significantly with or without phytochemicals present.


Medip-Seq And Ncpg Analyses Illuminate Sexually Dimorphic Methylation Of Gonadal Development Genes With High Historic Methylation In Turtle Hatchlings With Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination, Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Beatriz Mizoguchi, Nicole Valenzuela Jan 2017

Medip-Seq And Ncpg Analyses Illuminate Sexually Dimorphic Methylation Of Gonadal Development Genes With High Historic Methylation In Turtle Hatchlings With Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination, Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Beatriz Mizoguchi, Nicole Valenzuela

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: DNA methylation alters gene expression but not DNA sequence and mediates some cases of phenotypic plasticity. Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) epitomizes phenotypic plasticity where environmental temperature drives embryonic sexual fate, as occurs commonly in turtles. Importantly, the temperature-specific transcription of two genes underlying gonadal differentiation is known to be induced by differential methylation in TSD fish, turtle and alligator. Yet, how extensive is the link between DNA methylation and TSD remains unclear. Here we test for broad differences in genome-wide DNA methylation between male and female hatchling gonads of the TSD painted turtle Chrysemys picta using methyl DNA immunoprecipitation ...


Skeletal Stiffening In An Amphibious Fish Out Of Water Is A Response To Increased Body Weight, Andy J. Turko, Dietmar KüLtz, Douglas S. Fudge, Roger P. Croll, Frank M. Smith, Matthew R. Stoyek, Patricia A. Wright Jan 2017

Skeletal Stiffening In An Amphibious Fish Out Of Water Is A Response To Increased Body Weight, Andy J. Turko, Dietmar KüLtz, Douglas S. Fudge, Roger P. Croll, Frank M. Smith, Matthew R. Stoyek, Patricia A. Wright

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water – are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but ...


A Revisited Phylogeography Of Nautilus Pompilius, Lauren E. Vandepas, Frederick D. Dooley, Gregory J. Barord, Billie J. Swalla, Peter D. Ward May 2016

A Revisited Phylogeography Of Nautilus Pompilius, Lauren E. Vandepas, Frederick D. Dooley, Gregory J. Barord, Billie J. Swalla, Peter D. Ward

Publications and Research

The cephalopod genus Nautilus is considered a “living fossil” with a contested number of extant and extinct species, and a benthic lifestyle that limits movement of animals between isolated seamounts and landmasses in the Indo-Pacific. Nautiluses are fished for their shells, most heavily in the Philippines, and these fisheries have little monitoring or regulation. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that multiple species of Nautilus (e.g., N. belauensis, N. repertus and N. stenomphalus) are in fact one species with a diverse phenotypic and geologic range. Using mitochondrial markers, we show that nautiluses from the Philippines, eastern Australia (Great Barrier Reef ...


Sex Determination, Longevity, And The Birth And Death Of Reptilian Species, Niv Sabath, Yuval Itescu, Anat Feldman, Shai Meiri, Itay Mayrose, Nicole Valenzuela Jan 2016

Sex Determination, Longevity, And The Birth And Death Of Reptilian Species, Niv Sabath, Yuval Itescu, Anat Feldman, Shai Meiri, Itay Mayrose, Nicole Valenzuela

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Vertebrate sex-determining mechanisms (SDMs) are triggered by the genotype (GSD), by temperature (TSD), or occasionally, by both. The causes and consequences of SDM diversity remain enigmatic. Theory predicts SDM effects on species diversification, and life-span effects on SDM evolutionary turnover. Yet, evidence is conflicting in clades with labile SDMs, such as reptiles. Here, we investigate whether SDM is associated with diversification in turtles and lizards, and whether alterative factors, such as lifespan's effect on transition rates, could explain the relative prevalence of SDMs in turtles and lizards (including and excluding snakes). We assembled a comprehensive dataset of SDM states ...


When An Invasive Plant Fails To Invade, Stephen L. Young Oct 2015

When An Invasive Plant Fails To Invade, Stephen L. Young

West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte

In 2012, much of the US Midwest was gripped in one of the most severe droughts on record. While conducting experimental fieldwork at a site in Nebraska during June of that year, I noticed a single musk thistle (Carduus nutans; Figure 1) that appeared to be in the bolt or early flowering stage, which is typical for the species at that time. Here, however, two things were unusual: this plant was less than 1 meter tall (with adequate moisture and light, musk thistle typically grows to heights of 1–2.5 meters before flowering), and was only 3 months old ...


