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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 412

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shoal Chub (Macrhybopsis Hyostoma), Sturgeon Chub (M. Gelida), Sicklefin Chub (M. Meeki), Silver Chub (M. Storeriana), Flathead Chub (Platygobio Gracilis), Plains Minnow (Hybognathus Placitus), Western Silvery Minnow (H. Argyritis), And Brassy Minnow (H. Hankinsoni), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Sam Stukel Dec 2014

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Shoal Chub (Macrhybopsis Hyostoma), Sturgeon Chub (M. Gelida), Sicklefin Chub (M. Meeki), Silver Chub (M. Storeriana), Flathead Chub (Platygobio Gracilis), Plains Minnow (Hybognathus Placitus), Western Silvery Minnow (H. Argyritis), And Brassy Minnow (H. Hankinsoni), Kirk D. Steffensen, Dane A. Shuman, Sam Stukel

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Throughout the past century, the Missouri River has been highly modified which has negatively affected the native fish community. Previous research quantified the reduction of several native Cyprinidae species and made several recommendations to aid in recovery. However, these recommendations were not implemented. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to assess the current population trends of eight native cyprinid species and develop the current management objectives. Over 335,000 fish were collected from the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border with mini-fyke nets and otter trawls from 2003 to 2012. Target Cyprinidae species consisted of less than five ...


The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Sauger (Sander Canadensis), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman Dec 2014

The Status Of Fishes In The Missouri River, Nebraska: Sauger (Sander Canadensis), Kirk D. Steffensen, Sam Stukel, Dane A. Shuman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Early fisheries investigation of the Missouri River fish community indicated that Sauger were common throughout Nebraska, including all major Missouri River tributaries. However due to many factors, their current range is restricted to the Missouri River and the lower reaches of a few tributaries. Hesse (1994) recommended listing Sauger as a state endangered species but this recommendation was never implemented. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to reevaluate the current population status of Sauger in the Missouri River along Nebraska’s border. Over 2,100 Sauger have been captured from the Missouri River along Nebraska’s eastern border since ...


Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle Dec 2014

Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle

Environmental Conservation Faculty Publication Series

1. Movement is influenced by landscape structure, configuration and geometry, but measuring distance as perceived by animals poses technical and logistical challenges. Instead, movement is typically measured using Euclidean distance, irrespective of location or landscape structure, or is based on arbitrary cost surfaces. Arecently proposed extension of spatial capture-recapture (SCR)models resolves this issue using spatial encounterhistories of individuals to calculate least-cost paths (ecological distance: Ecology, 94, 2013, 287) thereby relaxingthe Euclidean assumption. We evaluate the consequences of not accounting for movement heterogeneity whenestimating abundance in highly structured landscapes, and demonstrate the value of this approach for estimatingbiologically realistic space-use ...


Winter Activity Of Bats In Southeastern Nebraska: An Acoustic Study, Jeremy A. White, Brett R. Andersen, Hans W. Otto, Cliff A. Lemen, Patricia W. Freeman Dec 2014

Winter Activity Of Bats In Southeastern Nebraska: An Acoustic Study, Jeremy A. White, Brett R. Andersen, Hans W. Otto, Cliff A. Lemen, Patricia W. Freeman

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Many North American bats are active outside hibernacula in winter, but no information on winter activity has been reported for Nebraska. We recorded activity of bats during two winters (December-February 2012-2013 and 2013-2014) at one location in southeastern Nebraska with an acoustic detector. Bats were active throughout both winters and temperature at sunset was a good predictor of bat activity. Red bats (Lasiurus borealis) were active at our site in early December but were not recorded later in winter. We suspect these individuals were late migrants to more southern wintering sites. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were recorded in each ...


Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone Dec 2014

Baseline Survey For Street Dogs In Guam, John D. Boone

Stray and Feral Animal Populations Collection

As is the case for many inhabited islands in Pacific region, dogs are common, including freeroaming street dogs that may be owned or unowned. Reproduction among dogs is largely unchecked, and many owned dogs do not receive adequate levels of basic care in the home or veterinary care when needed. For all of these reasons, Humane Society International (HSI) is exploring options for improving the management of street dog populations and promoting better treatment and care of all dogs on Guam and on the nearby islands of Rota and Saipan. One of the initial steps in this process was to ...


