Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Biomass

Institution
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 55

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Seaflow Data V1, High-Resolution Abundance, Size And Biomass Of Small Phytoplankton In The North Pacific, François Ribalet, Chris Berthiaume, Annette Hynes, Jarred Swalwell, Michael Carlson, Sophie Clayton, Gwenn Hennon, Camille Poirier, Eric Shimabukuro, Angelicque White, E. Virginia Armhurst Nov 2019

Seaflow Data V1, High-Resolution Abundance, Size And Biomass Of Small Phytoplankton In The North Pacific, François Ribalet, Chris Berthiaume, Annette Hynes, Jarred Swalwell, Michael Carlson, Sophie Clayton, Gwenn Hennon, Camille Poirier, Eric Shimabukuro, Angelicque White, E. Virginia Armhurst

OEAS Faculty Publications

SeaFlow is an underway flow cytometer that provides continuous shipboard observations of the abundance and optical properties of small phytoplankton (<5 μm in equivalent spherical diameter, ESD). Here we present data sets consisting of SeaFlow-based cell abundance, forward light scatter, and pigment fluorescence of individual cells, as well as derived estimates of ESD and cellular carbon content of picophytoplankton, which includes the cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and small-sized Crocosphaera (<5 μm ESD), and picophytoplankton and nanophytoplankton (2–5 μm ESD). Data were collected in surface waters (≈5 m depth) from 27 oceanographic cruises carried out in the Northeast Pacific Ocean between 2010 and 2018. Thirteen cruises provide high spatial resolution (≈1 km) measurements across 32,500 km of the Northeast Pacific Ocean and 14 near-monthly cruises beginning in 2015 provide seasonal distributions at the long-term sampling site (Station ALOHA) of the Hawaii Ocean Time-Series. These data sets expand our knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distributions of picophytoplankton in the surface ocean.


Biomass Production Of Herbaceous Energy Crops In The United States: Field Trial Results And Yield Potential Maps From The Multiyear Regional Feedstock Partnership, Do Kyoung Lee, Ezra Aberle, Erik K. Anderson, William Anderson, Brian S. Baldwin, David Baltensperger, Michael Barrett, Jürg Blumenthal, Stacy Bonos, Joe Bouton, David I. Bransby, Charlie Brummer, Pane S. Burks, Chengci Chen, Christopher Daly, Josh Egenolf, Rodney L. Farris, John H. Fike, Roch Gaussoin, John R. Gill, Kenneth Gravois, Michael D. Halbleib, Anna Hale, Wayne Hanna, Keith Harmoney, Emily A. Heaton, Ron W. Heiniger, Lindsey Hoffman, Chang O. Hong, Gopal Kakani, David Williams, Linda Williams Oct 2018

Biomass Production Of Herbaceous Energy Crops In The United States: Field Trial Results And Yield Potential Maps From The Multiyear Regional Feedstock Partnership, Do Kyoung Lee, Ezra Aberle, Erik K. Anderson, William Anderson, Brian S. Baldwin, David Baltensperger, Michael Barrett, Jürg Blumenthal, Stacy Bonos, Joe Bouton, David I. Bransby, Charlie Brummer, Pane S. Burks, Chengci Chen, Christopher Daly, Josh Egenolf, Rodney L. Farris, John H. Fike, Roch Gaussoin, John R. Gill, Kenneth Gravois, Michael D. Halbleib, Anna Hale, Wayne Hanna, Keith Harmoney, Emily A. Heaton, Ron W. Heiniger, Lindsey Hoffman, Chang O. Hong, Gopal Kakani, David Williams, Linda Williams

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Current knowledge of yield potential and best agronomic management practices for perennial bioenergy grasses is primarily derived from small‐scale and short‐term studies, yet these studies inform policy at the national scale. In an effort to learn more about how bioenergy grasses perform across multiple locations and years, the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE)/Sun Grant Initiative Regional Feedstock Partnership was initiated in 2008. The objectives of the Feedstock Partnership were to (1) provide a wide range of information for feedstock selection (species choice) and management practice options for a variety of regions and (2) develop national ...