Diel Vertical Migration Of An Invasive Calanoid Copepod, Eurytemora Affinis, In Little Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, Alexandra N. Poli Jun 2015

Diel Vertical Migration Of An Invasive Calanoid Copepod, Eurytemora Affinis, In Little Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, Alexandra N. Poli

Lawrence University Honors Projects

Eurytemora affinis, a calanoid copepod, is known to be a versatile, prolific invader of freshwater ecosystems across the globe. It has recently been documented in the Laurentian Great Lakes, including in Little Sturgeon Bay, an embayment of Lake Michigan. One survival mechanism that could make E. affinis a successful invader is diel vertical migration (DVM), a behavior in which animals move to different lakes depths at different times of day in order to avoid predation. Much is known about DVM of E. affinis, but primarily from studies in marine and brackish systems. Our goal was to investigate how E. affinis ...


Risk Assessment Based On Indirect Predation Cues: Revisiting Fine-Grained Variation, Michael W. Mccoy, Stefan K. Wheat, Karen M. Warkentin, James R. Vonesh Jan 2015

Risk Assessment Based On Indirect Predation Cues: Revisiting Fine-Grained Variation, Michael W. Mccoy, Stefan K. Wheat, Karen M. Warkentin, James R. Vonesh

Biology Publications

To adaptively express inducible defenses, prey must gauge risk based on indirect cues of predation. However, the information contained in indirect cues that enable prey to fine-tune their phenotypes to variation in risk is still unclear. In aquatic systems, research has focused on cue concentration as the key variable driving threat-sensitive responses to risk. However, while risk is measured as individuals killed per time, cue concentration may vary with either the number or biomass killed. Alternatively, fine-grained variation in cue, that is, frequency of cue pulses irrespective of concentration, may provide a more reliable signal of risk. Here, we present ...


Nourishment Level Affects Caste-Related Gene Expression In Polistes Wasps, Ali J. Berens, James H. Hunt, Amy L. Toth Jan 2015

Nourishment Level Affects Caste-Related Gene Expression In Polistes Wasps, Ali J. Berens, James H. Hunt, Amy L. Toth

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: Social insects exhibit striking phenotypic plasticity in the form of distinct reproductive (queen) and non-reproductive (worker) castes, which are typically driven by differences in the environment during early development. Nutritional environment and nourishment during development has been shown to be broadly associated with caste determination across social insect taxa such as bees, wasps, and termites. In primitively social insects such as Polistes paper wasps, caste remains flexible throughout adulthood, but there is evidence that nourishment inequalities can bias caste development with workers receiving limited nourishment compared to queens. Dominance and vibrational signaling are behaviors that have also been linked ...


Hydric Conditions During Incubation Influence Phenotypes Of Neonatal Reptiles In The Field, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeramie T. Strickland, Fredric J. Janzen Jan 2015

Hydric Conditions During Incubation Influence Phenotypes Of Neonatal Reptiles In The Field, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeramie T. Strickland, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

  1. Phenotypic variation is strongly impacted by environmental conditions experienced during development. Substantial laboratory research has shown that reptiles with flexible-shelled eggs are particularly sensitive to hydric conditions, yet research on nests in the wild is sparse.
  2. In this 2-year field experiment, we explore the influence of hydric conditions during incubation on phenotypic traits of hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). Using a split-clutch design, we created two artificial nests adjacent to each maternally selected nest site. Half the eggs incubated in a nest that received regular supplemental watering, while the control nest was exposed to natural precipitation only.
  3. Our results suggest ...