High Intralocus Variability And Interlocus Recombination Promote Immunological Diversity In A Minimal Major Histocompatibility System, Anthony B. Wilson, Camilla M. Whittington, Angela Bahr Dec 2014

High Intralocus Variability And Interlocus Recombination Promote Immunological Diversity In A Minimal Major Histocompatibility System, Anthony B. Wilson, Camilla M. Whittington, Angela Bahr

Publications and Research

Background: The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC/MH) have attracted considerable scientific interest due to their exceptional levels of variability and important function as part of the adaptive immune system. Despite a large number of studies on MH class II diversity of both model and non-model organisms, most research has focused on patterns of genetic variability at individual loci, failing to capture the functional diversity of the biologically active dimeric molecule. Here, we take a systematic approach to the study of MH variation, analyzing patterns of genetic variation at MH class IIα and IIβ loci of the seahorse ...


Registration Of ‘Newell’ Smooth Bromegrass, K P. Vogel, R B. Mitchell, B L. Waldron, M R. Haferkamp, J D. Berdahl, D D. Baltensperger, Galen Erickson, T J. Klopfenstein Dec 2014

Registration Of ‘Newell’ Smooth Bromegrass, K P. Vogel, R B. Mitchell, B L. Waldron, M R. Haferkamp, J D. Berdahl, D D. Baltensperger, Galen Erickson, T J. Klopfenstein

Green Canyon Environmental Research Area, Logan Utah

No abstract provided.


A First Survey Of The Centipedes Of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Joseph Desisto Dec 2014

A First Survey Of The Centipedes Of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Joseph Desisto

Holster Scholar Projects

No abstract provided.


El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Enhances Co2 Exchange Rates In Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems In The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Christina L. Staudhammer, Steven F. Oberbauer, Paulo Olivas, Michael G. Ryan, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr Dec 2014

El Nino Southern Oscillation (Enso) Enhances Co2 Exchange Rates In Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems In The Florida Everglades, Sparkle L. Malone, Christina L. Staudhammer, Steven F. Oberbauer, Paulo Olivas, Michael G. Ryan, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


How The Presence Of Plastic In The North Pacific Gyre Affects The Growth Of Thalassiosira Through Remote Sensing And Laboratory Replication, Jordynn Brennan, Hesham El-Askary Dec 2014

How The Presence Of Plastic In The North Pacific Gyre Affects The Growth Of Thalassiosira Through Remote Sensing And Laboratory Replication, Jordynn Brennan, Hesham El-Askary

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Through the use of remote sensing, we are able to determine the approximate location of the garbage patch in the North Pacific Gyre. Though remote sensing does not penetrate the surface of the ocean, monthly satellite images can be analyzed to determine the rate of growth or rate of decrease of certain parameters, such as atmospheric gases, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter. Over the past decade, data from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (Giovanni program) has shown a significant increase in dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll a content in the area of the North Pacific Garbage ...


The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright Dec 2014

The Non-Lethal Effects Of Climate Change On The Territoriality Of Lottia Gigantea, Tracey Gunanto, Christina Chavez, Jessica Martinez, William G. Wright

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The intertidal zone has been described as ground zero for global warming. Here, the owl limpet, Lottia gigantea, adapted to the cool ocean temperatures, must withstand a few hours of baking sun during day-time low tides. This hardship is predicted to increase in frequency and severity in the future as the globe warms. Our research hypothesized that heat events compromise territorial behavior of L. gigantea. All observations and experiments were performed at Inspiration Point near Newport Beach, California. We measured the natural radiant temperature of tagged limpets during day-time low tides using a field-calibrated infrared “thermogun”. We also experimentally amplified ...


Theatre For Development: “The Wanna Be”, Joshua Dominguez Dec 2014

Theatre For Development: “The Wanna Be”, Joshua Dominguez

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The college experience in American culture is a popular topic that is being questioned throughout the media. It is being questioned on a weekly basis in today’s media and brings to light issues that have not been questioned for decades. Some of the main issues such as diversity within institutions, the "Greek System", and sexual assault are all being spotlighted and widely advertised as problems that need focusing on putting an end to. This new era of college students are being challenged to recognize these heavy, yet important issues that are effecting campuses across the nation. Through Theatre for ...


Differences In The Diversity Of Frogspecies Between Sierra Lloronaand El Valle, Panama, Kei Okabe Thurber Dec 2014

Differences In The Diversity Of Frogspecies Between Sierra Lloronaand El Valle, Panama, Kei Okabe Thurber

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Panama is home to the greatest diversity of species in all of Central America. It is home to 174 species of frogs, 35 of which are endemic to Panama. Frogs are a vital part of many ecosystems. They maintain insect populations and act as food sources for larger predators. Their job of maintaining insect populations is essential to curbing the spread of diseases. Additionally, scientists have found chemical compounds in the skin of frogs that can be used to treat pain and prevent infections. The main threat to the majority of frogs is the deadly fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), or ...


