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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

How Cultured Dairy Products Can Have A Long Shelf Life And A Clean Label, Phillip S. Tong Dec 2012

How Cultured Dairy Products Can Have A Long Shelf Life And A Clean Label, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Dietary Fat Composition Influences Tissue Lipid Profile And Gene Expression In Fischer-344 Rats, Albert L. Zhou, Korry J. Hintze, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Robert E. Ward Dec 2012

Dietary Fat Composition Influences Tissue Lipid Profile And Gene Expression In Fischer-344 Rats, Albert L. Zhou, Korry J. Hintze, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Robert E. Ward

Dairy Science

The AIN-76A diet causes fatty liver in rodents when fed for long periods of time. The aimof this study was to utilize fatty acid analysis and transcriptomics to investigate the effects of different fat sources in the AIN-76A diet on tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in male, weanling Fischer-344 rats. Animals were fed isocaloric diets that differed only in the fat source: (1) corn oil (CO) (2) anhydrous milk fat (AMF), and (3) AMF supplemented with 10 % phospholipids from the milk fat globule membrane (AMFMFGM). There were no differences in food intake, body weight, growth rate, or body fat ...


Benchmarking Cow Comfort On North American Freestall Dairies: Lameness, Leg Injuries, Lying Time, Facility Design, And Management For High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows, Marina A.G. Von Keyserlingk, A. K. Barrientos, K. Ito, E. Galo, Daniel M. Weary Dec 2012

Benchmarking Cow Comfort On North American Freestall Dairies: Lameness, Leg Injuries, Lying Time, Facility Design, And Management For High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows, Marina A.G. Von Keyserlingk, A. K. Barrientos, K. Ito, E. Galo, Daniel M. Weary

Housing and Confinement of Farm Animals Collection

In this paper, we describe a novel approach to corporate involvement in on-farm assessment, driven by the desire to provide a service for dairy producers and to create a vehicle for engagement on issues of dairy cow welfare. This program provides producers with feedback on animal-based (including gait score, leg injuries, and lying time) and facility-based (including freestall design, bedding practices, feed bunk design and management, and stocking density) measures that can be used to better address their management goals. The aim of this paper is to describe variation in the prevalence of lameness and leg injuries, lying behavior, facility ...


Intsormil- Centa’S New Bmr Sorghum Varieties Create A Surge In Dairy Production, René Clará Valencia Nov 2012

Intsormil- Centa’S New Bmr Sorghum Varieties Create A Surge In Dairy Production, René Clará Valencia

INTSORMIL Scientific Publications

Scientists from the INTSORMIL-CENTA project based at the National Center for Agricultural Technology and Forestry (CENTA) of El Salvador have worked for five years to develop varieties of sorghum for grain and forage that are highly nutritious to cattle. Using the gene bmr-12, received from Dr. Gebisa Ejeta of Purdue University, they combined commercial varieties CENTA S-2, S-3 CENTA, CENTA RCV and VG 146 and were able to form new varieties containing this same gene. The first generation created 76 new varieties.


Production Of Highly Concentrated, Heat-Stable Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize, Celine A. Hayden, Erin M. Egelkrout, Alessa M. Moscoso, Cristina Enrique, Todd K. Keener, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Jeffrey C. Wong, John A. Howard Oct 2012

Production Of Highly Concentrated, Heat-Stable Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize, Celine A. Hayden, Erin M. Egelkrout, Alessa M. Moscoso, Cristina Enrique, Todd K. Keener, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Jeffrey C. Wong, John A. Howard

Dairy Science

Plant-based oral vaccines are a promising emergent technology that could help alleviate disease burden worldwide by providing a low-cost, heat-stable, oral alternative to parenterally administered commercial vaccines. Here, we describe high-level accumulation of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at a mean concentration of 0.51%TSP in maize T1 seeds using an improved version of the globulin1 promoter. This concentration is more than fourfold higher than any previously reported lines. HBsAg expressed in maize seeds was extremely heat stable, tolerating temperatures up to 55 °C for 1 month without degradation. Optimal heat stability was achieved after oil extraction of ...