Biomass Production Of Herbaceous Energy Crops In The United States: Field Trial Results And Yield Potential Maps From The Multiyear Regional Feedstock Partnership, Do Kyoung Lee, William Anderson, Anna Hale, Emily A. Heaton, Ken J. Moore, Ed Richard, Thomas Tew, Et Al. Oct 2018

Biomass Production Of Herbaceous Energy Crops In The United States: Field Trial Results And Yield Potential Maps From The Multiyear Regional Feedstock Partnership, Do Kyoung Lee, William Anderson, Anna Hale, Emily A. Heaton, Ken J. Moore, Ed Richard, Thomas Tew, Et Al.

Agronomy Publications

Current knowledge of yield potential and best agronomic management practices for perennial bioenergy grasses is primarily derived from small‐scale and short‐term studies, yet these studies inform policy at the national scale. In an effort to learn more about how bioenergy grasses perform across multiple locations and years, the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE)/Sun Grant Initiative Regional Feedstock Partnership was initiated in 2008. The objectives of the Feedstock Partnership were to (1) provide a wide range of information for feedstock selection (species choice) and management practice options for a variety of regions and (2) develop national ...


The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen Sep 2018

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen

Articles

Although both local processes (photosynthesis, respiration, grazing, and settling), and transport processes (advective transport and diffusive transport) significantly affect local phytoplankton dynamics, it is difficult to separate their contributions and to investigate the relative importance of each process to the local variability of phytoplankton biomass over different timescales. A method of using the transport rate is introduced to quantify the contribution of transport processes. By combining the time-varying transport rate and high-frequency observed chlorophyll a data, we can explicitly examine the impact of local and transport processes on phytoplankton biomass over a range of timescales from hourly to annually. For ...


Harvesting Invasive Plants To Reduce Nutrient Loads And Produce Bioenergy: An Assessment Of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands, Brendan D. Carson, Shane C. Lishawa, Nancy C. Tuchman, Andrew M. Monks, Beth A. Lawrence, Dennis A. Albert Jun 2018

Harvesting Invasive Plants To Reduce Nutrient Loads And Produce Bioenergy: An Assessment Of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands, Brendan D. Carson, Shane C. Lishawa, Nancy C. Tuchman, Andrew M. Monks, Beth A. Lawrence, Dennis A. Albert

Institute of Environmental Sustainability: Faculty Publications and Other Works

In Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCWs), dominant emergent invasive plants are expanding their ranges and compromising the unique habitat and ecosystem service values that these ecosystems provide. Herbiciding and burning to control invasive plants have not been effective in part because neither strategy addresses the most common root cause of invasion, nutrient enrichment. Mechanical harvesting is an alternative approach that removes tissue‐bound phosphorus and nitrogen and can increase wetland plant diversity and aquatic connectivity between wetland and lacustrine systems. In this study, we used data from three years of Great Lakes‐wide wetland plant surveys, published literature, and ...


Application Of Silicon Ameliorated Salinity Stress And Improved Wheat Yield, M. A. Ibrahim, A. M. Merwad, E. A. Elnaka, C. L. Burras, L. Follett Jul 2016

Application Of Silicon Ameliorated Salinity Stress And Improved Wheat Yield, M. A. Ibrahim, A. M. Merwad, E. A. Elnaka, C. L. Burras, L. Follett

Agronomy Publications

Management of soil salinity is an important research field around the globe, especially when associated with the limited water resources. This work aimed to improve the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. CV. Sakha-93) grown under salinity stress. A completely randomized design pot experiment with three replications was conducted in a loamy soil with various levels of salinity under local weather conditions. The treatments included five levels of salinity (2.74, 5.96, 8.85, 10.74, and 13.38 dSm-1) prepared by adding NaCl to the selected soil and five treatments of Si (0, 2.1, 4 ...


Biological Lignocellulose Solubilization: Comparative Evaluation Of Iocatalysts And Enhancement Via Cotreatment, Julie M. D. Paye, Anna Guseva, Sarah K. Hammer, Erica Gjersing Jan 2016

Biological Lignocellulose Solubilization: Comparative Evaluation Of Iocatalysts And Enhancement Via Cotreatment, Julie M. D. Paye, Anna Guseva, Sarah K. Hammer, Erica Gjersing

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

Feedstock recalcitrance is the most important barrier impeding cost-effective production of cellulosic biofuels. Pioneer commercial cellulosic ethanol facilities employ thermochemical pretreatment and addition of fungal cellulase, reflecting the main research emphasis in the field. However, it has been suggested that it may be possible to process cellulosic biomass without thermochemical pretreatment using thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria. To further explore this idea, we examine the ability of various biocatalysts to solubilize autoclaved but otherwise unpretreated cellulosic biomass under controlled but not industrial conditions.