Comparing Disease Prevalence In Hard Corals At Four Different Reefs Near The Island Of Narganá In The Guna Yala Comarca Of Panamá, Connor Hinton Dec 2014

Comparing Disease Prevalence In Hard Corals At Four Different Reefs Near The Island Of Narganá In The Guna Yala Comarca Of Panamá, Connor Hinton

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Coral reefs harbor much of the world’s known marine biodiversity. For a number of reasons, coral reefs are becoming increasingly threatened. Large portions of the world’s reefs have already been lost, and the number of degrading reefs is constantly on the rise. One cause for the destruction of coral reefs are coral diseases, ultimately causing coral mortality. With the death of corals, a key species is lost, endangering the entire reef ecosystem. Documenting the presence of such diseases could be useful in assessing current reef health and ameliorating the growing threat of coral diseases. In this project, 18 ...


Evaluating The Progress Of A Mangrove Reforestation Project On Isla Galeta, Colon, Abigail Hope Outterson Dec 2014

Evaluating The Progress Of A Mangrove Reforestation Project On Isla Galeta, Colon, Abigail Hope Outterson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Just off the Atlantic coast of Panama, a dynamic and self-renewing ecosystem takes advantage of the tropical climate and swampy conditions. Guarding Punta Galeta’s shores since before it was a U.S. navy base in the 1930’s, mangroves that have persisted here for centuries now draw scientists and tourists alike from all over the world to the Smithsonian Tropical Research Center. Once viewed as unproductive, distasteful environments, mangroves are increasingly recognized worldwide as critical habitat for endangered and commercially significant species, as well as for their ecological and aesthetic value. Uniquely adapted to survive in saline environments, mangroves ...


Biogeochemical Hotspots In Forested Landscapes: The Role Of Vernal Pools In Denitrification And Organic Matter, Krista A. Capps, Regina L. Rancatti, Nathan Tomczyk, Aram J K Calhoun, Malcolm L. Hunter Jr. Dec 2014

Biogeochemical Hotspots In Forested Landscapes: The Role Of Vernal Pools In Denitrification And Organic Matter, Krista A. Capps, Regina L. Rancatti, Nathan Tomczyk, Aram J K Calhoun, Malcolm L. Hunter Jr.

Publications

Quantifying spatial and temporal heterogeneity in ecosystem processes presents a challenge for conserving ecosystem function across landscapes. In particular, many ecosystems contain small features that play larger roles in ecosystem processes than their size would indicate; thus, they may represent ‘‘hotspots’’ of activity relative to their surroundings. Biogeochemical hotspots are characterized as small features within a landscape that show comparatively high chemical reaction rates. In northeastern forests in North America, vernal pools are abundant, small features that typically fill in spring with snow melt and precipitation and dry by the end of summer. Ephemeral flooding alters soil moisture and the ...


Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann Dec 2014

Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann

Biology Publications

Seasonally-acquired cold tolerance can be reversed at warm temperatures, leaving temperate ectotherms vulnerable to cold snaps. However, deacclimation, and its underlying mechanisms, has not been well-explored in insects. Swallowtail butterflies are widely distributed but in some cases their range is limited by low temperature and their cold tolerance is seasonally acquired, implying that they experience mortality resulting from deacclimation. We investigated cold tolerance and hemolymph composition of Anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon) pupae during overwintering in the laboratory, and after four days exposure to warm temperatures in spring. Overwintering pupae had supercooling points around − 20.5 °C and survived brief exposures ...


Effect Of Predator Type, Season, Brood Size, And West Nile Virus Infection On The Nest Defense Behavior Of Male And Female Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Kayde L. Gilbert, Gary L. Ritchison Dec 2014

Effect Of Predator Type, Season, Brood Size, And West Nile Virus Infection On The Nest Defense Behavior Of Male And Female Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis), Kayde L. Gilbert, Gary L. Ritchison

Biological Sciences Faculty and Staff Research

Parent birds may benefit by defending nests from potential predators if such behavior increases the likelihood that their young will survive. However, such behavior may also be costly, with some risk of injury or even death. Thus, because birds seek to maximize life-time reproductive success rather than current reproductive success, parents must assess the danger posed by a potential nest predator and then choose appropriate responses (Radford and Blakey 2000)


(R)-Desmolactone Is A Sex Pheromone Or Attractant For The Endangered Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Desmocerus Californicus Dimorphus And Several Congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae), A. M. Ray, R. A. Arnold, I. Swift, P. A. Schapker, S. Mccann, C. J. Marshall, J. S. Mcelfresh, J. G. Millar Dec 2014

(R)-Desmolactone Is A Sex Pheromone Or Attractant For The Endangered Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Desmocerus Californicus Dimorphus And Several Congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae), A. M. Ray, R. A. Arnold, I. Swift, P. A. Schapker, S. Mccann, C. J. Marshall, J. S. Mcelfresh, J. G. Millar

Faculty Scholarship

We report here that (4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide [(R)-desmolactone] is a sex attractant or sex pheromone for multiple species and subspecies in the cerambycid genus Desmocerus. This compound was previously identified as a female-produced sex attractant pheromone of Desmocerus californicus californicus. Headspace volatiles from female Desmocerus aureipennis aureipennis contained (R)-desmolactone, and the antennae of adult males of two species responded strongly to synthetic (R)-desmolactone in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. In field bioassays in California, Oregon, and British Columbia, traps baited with synthetic (R)-desmolactone captured males of several Desmocerus species and subspecies. Only male beetles were captured, indicating ...