Association Between Stall Surface And Some Animal Welfare Measurements In Freestall Dairy Herds Using Recycled Manure Solids For Bedding, A. W. Husfeldt, M. I. Endres Oct 2012

Association Between Stall Surface And Some Animal Welfare Measurements In Freestall Dairy Herds Using Recycled Manure Solids For Bedding, A. W. Husfeldt, M. I. Endres

Housing and Confinement of Farm Animals Collection

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in upper Midwest US dairy operations using recycled manure solids as bedding material. The study included 34 dairy operations with herd sizes ranging from 130 to 3,700 lactating cows. Forty-five percent of the herds had mattresses and 55% had deep-bedded stalls. Farms were visited once between July and October 2009. At the time of visit, at least 50% of the cows in each lactating pen were scored for locomotion, hygiene, and hock lesions. On-farm herd records were collected for the ...


Cultures And Stabilizers In Cultured Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong Sep 2012

Cultures And Stabilizers In Cultured Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Precision-Feeding Dairy Heifers With Different Levels Of Dietary Fiber And F:C. Effects On Protein Utilization, N Efficiency, And Rumen Fermentation, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs Jul 2012

Precision-Feeding Dairy Heifers With Different Levels Of Dietary Fiber And F:C. Effects On Protein Utilization, N Efficiency, And Rumen Fermentation, G. J. Lascano, A. J. Heinrichs

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Nacl Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility, Hydrophobicity, And Disulfide Bonds Of 80% Milk Protein Concentrate Powder, X. Y. Mao, P. S. Tong, S. Gualco, S. Vink Jul 2012

Effect Of Nacl Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility, Hydrophobicity, And Disulfide Bonds Of 80% Milk Protein Concentrate Powder, X. Y. Mao, P. S. Tong, S. Gualco, S. Vink

Dairy Science

We investigated the surface hydrophobicity index based on different fluorescence probes [1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) and 6-propionyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)-naphthalene (PRODAN)], free sulfhydryl and disulfide bond contents, and particle size of 80% milk protein concentrate (MPC80) powders prepared by adding various amounts of NaCl (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM) during the diafiltration process. The solubility of MPC80 powder was not strictly related to surface hydrophobicity. The MPC80 powder obtained by addition of 150 mM NaCl during diafiltration had the highest solubility but also the highest ANS-based surface hydrophobicity, the lowest PRODAN-based surface hydrophobicity, and the least aggregate ...


Practical Considerations And Implementation Of Anaerobic Digester Systems, Jenny Pronto, Curt Gooch, Nellie J. Brown Jun 2012

Practical Considerations And Implementation Of Anaerobic Digester Systems, Jenny Pronto, Curt Gooch, Nellie J. Brown

Manuals and User Guides

This course prepares learners to implement and run an AD system from the planning and design phase to operation and maintenance. It focuses on the design of AD systems; how to successfully interact with a designer so that the farm’s needs are met; and basic operation and maintenance.


Effect Of Pen Size, Group Size, And Stocking Density On Activity In Freestall-Housed Dairy Cows, E. Telezhenko, Marina A.G. Von Keyserlingk, A. Talebi, Daniel M. Weary Jun 2012

Effect Of Pen Size, Group Size, And Stocking Density On Activity In Freestall-Housed Dairy Cows, E. Telezhenko, Marina A.G. Von Keyserlingk, A. Talebi, Daniel M. Weary

Housing and Confinement of Farm Animals Collection

The purpose was to determine the effects of the physical dimensions of the pen and group size and stocking density on cow activity. Cows (randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 animals each) were tested in pens with 24 or 12 lying places and in groups with 12 or 6 cows. All groups were tested in each of the 4 treatments with treatment order allocated using a 4 × 4 Latin square. The distance moved and the number of movements were calculated using 5-min scan sampling of video recordings over a 48-h period. Time spent lying down, number of lying bouts ...


Formulating The Next Generation Of Cultured Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong May 2012

Formulating The Next Generation Of Cultured Dairy Foods, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Dermatopathy In Juvenile Angus Cattle Due To Vitamin A Deficiency, Thomas J. Baldwin, Kerry A. Rood, E. Jane Kelly, Jeffery O. Hall May 2012

Dermatopathy In Juvenile Angus Cattle Due To Vitamin A Deficiency, Thomas J. Baldwin, Kerry A. Rood, E. Jane Kelly, Jeffery O. Hall

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

In juvenile cattle, vitamin A deficiency is reported most commonly as a neurological condition; only rarely are there dermatologic manifestations. In the current study, alopecia, severe epidermal and follicular orthokeratosis, and acanthosis due to hypovitaminosis A are reported in 2 of 32 Angus calves, with a third animal suspected. Affected animals responded to vitamin A supplementation, and no additional calves displayed signs. Vitamin A acts on skin by regulating DNA transcription in keratinocytes, reducing the number of tonofilaments and desmosomes, both involved in cell-to-cell adhesion. Hence, adequate levels of dietary vitamin A are necessary for normal keratinocyte turnover, and deficiencies ...


