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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Predator Water Balance Alters Intraguild Predation In A Streamsidefood Web, Israel L. Leinbach, Kevin E. Mccluney, John L. Sabo Jan 2019

Predator Water Balance Alters Intraguild Predation In A Streamsidefood Web, Israel L. Leinbach, Kevin E. Mccluney, John L. Sabo

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Previous work suggests that animal water balance can influence trophic interactions, with predators increasing their consumption of water-laden prey to meet water demands.But it is unclear how the need for water interacts with the need for energy to drive trophic interactions under shifting conditions. Using manipulative field experiments, we show that water balance influences the effects of top predators on prey with contrasting ratios of water and energy, altering the frequency of intraguild predation. Water-stressed top predators (large spiders) negatively affect water-laden basal prey (crickets), especially male prey with higher water content, whereas alleviation of water limitation causes top ...


Invasive Plant Erodes Local Song Diversity In A Migratory Passerine, Yvette K. Ortega, Aubree Benson, Erick Greene Feb 2014

Invasive Plant Erodes Local Song Diversity In A Migratory Passerine, Yvette K. Ortega, Aubree Benson, Erick Greene

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Exotic plant invasions threaten ecosystems globally, but we still know little about the specific consequences for animals. Invasive plants can alter the quality of breeding habitat for songbirds, thereby impacting important demographic traits such as dispersal, philopatry, and age structure. These demographic effects may in turn alter song-learning conditions to affect song structure and diversity. We studied Chipping Sparrows (Spizella passerina) breeding in six savannas that were either dominated by native vegetation or invaded by spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe), an exotic forb known to diminish food resources and reproductive success. Here, we report that the prevalence of older birds was ...


Comparative Phylogeography Of The Coral Triangle And Implications For Marine Management, Kent E. Carpenter, Paul H. Barber, Eric D. Crandall, Maria Carmen A. Ablan-Lagman, Ambariyanto Ambariyanto, Gusti Ngurah Mahardika, B. Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto, Marie Antonette Junio-Menez, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, Craig J. Starger, Abdul Hamid A. Toha Jan 2011

Comparative Phylogeography Of The Coral Triangle And Implications For Marine Management, Kent E. Carpenter, Paul H. Barber, Eric D. Crandall, Maria Carmen A. Ablan-Lagman, Ambariyanto Ambariyanto, Gusti Ngurah Mahardika, B. Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto, Marie Antonette Junio-Menez, Mudjekeewis D. Santos, Craig J. Starger, Abdul Hamid A. Toha

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Extreme concentration of marine biodiversity and exploitation of marine resources in the Coral Triangle pose challenges to biogeographers and resource managers. Comparative phylogeography provides a powerful tool to test biogeographic hypotheses evoked to explain species richness in the Coral Triangle. It can also be used to delineate management units for marine resources. After about a decade of phylogeographical studies, patterns for theCoral Triangle are emerging. Broad connectivity in some species support the notion that larvae have maintained gene flow among distant populations for long periods. Other phylogeographic patterns suggest vicariant events resulting from Pleistocene sea level fluctuations, which have, at ...


The Loss Of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk And Geographic Areas Of Global Concern, Beth A. Polidoro, Kent E. Carpenter, Lorna Collins, Norman C. Duke, Aaron M. Ellison, Joanna C. Ellison, Elizabeth J. Farnsworth, Edwino S. Fernando, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Nico E. Koedam, Suzanne R. Livingstone, Toyohiko Miyagi, Gregg E. Moore, Vien Ngoc Nam, Jin Eong Ong, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Serverino G. Salmo, Jonnell C. Sanciango, Sukristijono Sukardjo, Yamin Wang, Jean Wan Hong Yong Apr 2010

The Loss Of Species: Mangrove Extinction Risk And Geographic Areas Of Global Concern, Beth A. Polidoro, Kent E. Carpenter, Lorna Collins, Norman C. Duke, Aaron M. Ellison, Joanna C. Ellison, Elizabeth J. Farnsworth, Edwino S. Fernando, Kandasamy Kathiresan, Nico E. Koedam, Suzanne R. Livingstone, Toyohiko Miyagi, Gregg E. Moore, Vien Ngoc Nam, Jin Eong Ong, Jurgenne H. Primavera, Serverino G. Salmo, Jonnell C. Sanciango, Sukristijono Sukardjo, Yamin Wang, Jean Wan Hong Yong

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of ...


The Impact Of Conservation On The Status Of The World's Vertebrates, Michael Hoffmann, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Ariadne Angulo, Monika Böhm, Thomas M. Brooks, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent E. Carpenter, Janice Chanson, Beth A. Polidoro, Jonnell C. Sanciangco Jan 2010

The Impact Of Conservation On The Status Of The World's Vertebrates, Michael Hoffmann, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Ariadne Angulo, Monika Böhm, Thomas M. Brooks, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent E. Carpenter, Janice Chanson, Beth A. Polidoro, Jonnell C. Sanciangco

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to extinction each year. However, this overall pattern conceals the impact of conservation successes, and we show that the rate of deterioration would have been at least one-fifth again as much in the absence of these. Nonetheless, current conservation efforts remain insufficient to ...