Evolutionary Change In Continuous Reaction Norms, Courtney J. Murren, Heidi J. Maclean, Sarah E. Diamond, Ulrich K. Steiner, Mary A. Heskel, Corey A. Handelsman, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Josh R. Auld, Hilary S. Callahan, David W. Pfennig, Rick A. Relyea, Carl D. Schlichting, Joel Kingsolver Apr 2014

Evolutionary Change In Continuous Reaction Norms, Courtney J. Murren, Heidi J. Maclean, Sarah E. Diamond, Ulrich K. Steiner, Mary A. Heskel, Corey A. Handelsman, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Josh R. Auld, Hilary S. Callahan, David W. Pfennig, Rick A. Relyea, Carl D. Schlichting, Joel Kingsolver

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Snowshoe Hares Display Limited Phenotypic Plasticity To Mismatch In Seasonal Camouflage, Marketa Zimova, L. Scott Mills, Paul M. Lukacs, Michael S. Mitchell Mar 2014

Snowshoe Hares Display Limited Phenotypic Plasticity To Mismatch In Seasonal Camouflage, Marketa Zimova, L. Scott Mills, Paul M. Lukacs, Michael S. Mitchell

Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences Faculty Publications

As duration of snow cover decreases owing to climate change, species undergoing seasonal colour moults can become colour mismatched with their background. The immediate adaptive solution to this mismatch is phenotypic plasticity, either in phenology of seasonal colour moults or in behaviours that reduce mismatch or its consequences. We observed nearly 200 snowshoe hares across a wide range of snow conditions and two study sites in Montana, USA, and found minimal plasticity in response to mismatch between coat colour and background. We found that moult phenology varied between study sites, likely due to differences in photoperiod and climate, but was ...


Morphological Divergence And Flow-Induced Phenotypic Plasticity In A Native Fish From Anthropogenically Altered Stream Habitats, Nathan R. Franssen, Laura K. Stewart, Jacob F. Schaefer Nov 2013

Morphological Divergence And Flow-Induced Phenotypic Plasticity In A Native Fish From Anthropogenically Altered Stream Habitats, Nathan R. Franssen, Laura K. Stewart, Jacob F. Schaefer

Faculty Publications

Understanding population-level responses to human-induced changes to habitats can elucidate the evolutionary consequences of rapid habitat alteration. Reservoirs constructed on streams expose stream fishes to novel selective pressures in these habitats. Assessing the drivers of trait divergence facilitated by these habitats will help identify evolutionary and ecological consequences of reservoir habitats. We tested for morphological divergence in a stream fish that occupies both stream and reservoir habitats. To assess contributions of genetic-level differences and phenotypic plasticity induced by flow variation, we spawned and reared individuals from both habitats types in flow and no flow conditions. Body shape significantly and consistently ...


Sexual Dimorphisms In Habitat-Specific Morphology And Behavior In The Green Anole Lizard, A K. Dill, T J. Sanger, Andrew C. Battles, Michele A. Johnson Jun 2013

Sexual Dimorphisms In Habitat-Specific Morphology And Behavior In The Green Anole Lizard, A K. Dill, T J. Sanger, Andrew C. Battles, Michele A. Johnson

Biology Faculty Research

Species that occur in variable environments often exhibit morphological and behavioral traits that are specific to local habitats. Because the ability to move effectively is closely associated with structural habitat, locomotor traits may be particularly sensitive to fine-scale habitat differences. Anolis lizards provide an excellent opportunity to study the relationship between locomotion and natural perch use in the field, as laboratory studies have demonstrated that lizards that use broader perches develop longer limbs and have higher sprint speeds. We examined Anolis carolinensis (the green anole) in three habitats in close proximity. Our goals were to determine whether habitat-specific differences in ...


Sexual Dimorphisms In Habitat-Specific Morphology And Behavior In The Green Anole Lizard, A K. Dill, T J. Sanger, A C. Battles, Michele A. Johnson Jun 2013

Sexual Dimorphisms In Habitat-Specific Morphology And Behavior In The Green Anole Lizard, A K. Dill, T J. Sanger, A C. Battles, Michele A. Johnson

Biology Faculty Research

Species that occur in variable environments often exhibit morphological and behavioral traits that are specific to local habitats. Because the ability to move effectively is closely associated with structural habitat, locomotor traits may be particularly sensitive to fine-scale habitat differences. Anolis lizards provide an excellent opportunity to study the relationship between locomotion and natural perch use in the field, as laboratory studies have demonstrated that lizards that use broader perches develop longer limbs and have higher sprint speeds. We examined Anolis carolinensis (the green anole) in three habitats in close proximity. Our goals were to determine whether habitat-specific differences in ...