A Longitudinal Study Of The Establishment And Proliferation Of Enterococcus On A Dairy Farm, Ginger M. Shipp, James S. Dickson May 2012

A Longitudinal Study Of The Establishment And Proliferation Of Enterococcus On A Dairy Farm, Ginger M. Shipp, James S. Dickson

Animal Science Publications

Enterococci are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic cocci. They are found in many environments (including milk and dairy products, vegetables, plants, cereals, and meats). Enterococci are considered commensal organisms, but can also be opportunistic pathogens associated with morbidity and mortality of humans and animals. A longitudinal study of antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus to ampicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline was conducted on an academic teaching farm. Environmental samples were collected by drag swabs at select locations prior to and after the introduction of livestock. All samples were initially processed and screened with specialized media, and then replica plated on tryptic soy agar containing a ...


2011 Annual Report, Various Authors May 2012

2011 Annual Report, Various Authors

Annual Reports

No abstract provided.


Returns To The Introduction Of New Sorghum Cultivars Into The Dairy Industry Of El Salvador, Alexis Homero Villacís Aveiga May 2012

Returns To The Introduction Of New Sorghum Cultivars Into The Dairy Industry Of El Salvador, Alexis Homero Villacís Aveiga

INTSORMIL Scientific Publications

The returns to the introduction of new photo-insensitive sorghum varieties into the dairy industry were analyzed to determine changes in the welfare of consumers, processors, producers and the society. The economic surplus method was used along with a survey data of a stratified sample of 150 farms conducted in 2011 in El Salvador. Results indicate that there are large returns per dollar spent and substantial benefits to consumers, processors and producers. Results also show that the adoption of these new technologies represents advantages in production costs of milk in each farm size. These cost savings per bottle are very small ...


Impact Of High Hydrostatic Pressure And Heat Treatments On Milk Gel Properties: A Comparative Rheological Study, Anas Al-Nabulsi, Reyad Shaker, Tareq Osaili, Stephanie Clark, Federico Harte, Gustavo Barbosa-Canovas Apr 2012

Impact Of High Hydrostatic Pressure And Heat Treatments On Milk Gel Properties: A Comparative Rheological Study, Anas Al-Nabulsi, Reyad Shaker, Tareq Osaili, Stephanie Clark, Federico Harte, Gustavo Barbosa-Canovas

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (483 and 676 MPa at 20°C for 5 min) and heat treatment (63°C for 30 min and 72°C for 15 s) of milk on the rheological properties of coagulant-induced milk gels were investigated. The rheological properties of gels were determined using a dynamic Physica Rheometer and Texture Analyzer. Milk turbidity was measured by a spectrophotometer. The gels produced from a pressure of 483 MPa had higher storage modulus (G*) and firmer gel at cutting compared to heated milks. Increasing the pressure to 676 MPa caused a reduction in G*, less firm ...


Who Will Create The Iphone Equivalent In Dairy Foods?, Phillip S. Tong Feb 2012

Who Will Create The Iphone Equivalent In Dairy Foods?, Phillip S. Tong

Dairy Science

No abstract provided.


Composición De Los Lípidos En Los Granos De Destilería, Fernando Díaz-Royón, Alvaro Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater Feb 2012

Composición De Los Lípidos En Los Granos De Destilería, Fernando Díaz-Royón, Alvaro Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A pesar del menor costo de adquisición comparado con otras fuentes proteicas y su alta disponibilidad en el mercado, los granos de destilería (GD) a veces no son un ingrediente atractivo para algunos nutricionistas y productores. Un 28% de todos los productores lecheros grado A del estado de Dakota del Sur que respondieron a una encuesta realizada por South Dakota State University (no publicado, 2011) afirmaron no usar GD en sus raciones.