Producer Participation In Biomass Markets: Farm Factors, Market Factors, And Correlated Choices, Mohammad Mainul Hoque, Georgeanne M. Artz, Darren H. Jarboe, Bobby J. Martens Aug 2015

Producer Participation In Biomass Markets: Farm Factors, Market Factors, And Correlated Choices, Mohammad Mainul Hoque, Georgeanne M. Artz, Darren H. Jarboe, Bobby J. Martens

Economics Publications

This study evaluates attitudes toward production of three major types of biomass—corncobs, corn stover, and dedicated energy grass—using responses to a mail survey of 2,250 Iowa farmers. We examine how factors influencing willingness to supply biomass vary across biomass types and analyze the presence of potential correlations across interest in growing various types of biomass. We find that correlation in choices across biomass types is strong and statistically significant. Farmers consider corn stover and corncobs as complementary, but dedicated energy grasses and corncobs or stover as substitutes. Factors affecting farmer choices also vary significantly by type of ...


Analysis Of Trace Contaminants In Hot Gas Streams Using Time-Weighted Average Solid-Phase Microextraction: Pilot-Scale Validation, Patrick J. Woolcock, Jacek A. Koziel, Patrick A. Johnston, Robert C. Brown, Karl M. Broer Aug 2015

Analysis Of Trace Contaminants In Hot Gas Streams Using Time-Weighted Average Solid-Phase Microextraction: Pilot-Scale Validation, Patrick J. Woolcock, Jacek A. Koziel, Patrick A. Johnston, Robert C. Brown, Karl M. Broer

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A new method was developed for collecting, identifying and quantifying contaminants in hot process gas streams using time-weighted average (TWA) passive sampling with retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography. The previous lab scale proof-of-concept with benzene was expanded to include the remaining major tar compounds of interest in syngas: toluene, styrene, indene, and naphthalene. The new method was tested on high T (⩾100 °C) process gas from a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier feeding switchgrass and compared side-by-side with conventional impingers-based method. Fourteen additional compounds were identified, representing 40–60% improvement over the conventional method’s detection capacity. Differences between ...


Reu Site: Explore It! Building The Next Generation Of Sustainable Forest Bioproduct Researchers, David J. Neivandt, Darrell W. Donahue Oct 2014

Reu Site: Explore It! Building The Next Generation Of Sustainable Forest Bioproduct Researchers, David J. Neivandt, Darrell W. Donahue

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

This three-year REU Site program builds on the substantial research strengths at the University of Maine. The focus on sustainable forest bioproducts is highly topical and of great global importance in the area of sustainable energy alternatives.

Ten US undergraduate participants will conduct research advancing their knowledge of the field in general and one of the thematic elements in detail, specifically:

1) sustainability and life cycle analysis,
2) feedstock extraction/modification,
3) process control and sensing,
4) nanomaterial production and utilization, and
5) new product development. In addition the program includes an international component whereby, six Chilean students on a ...


Switchgrass Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer Across Diverse Environments In The Usa: A Regional Feedstock Partnership Report, C. O. Hong, V. N. Owens, D. Bransby, R. Farris, J. Fike, E. Heaton, S. Kim, H. Mayton, R. Mitchell, D. Viands Sep 2014

Switchgrass Response To Nitrogen Fertilizer Across Diverse Environments In The Usa: A Regional Feedstock Partnership Report, C. O. Hong, V. N. Owens, D. Bransby, R. Farris, J. Fike, E. Heaton, S. Kim, H. Mayton, R. Mitchell, D. Viands

Agronomy Publications

The Regional Feedstock Partnership is a collaborative effort between the Sun Grant Initiative (through Land Grant Universities), the US Department of Energy, and the US Department of Agriculture. One segment of this partnership is the field-scale evaluation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in diverse sites across the USA. Switchgrass was planted (11.2 kg PLS ha−1 ) in replicated plots in New York, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Virginia in 2008 and in Iowa in 2009. Adapted switchgrass cultivars were selected for each location and baseline soil samples collected before planting. Nitrogen fertilizer (0, 56, and 112 kg N ha−1 ...