Parasitoid Infestation Changes Female Mating Preferences, Oliver M. Beckers, William E. Wagner Mar 2013

Parasitoid Infestation Changes Female Mating Preferences, Oliver M. Beckers, William E. Wagner

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp ...


Seasonal Photoperiods Alter Developmental Time And Mass Of An Invasive Mosquito, Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), Across Its North-South Range In The United States, Steven A. Juliano, Donald A. Yee, Steven M. Vamosi Jul 2012

Seasonal Photoperiods Alter Developmental Time And Mass Of An Invasive Mosquito, Aedes Albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), Across Its North-South Range In The United States, Steven A. Juliano, Donald A. Yee, Steven M. Vamosi

Faculty Publications – Biological Sciences

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is perhaps the most successful invasive mosquito species in contemporary history. In the United States, Ae. albopictus has spread from its introduction point in southern Texas to as far north as New Jersey (i.e., a span of approximate to 14 degrees latitude). This species experiences seasonal constraints in activity because of cold temperatures in winter in the northern United States, but is active year-round in the south. We performed a laboratory experiment to examine how life-history traits of Ae. albopictus from four populations (New Jersey [39.4 degrees N], Virginia [38.6 ...


Nitrogen Acquisition By Annual And Perennial Grass Seedlings: Testing The Roles Of Performance And Plasticity To Explain Plant Invasion, A. J. Leffler, T. A. Monaco, J. J. James Oct 2011

Nitrogen Acquisition By Annual And Perennial Grass Seedlings: Testing The Roles Of Performance And Plasticity To Explain Plant Invasion, A. J. Leffler, T. A. Monaco, J. J. James

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Differences in resource acquisition between native and exotic plants is one hypothesis to explain invasive plant success. Mechanisms include greater resource acquisition rates and greater plasticity in resource acquisition by invasive exotic species compared to non-invasive natives. We assess the support for these mechanisms by comparing nitrate acquisition and growth of invasive annual and perennial grass seedlings in western North America. Two invasive exotic grasses (Bromus tectorum and Taeniatherum caput-medusae) and three perennial native and exotic grasses (Pseudoroegneria spicata, Elymus elymoides, and Agropyron cristatum) were grown at various temperatures typical of autumn and springtime when resource are abundant and dominance ...


State-Dependent Physiological Maintenance In A Long-Lived Ectotherm, The Painted Turtle (Chrysemys Picta), Lisa Schwanz, Daniel A. Warner, Suzanne Mcgaugh, Roberta Di Terlizzi, Anne M. Bronikowski Jan 2011

State-Dependent Physiological Maintenance In A Long-Lived Ectotherm, The Painted Turtle (Chrysemys Picta), Lisa Schwanz, Daniel A. Warner, Suzanne Mcgaugh, Roberta Di Terlizzi, Anne M. Bronikowski

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Energy allocation among somatic maintenance, reproduction and growth varies not only among species, but among individuals according to states such as age, sex and season. Little research has been conducted on the somatic (physiological) maintenance of long-lived organisms, particularly ectotherms such as reptiles. In this study, we examined sex differences and age- and season-related variation in immune function and DNA repair efficiency in a long-lived reptile, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). Immune components tended to be depressed during hibernation, in winter, compared with autumn or spring. Increased heterophil count during hibernation provided the only support for winter immunoenhancement. In juvenile ...


The Interactive Effects Of Predators, Resources, And Disturbance On Freshwater Snail Populations From The Everglades, Clifton B. Ruehl Apr 2010

The Interactive Effects Of Predators, Resources, And Disturbance On Freshwater Snail Populations From The Everglades, Clifton B. Ruehl

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The origins of population dynamics depend on interplay between abiotic and biotic factors; the relative importance of each changing across space and time. Predation is a central feature of ecological communities that removes individuals (consumption) and alters prey traits (non-consumptive). Resource quality mitigates non-consumptive predator effects by stimulating growth and reproduction. Disturbance resets predator-prey interactions by removing both. I integrate experiments, time-series analysis, and performance trials to examine the relative importance of these on the population dynamics of a snail species by studying a variety of their traits. A review of ninety-three published articles revealed that snail abundance was much ...