Composition Of Fat In Distillers Grains, Fernando Díaz-Royón, Alvaro Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater Feb 2012

Composition Of Fat In Distillers Grains, Fernando Díaz-Royón, Alvaro Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Distillers grains (DG) originating from the corn-based fuel ethanol industry are an excellent source of energy and non-rumen degradable protein, and are an effective ingredient for dairy cattle diets. However, in spite of competitive price when compared to other protein sources and their high availability in the market, DG are not always sought as a dietary ingredient by some nutritionists and dairy producers. In a recent survey conducted in South Dakota by South Dakota State University Dairy Extension, where 28% of all Grade A dairy producers replied (Unpublished. 2011), many confirmed they did not use DG in their dairy cattle ...


Maine Learns To Love Dairying, Erin Love Jan 2012

Maine Learns To Love Dairying, Erin Love

Historical Ecology Atlas of New England

The transition from subsistence to commercial farming is a defining trend in Maine dairying that continues today. Technological advances that often caused large landscape scale changes were catalysts in the division between small and large farmers. The industry developed in a relatively short time period—the last thirty years of the 19th century—but the characteristic divide between large and small farmers has continued to be exacerbated.


Veterinary Extension Program Activities And Accomplishments: Lameness And Welfare Of Cattle, Jan K. Shearer Jan 2012

Veterinary Extension Program Activities And Accomplishments: Lameness And Welfare Of Cattle, Jan K. Shearer

Animal Industry Report

Lameness of dairy and beef cattle is an extension program priority. In dairy cattle lameness represents the single most costly clinical disease of dairy cattle (Guard, 2009). It is usually less of a problem in cow/calf herds and stocker cattle operations, and a bigger problem in feedlot steers and heifers. Over the previous 12 month period, we have conducted multiple training programs (under the heading of the ISU Master Hoof Care Program) on foot care and claw trimming to trimmers and dairy farm managers throughout the United States. As profit margins on feeder cattle improve, we anticipate that there ...


Modification Of Digestive System Microbiome Of Lactating Dairy Cows By Feeding Bovamine®: Effect On Ruminal Fermentation, Mohamed Osman, Judith Stabel, Ken Onda, Scot Down, Wanda Kreikemeier, Douglas Ware, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2012

Modification Of Digestive System Microbiome Of Lactating Dairy Cows By Feeding Bovamine®: Effect On Ruminal Fermentation, Mohamed Osman, Judith Stabel, Ken Onda, Scot Down, Wanda Kreikemeier, Douglas Ware, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

We evaluated the effect of Bovamine ( Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii strain NP24) feeding on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, we examined Bovamine effects on ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and the Firmicutes : Bacteroides. Dairy cows were randomized to treatment groups that were either fed the Bovamine or the lactose carrier top-dressed on the total mixed ration (TMR) for six weeks. Feeding Bovamine favorably modified the digestive system microbiome as determined by the bacterial tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). Fecal Firmicutes : Bacteroides ...


Determining The Effectiveness Of Microbial Protease On Production Variables In Lactating Holstein Cows , Ekin Sucu, Amir Nayeri, Maria Victoria Sanz-Fernandez, Nathan Upah, Lance H. Baumgard Jan 2012

Determining The Effectiveness Of Microbial Protease On Production Variables In Lactating Holstein Cows , Ekin Sucu, Amir Nayeri, Maria Victoria Sanz-Fernandez, Nathan Upah, Lance H. Baumgard

Animal Industry Report

Lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a control diet or a diet containing a blend of supplemental protease enzymes (Rumagentin™, Feed Sources LLC, Alta Loma CA) at the Iowa State University Dairy farm. Study objectives were to examine the effects of proteases on milk yield, milk composition, feed intake and feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. Our results indicate that protease enzymes enhanced feed conversion efficiency and nitrogen utilization of dairy cows.


Two Methods To Determine Igg Concentration In Calf Serum, Kimberly M. Morrill, Howard D. Tyler Jan 2012

Two Methods To Determine Igg Concentration In Calf Serum, Kimberly M. Morrill, Howard D. Tyler

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, calfside test to determine serum IgG concentration using caprylic acid (CA) fractionation followed by refractometry of the IgG-rich supernatant and compare the accuracy of this method with results obtained using refractometry of whole serum. Serum samples (n = 200) were obtained from 1 d old calves, frozen and shipped to the laboratory. Samples were allowed to sit at room temperature to thaw. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1 ml of serum to a tube containing CA and 0.5, 1 or 1.5 mL 0.06 M acetic acid ...