Potential And Technological Advancement Of Biofuels, Rajee Olaganathan, Fabian Ko Qui Shen, Lim Jun Shen Aug 2014

Potential And Technological Advancement Of Biofuels, Rajee Olaganathan, Fabian Ko Qui Shen, Lim Jun Shen

Publications

This scientific paper examines the feasibility of biofuels as a solution to the world‟s energy crisis. It studies the development of the four different generations of biofuel that have been discerned over the years, determining the pros and cons of each. The paper further investigates the issues concerning each generation, and determines how their successors have solved and improved on those problems. In order to give the reader an unbiased perspective, the paper studies both general advantages and disadvantages that encompasses social, economic and environmental impacts. Research and development on the first two generations of biofuels have matured, and ...


Comparative Efficiency And Driving Range Of Light- And Heavy-Duty Vehicles Powered With Biomass Energy Stored In Liquid Fuels Or Batteries, Mark Laser, Lee R. R. Lynd Mar 2014

Comparative Efficiency And Driving Range Of Light- And Heavy-Duty Vehicles Powered With Biomass Energy Stored In Liquid Fuels Or Batteries, Mark Laser, Lee R. R. Lynd

Open Dartmouth: Peer-reviewed articles by Dartmouth faculty

This study addresses the question, "When using cellulosic biomass for vehicular transportation, which field-to-wheels pathway is more efficient: that using biofuels or that using bioelectricity?" In considering the question, the level of assumed technological maturity significantly affects the comparison, as does the intended transportation application. Results from the analysis indicate that for light-duty vehicles, over ranges typical in the United States today (e.g., 560-820 miles), field-to-wheels performance is similar, with some scenarios showing biofuel to be more efficient, and others indicating the two pathways to be essentially the same. Over the current range of heavy-duty vehicles, the field-to-wheels efficiency ...


Woody Biomass Conversion To Jp 8 Fuels: Monthly Funds And Expenditure Report, Hemant P. Pendse Feb 2014

Woody Biomass Conversion To Jp 8 Fuels: Monthly Funds And Expenditure Report, Hemant P. Pendse

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Two faculty and two staff members are active on this project. GL entries corrections for corrected Capital equipment expenses (re. May report) and corrected indirect cost charges are put in. Correct Total Capital Equipment charges are $82,950 and correct total indirect cost charges are $335,093.47.


Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks Jan 2014

Estimating Sustainable Harvests Of Eastern Oysters, Crassostrea Virginica, Thomas M. Soniat, Nathan Cooper, Eric N. Powell, John M. Klinck, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Shengru Tu, Roger Mann, Patrick D. Banks

CCPO Publications

Sustainability of a fishery is traditionally and typically considered achieved if the exploited population does not decline in numbers or biomass over time as a result of fishing relative to biological reference point goals. Oysters, however, exhibit atypical population dynamics compared with many other commercial species. The population dynamics often display extreme natural interannual variation in numbers and biomass, and oysters create their own habitat--the reef itself. With the worldwide decline of oyster reef habitat and the oyster fisheries dependent thereon, the maintenance of shell has received renewed attention as essential to population sustainability. We apply a shell budget model ...


Assessment Of A Rotenone Application Event At Mormon Island West Lake In Central Nebraska, Keith D. Koupal, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck Mar 2013

Assessment Of A Rotenone Application Event At Mormon Island West Lake In Central Nebraska, Keith D. Koupal, Brian C. Peterson, Casey W. Schoenebeck

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Fisheries managers applied rotenone to Mormon Island West in August of 2010 to renovate a fish community that was hypothesized to be unbalanced (i.e., dominated with gizzard shad and common carp) based on standardized survey results. We estimated species-specific biomass following the lake renovation to provide a baseline biomass estimate for a sand pit lake and to evaluate the effectiveness of standardized sampling gears. Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) were abundant in all sampling gears, but mostly stock-size (>175 mm total length) and larger individuals were caught in gill and trap nets and sub-stock (≤175 mm total length) individuals were ...


Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal For Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive Us National Assessment, David J. Muth Jr., Kenneth M. Bryden, R. G. Nelson Feb 2013

Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal For Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive Us National Assessment, David J. Muth Jr., Kenneth M. Bryden, R. G. Nelson

Ames Laboratory Publications

This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial ...