Habitat-Based Intraguild Predation By Caribbean Reef Octopus Octopus Briareus On Juvenile Caribbean Spiny Lobster Panulirus Argus, Mark J. Butler Iv, Jennifer A. Lear Jul 2009

Habitat-Based Intraguild Predation By Caribbean Reef Octopus Octopus Briareus On Juvenile Caribbean Spiny Lobster Panulirus Argus, Mark J. Butler Iv, Jennifer A. Lear

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Intraguild predation occurs when species simultaneously compete for resources and interact as predator and prey, which describes the interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus and Caribbean reef octopus Octopus briareus in the Florida Keys, USA. Octopuses are notorious predators of decapod crustaceans, and their use of crevice shelters suggests that they may also compete for shelter with their lobster prey. Lobsters use mainly chemical cues to detect and avoid octopus, so we hypothesized that the negative association between these species may be as much the consequence of avoidance of a superior competitor as it is of direct predation ...


Recruitment In Degraded Marine Habitats: A Spatially Explicit, Individual-Based Model For Spiny Lobster, Mark J. Butler Iv, Thomas W. Dolan Iii, John H. Hunt, Kenneth A. Rose, William F. Herrnkind Jun 2005

Recruitment In Degraded Marine Habitats: A Spatially Explicit, Individual-Based Model For Spiny Lobster, Mark J. Butler Iv, Thomas W. Dolan Iii, John H. Hunt, Kenneth A. Rose, William F. Herrnkind

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Coastal habitats that serve as nursery grounds for numerous marine species are badly degraded, yet the traditional means of modeling populations of exploited marine species handle spatiotemporal changes in habitat characteristics and life history dynamics poorly, if at all. To explore how nursery habitat degradation impacts recruitment of a mobile, benthic species, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model that describes the recruitment of Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) in the Florida Keys, where a cascade of environmental disturbances has reconfigured nursery habitat structure. In recent years, the region has experienced a series of linked perturbations, among them, seagrass die-offs ...


Benthic Fisheries Ecology In A Changing Environment: Unraveling Process To Achieve Prediction, Mark J. Butler Iv Jan 2005

Benthic Fisheries Ecology In A Changing Environment: Unraveling Process To Achieve Prediction, Mark J. Butler Iv

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Marine fisheries and the ecosystems that sustain them are increasingly beset by environmental deterioration, and the problem is particularly acute in coastal zones where human Populations are increasing. In the best of circumstances, fishery managers are faced with the multiple, often conflicting, demands of resource users, politicians, and scientists when considering strategies for resource management. A further challenge is that management decisions must be made against a backdrop of a deteriorating environment and the shifting status of coastal ecosystem integrity. Traditional tools for single-species management may be inadequate in these settings. Furthermore. the necessary empirical data to appropriately parameterize models ...


Distribution Of The Euryhaline Squid Lolliguncula Brevis In Chesapeake Bay: Effects Of Selected Abiotic Factors, I. K. Bartol, R. Mann, M. Vecchione Jan 2002

Distribution Of The Euryhaline Squid Lolliguncula Brevis In Chesapeake Bay: Effects Of Selected Abiotic Factors, I. K. Bartol, R. Mann, M. Vecchione

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The majority of cephalopods are thought to have limitations arising from physiology and locomotion that exclude them from shallow, highly variable, euryhaline environments. The brief squid Lolliguncula brevis may be a notable exception because it tolerates low salinities, withstands a wide range of environmental conditions, and swims readily in shallow water. Little is known about the distribution of L. brevis in Chesapeake Bay, a diverse and highly variable estuary. Therefore, a survey of L. brevis was conducted in the Virginia portion of Chesapeake Bay from 1993 to 1997 using a 9.1 m otter trawl, and the effects of selected ...


Adaptive Strategies That Reduce Predation On Caribbean Spiny Lobster Postlarvae During Onshore Transport, Charles A. Acosta, Mark J. Butler Iv May 1999

Adaptive Strategies That Reduce Predation On Caribbean Spiny Lobster Postlarvae During Onshore Transport, Charles A. Acosta, Mark J. Butler Iv

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Like many marine species with meroplanktonic larvae, the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) has a postlarval stage that moves from the oceanic plankton to inshore nurseries only under specific environmental conditions (i.e., at night, in the surface water layer, on the flood tide, and during new moon), presumably to avoid predation or to enhance onshore transport. Using held and mesocosm experiments, we compared predation on planktonic postlarvae swimming at night near the surface and bottom over coastal habitats along typical offshore-inshore transport paths and determined whether predation rates differed between lunar periods (new moon vs, full moon) and with ...


Observations On The Pearl Oyster Fishery Of Kuwait, S. M. Almatar, Kent E. Carpenter, R. Jackson, S. H. Alhazeem, A. H. Alsaffar, A. R. A. Ghaffar, C. Carpenter Jan 1993

Observations On The Pearl Oyster Fishery Of Kuwait, S. M. Almatar, Kent E. Carpenter, R. Jackson, S. H. Alhazeem, A. H. Alsaffar, A. R. A. Ghaffar, C. Carpenter

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The pearl oyster fishery of Kuwait was monitored daily from January 1989 to May 1990. Landings of pearl oysters in 1989 totaled 287 tons with a market value of U.S. $1.0 million. Commercial pearls (>3 mm) were estimated to be present in one of every 4200 oysters. Most of the pearl oysters landed were new recruits with hinge lengths between 40-56 mm. There was a curvilinear relationship between total weight and size of oysters (length) and the sex ratio approached 1:1. Spawning occurs throughout the year, with a spat settlement peak in early fall. Over the size ...