Development And Evaluation Of Teat Coverage Persistency For New Prototype Dry Period Persistent Barrier Teat Dips, Emily Smith, Leo L. Timms, Mario Lopez Jan 2012

Development And Evaluation Of Teat Coverage Persistency For New Prototype Dry Period Persistent Barrier Teat Dips, Emily Smith, Leo L. Timms, Mario Lopez

Animal Industry Report

Mastitis research has shown that 40-50% of intramammary infections (IMI) are contracted during the dry or non-lactating period with the greatest percentages of these occurring during the first and last two weeks of the dry period. The ability to develop and apply external persistent barrier teat dip products (like a liquid bandage) that can persist for these 1 week periods could decrease IMI, thus improving animal health and performance, and product quality and safety. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate teat dip characteristics (teat health and adherence times) of novel prototype dry cow barrier teat dip products ...


Making Successful Decisions On Robotic Milking Technology, Larry F. Tranel, Jennifer A. Bentley, Kristen Schulte Jan 2012

Making Successful Decisions On Robotic Milking Technology, Larry F. Tranel, Jennifer A. Bentley, Kristen Schulte

Animal Industry Report

Automatic Milking Systems (AMS) are milking cows on over 2,500 farms around the world. There are over 150 farms in the US and over 350 in Canada using AMS. AMS has been growing exponentially since 2000. Decreased labor and increased quality of life can override the high investment costs of AMS. AMS increase management ability by collecting individual cow milk production, milk conductivity, milk clarity, cow activity and rumination data. AMS are a high level management system, not just a tool to milk cows. The increased management ability may be more important than the milking technology. The high initial ...


Revised Alfalfa Fertilizer Recommendations For A Changing Environment Greatly Improves Profitability, Brian Lang, John E. Sawyer, Daniel Barker, Ken Pecinovsky Jan 2012

Revised Alfalfa Fertilizer Recommendations For A Changing Environment Greatly Improves Profitability, Brian Lang, John E. Sawyer, Daniel Barker, Ken Pecinovsky

Animal Industry Report

During the last decade, an ever-increasing percentage of alfalfa fields in northeast Iowa have been exhibiting signs of reduced growth and vigor, resulting in declining profitability. Iowa State University Extension in northeast Iowa initiated an investigation into this problem. Sixteen research trials conducted in northeast Iowa over the next 6 years as both on-farm trials and at the northeast ISU research farm uncovered widespread sulfur deficiency problems in alfalfa production. Over 90 ISU Extension educational meetings in northeast Iowa, and extensive use of the media, communicated this issue and tools to address it to farmers and agricultural providers. Survey results ...


Isu Extension Dairy Team Newsletters Inform Dairy Industry, Jennifer Bentley, Larry Tranel Jan 2012

Isu Extension Dairy Team Newsletters Inform Dairy Industry, Jennifer Bentley, Larry Tranel

Animal Industry Report

There are many ways dairy producers and industry professionals can receive information. Sometimes, the information they are looking for is so overwhelming to find due to “Google”. How do they know it’s credible and how do they sort through all the sites for the most up to date research based information? And what about those who don’t use the internet or have limited availability to resources?


Dietary Supplementation With Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) On Production, Health And Culling Parameters In Transitioning Holstein Cows, Nathan Upah, Pat Gorden, Lance H. Baumgard Jan 2012

Dietary Supplementation With Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) On Production, Health And Culling Parameters In Transitioning Holstein Cows, Nathan Upah, Pat Gorden, Lance H. Baumgard

Animal Industry Report

Lactating Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary CLA treatments. Study objectives were to determine the effects of a protected (lipid-encapsulated tran-10, cis- 12) CLA on milk production, health and culling frequency, reproduction and overall feasibility in large commercial dairy operations. Results indicate that CLA is capable of inducing milk fat depression (MFD) within 15 d following parturition and the reduced milk energy output likely indicates an improved energetic status. However, feeding CLA had no effect on other productions, metabolic, health, or culling variables.