Specific Gravity Of Hybrid Poplars In The North-Central Region, Usa: Within-Tree Variability And Site × Genotype Effects, William L. Headlee, Ronald S. Zalesny Jr, Richard B. Hall, Edmund O. Bauer, Bradford Bender, Bruce A. Birr, Raymond O. Miller, Jesse A. Randall, Adam H. Wiese Jan 2013

Specific Gravity Of Hybrid Poplars In The North-Central Region, Usa: Within-Tree Variability And Site × Genotype Effects, William L. Headlee, Ronald S. Zalesny Jr, Richard B. Hall, Edmund O. Bauer, Bradford Bender, Bruce A. Birr, Raymond O. Miller, Jesse A. Randall, Adam H. Wiese

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Specific gravity is an important consideration for traditional uses of hybrid poplars for pulp and solid wood products, as well as for biofuels and bioenergy production. While specific gravity has been shown to be under strong genetic control and subject to within-tree variability, the role of genotype × environment interactions is poorly understood. Most specific gravity reports are for a limited number of locations, resulting in a lack of information about the interactions between clones and sites over a wide range of climate and soil conditions. The objective of the current study was to characterize the effects of bole position, site ...


The Feasibility Of Producing Adequate Feedstock For Year-Round Cellulosic Ethanol Production In An Intensive Agricultural Fuelshed, Daniel R. Uden, Robert B. Mitchell, Craig R. Allen, Qingfeng Guan, Tim D. Mccoy Jan 2013

The Feasibility Of Producing Adequate Feedstock For Year-Round Cellulosic Ethanol Production In An Intensive Agricultural Fuelshed, Daniel R. Uden, Robert B. Mitchell, Craig R. Allen, Qingfeng Guan, Tim D. Mccoy

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

To date, cellulosic ethanol production has not been commercialized in the United States. However, government mandates aimed at increasing second-generation biofuel production could spur exploratory development in the cellulosic ethanol industry. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the fuelshed surrounding a starch-based ethanol plant near York, Nebraska that has the potential for cellulosic ethanol production. To assess the feasibility of supplying adequate biomass for year-round cellulosic ethanol production from residual maize (Zea mays) stover and bioenergy switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) within a 40-km road network service area of the existing ethanol plant, we identified ∼14,000 ha of marginally productive cropland ...


Biomass Assisted Synthesis Of Antibacterial Gold Nanoparticles And Commentary On Its Future Potential And Applications In Medicine, Chad Willis May 2012

Biomass Assisted Synthesis Of Antibacterial Gold Nanoparticles And Commentary On Its Future Potential And Applications In Medicine, Chad Willis

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Xylose is a natural monosaccharide found in biomass such as straw, pecan shells, cottonseed hulls, and corncobs. Using this monosaccharide, we report the green synthesis and characterization of biocompatible, biodegradable xylose encapsulated gold nanoparticles (Xyl-GNPs) with potential antibacterial activity. GNPs were synthesized using the bioreduction property of xylose on the chloroaurate anions in an aqueous solution at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure. The characterization of synthesized GNPs was examined by UV-vis spectroscopy; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results indicate that the particles were stable; near spherical in shape with an ...


Effects Of Aging On Organic Aerosol From Open Biomass Burning Smoke In Aircraft And Laboratory Studies, M J. Cubison, A M. Ortega, P L. Hayes, D K. Farmer, D Day, M J. Lechner, W H. Brune, E Apel, G S. Diskin, J A. Fisher, H E. Fuelberg, A Hecobian, D J. Knapp, T Mikoviny, D Riemer, G W. Sachse, W Sessions, R Weber, A J. Weinheimer, A Wisthaler, J L. Jimenez Jan 2011

Effects Of Aging On Organic Aerosol From Open Biomass Burning Smoke In Aircraft And Laboratory Studies, M J. Cubison, A M. Ortega, P L. Hayes, D K. Farmer, D Day, M J. Lechner, W H. Brune, E Apel, G S. Diskin, J A. Fisher, H E. Fuelberg, A Hecobian, D J. Knapp, T Mikoviny, D Riemer, G W. Sachse, W Sessions, R Weber, A J. Weinheimer, A Wisthaler, J L. Jimenez

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Biomass burning (BB) is a large source of primary and secondary organic aerosols (POA and SOA). This study addresses the physical and chemical evolution of BB organic aerosols. Firstly, the evolution and lifetime of BB POA and SOA signatures observed with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer are investigated, focusing on measurements at high-latitudes acquired during the 2008 NASA ARCTAS mission, in comparison to data from other field studies and from laboratory aging experiments. The parameter f60 , the ratio of the integrated signal at m/z 60 to the total signal in the organic component mass spectrum, is used as a ...


The Trade-Off Between Bioenergy And Emissions When Land Is Scarce, Nathan S. Kauffman, Dermot J. Hayes Jan 2011

The Trade-Off Between Bioenergy And Emissions When Land Is Scarce, Nathan S. Kauffman, Dermot J. Hayes

CARD Working Papers

Agricultural biofuels require the use of scarce land, and this land has opportunity cost. We explore the objective function of a social planner who includes a land constraint in the optimization decision to minimize environmental cost. The results show that emissions should be measured on a per acre basis. Conventional agricultural life cycle assessments for biofuels report carbon emissions on a per gallon basis, thereby ignoring the implications of land scarcity and implicitly assuming an infinite supply of the inputs needed for production. Switchgrass and corn are then modeled as competing alternatives to show how the inclusion of a land ...


Global Patterns And Predictions Of Seafloor Biomass Using Random Forests, Chih-Lin Wei, Gilbert T. Rowe, Elva Escobar-Briones, Antje Boetius, Thomas Soltwedel, M. Julian Caley, Yousria Soliman, Falk Huettmann, Fangyuan Qu, Zishan Yu, C. Roland Pitcher, Richard L. Haedrich, Mary K. Wicksten, Michael A. Rex, Jeffrey G. Baguley, Jyotsna Sharma, Roberto Danovaro, Ian R. Macdonald, Clifton C. Nunnally, Jody W. Deming, Paul Montagna, Mélanie Lévesque, Jan Marcin Weslawski, Maria Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Baban S. Ingole, Brian J. Bett, David S. M. Billett, Andrew Yool, Bodil A. Bluhm, Katrin Iken, Bhavani E. Narayanaswamy Dec 2010

Global Patterns And Predictions Of Seafloor Biomass Using Random Forests, Chih-Lin Wei, Gilbert T. Rowe, Elva Escobar-Briones, Antje Boetius, Thomas Soltwedel, M. Julian Caley, Yousria Soliman, Falk Huettmann, Fangyuan Qu, Zishan Yu, C. Roland Pitcher, Richard L. Haedrich, Mary K. Wicksten, Michael A. Rex, Jeffrey G. Baguley, Jyotsna Sharma, Roberto Danovaro, Ian R. Macdonald, Clifton C. Nunnally, Jody W. Deming, Paul Montagna, Mélanie Lévesque, Jan Marcin Weslawski, Maria Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Baban S. Ingole, Brian J. Bett, David S. M. Billett, Andrew Yool, Bodil A. Bluhm, Katrin Iken, Bhavani E. Narayanaswamy

Biology Faculty Publication Series

A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model and predict seafloor standing stocks from surface primary production, water-column integrated and export particulate organic matter (POM), seafloor relief, and bottom water properties. The predictive models explain 63% to 88% of stock variance among the major size groups. Individual and composite maps of predicted global seafloor biomass and abundance are generated for bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (invertebrates and fishes). Patterns of benthic standing stocks were positive ...


University Of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (Ifpr) Technology Research, Hemant P. Pendse Nov 2010

University Of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (Ifpr) Technology Research, Hemant P. Pendse

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town, ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new' owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led ...


Slides: Celebrating Flpma: Land Use Planning At The Blm, Marcilynn Burke Jun 2010

Slides: Celebrating Flpma: Land Use Planning At The Blm, Marcilynn Burke

The Past, Present, and Future of Our Public Lands: Celebrating the 40th Anniversary of the Public Land Law Review Commission’s Report, One Third of the Nation’s Land (Martz Summer Conference, June 2-4)

Presenter: Marcilynn Burke, BLM Deputy Director - Programs and Policy, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, (Washington, D.C.)

30 slides


Impacts Of Individual Tree Species On Carbon Dynamics In A Moist Tropical Forest Environment, Ann E. Russell, James W. Raich, Ricardo Bedoya Arrieta, Oscar Valverde-Barrantes, Eugenio González Jun 2010

Impacts Of Individual Tree Species On Carbon Dynamics In A Moist Tropical Forest Environment, Ann E. Russell, James W. Raich, Ricardo Bedoya Arrieta, Oscar Valverde-Barrantes, Eugenio González

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

In the moist tropical forest biome, which cycles carbon (C) rapidly and stores huge amounts of C, the impacts of individual species on C balances are not well known. In one of the earliest replicated experimental sites for investigating growth of native tropical trees, we examined traits of tree species in relation to their effects on forest C balances, mechanisms of influence, and consequences for C sequestration. The monodominant stands, established in abandoned pasture in 1988 at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, contained five species in a complete randomized block design. Native species were: Hieronyma alchorneoides, Pentaclethra macroloba, Virola ...


Enzyme-Catalyzed Hydrolysis Of Cellulose In Ionic Liquids: A Green Approach Toward The Production Of Biofuels, Sayantan Bose, Daniel W. Armstrong, Jacob W. Petrich May 2010

Enzyme-Catalyzed Hydrolysis Of Cellulose In Ionic Liquids: A Green Approach Toward The Production Of Biofuels, Sayantan Bose, Daniel W. Armstrong, Jacob W. Petrich

Chemistry Publications

We investigated the reactivity and stability of a commercial mixture of cellulases in eight ionic liquids by optical and calorimetric techniques. First, hydrolysis by cellulases from Tricoderma reesei in these ionic liquids was benchmarked against that in aqueous buffer. Only 1-methylimidazolium chloride (mim Cl) and tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)methylammonium methylsulfate (HEMA) provided a medium in which hydrolysis could occur. While hydrolysis at 65 °C is initially much faster in buffer than in these two liquids, it reaches a plateau after 2 h, whereas the reaction progresses monotonically in the two ionic liquids. This difference in the rate of hydrolysis is largely ...


Laboratory Measurements Of Trace Gas Emissions From Biomass Burning Of Fuel Types From The Southeastern And Southwestern United States, I R. Burling, R J. Yokelson, David W. Griffith, T J. Johnson, P Veres, J.M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, S P. Urbanski, J Reardon, D R. Weise, W M Hao, Joost A. De Gouw Jan 2010

Laboratory Measurements Of Trace Gas Emissions From Biomass Burning Of Fuel Types From The Southeastern And Southwestern United States, I R. Burling, R J. Yokelson, David W. Griffith, T J. Johnson, P Veres, J.M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, S P. Urbanski, J Reardon, D R. Weise, W M Hao, Joost A. De Gouw

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned ...


Linking Measured Carbon Dioxide Exchange By Sugarcane Crops And Biomass Production, O T Denmead, B.C.T. Macdonald, I. White, David W. Griffith, G Bryant, Travis A. Naylor, Stephen R. Wilson, W J. Wang Jan 2010

Linking Measured Carbon Dioxide Exchange By Sugarcane Crops And Biomass Production, O T Denmead, B.C.T. Macdonald, I. White, David W. Griffith, G Bryant, Travis A. Naylor, Stephen R. Wilson, W J. Wang

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

CARBON TRADING and the growing interest in biofuel production from sugarcane necessitate the ability to measure gains and losses of soil organic C which may occur as a result. Modelling and soil sampling suggest that changes in soil C are likely to be < 1 t C/ha/y. Published accounts indicate that confirming such small changes by traditional soil sampling is error-prone and requires investigations of > 10 years. The paper explores the possibility of calculating soil gains or losses by subtracting the carbon stored in the crop biomass from the carbon gained by the crop through the uptake of carbon dioxide supplied by the atmosphere and processes in the soil. Although uptake and storage very nearly balanced each other in one–year measurements ...


Benthic Ecology From Space: Optics And Net Primary Production In Seagrass And Benthic Algae Across The Great Bahama Bank, Heidi M. Dierssen, Richard C. Zimmerman, Lisa A. Drake, David J. Burdige Jan 2010

Benthic Ecology From Space: Optics And Net Primary Production In Seagrass And Benthic Algae Across The Great Bahama Bank, Heidi M. Dierssen, Richard C. Zimmerman, Lisa A. Drake, David J. Burdige

OEAS Faculty Publications

Development of repeatable and quantitative tools are necessary for determining the abundance and distribution of different types of benthic habitats, detecting changes to these ecosystems, and determining their role in the global carbon cycle. Here we used ocean color remote sensing techniques to map different major groups of primary producers and estimate net primary productivity (NPP) across Great Bahama Bank (GBB). Field investigations on the northern portion of the GBB in 2004 revealed 3 dominant types of benthic primary producers: seagrass, benthic macroalgae, and microalgae attached to sediment. Laboratory measurements of NPP ranged from barely net autotrophic for grapestone sediment ...