Comparative Genomics Reveals Insights Into Avian Genome Evolution And Adaptation, Guojie Zhang, Cai Li, Qiye Li, Bo Li, Dennis M. Larkin, Chul Lee, Jay F. Storz, Agostinho Antunes, Matthew J. Greenwold, Robert W. Meredith, Anders Ödeen, Jie Cui, Qi Zhou, Luohao Xu, Hailin Pan, Zongji Wang, Lijun Jin, Pei Zhang, Haofu Hu, Wei Yang, Jiang Hu, Jin Xiao, Zhikai Yang, Yang Liu, Qiaolin Xie, Hao Yu, Jinmin Lian, Ping Wen, Fang Zhang, Hui Li, Yongli Zeng, Zijun Xiong, Shiping Liu, Long Zhou, Zhiyong Huang, Na An, Jie Wang, Quimei Zheng, Yingqi Xiong, Guangbiao Wang, Bo Wang, Jingjing Wang, Yu Fan, Rute R. Da Fonseca, Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez, Mikkel Schubert, Ludovic Orlando, Tobias Mourier, Jason T. Howard, Ganeshkumar Ganapathy, Andreas Pfenning, Osceola Whitney, Miriam V. Rivas, Erina Hara, Julia Smith, Marta Farré, Jitendra Narayan, Gancho Slavov, Michael N. Romanov, Rui Borges, João Paulo Machado, Imran Khan, Mark S. Springer, John Gatesy, Federico G. Hoffmann, Juan C. Opazo, Olle Håstad, Roger H. Sawyer, Heebal Kim, Kyu-Won Kim, Hyeon Jeong Kim, Seoae Cho, Ning Li, Yinhua Huang, Michael W. Bruford, Xiangjiang Zhan, Andrew Dixon, Mads F. Bertelsen, Elizabeth Derryberry, Wesley Warren, Richard K. Wilson, Shengbin Li, David A. Ray, Richard E. Green, Stephen J. O'Brien, Darren Griffin, Warren E. Johnson, David Haussler, Oliver A. Ryder, Eske Willerslev, Gary R. Graves, Per Alström, Jon Fjeldså, David P. Mindell, Scott V. Edwards, Edward L. Braun, Carsten Rahbek, David W. Burt, Peter Houde, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Avian Genome Consortium, Erich D. Jarvis, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Jun Wang Dec 2014

Comparative Genomics Reveals Insights Into Avian Genome Evolution And Adaptation, Guojie Zhang, Cai Li, Qiye Li, Bo Li, Dennis M. Larkin, Chul Lee, Jay F. Storz, Agostinho Antunes, Matthew J. Greenwold, Robert W. Meredith, Anders Ödeen, Jie Cui, Qi Zhou, Luohao Xu, Hailin Pan, Zongji Wang, Lijun Jin, Pei Zhang, Haofu Hu, Wei Yang, Jiang Hu, Jin Xiao, Zhikai Yang, Yang Liu, Qiaolin Xie, Hao Yu, Jinmin Lian, Ping Wen, Fang Zhang, Hui Li, Yongli Zeng, Zijun Xiong, Shiping Liu, Long Zhou, Zhiyong Huang, Na An, Jie Wang, Quimei Zheng, Yingqi Xiong, Guangbiao Wang, Bo Wang, Jingjing Wang, Yu Fan, Rute R. Da Fonseca, Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez, Mikkel Schubert, Ludovic Orlando, Tobias Mourier, Jason T. Howard, Ganeshkumar Ganapathy, Andreas Pfenning, Osceola Whitney, Miriam V. Rivas, Erina Hara, Julia Smith, Marta Farré, Jitendra Narayan, Gancho Slavov, Michael N. Romanov, Rui Borges, João Paulo Machado, Imran Khan, Mark S. Springer, John Gatesy, Federico G. Hoffmann, Juan C. Opazo, Olle Håstad, Roger H. Sawyer, Heebal Kim, Kyu-Won Kim, Hyeon Jeong Kim, Seoae Cho, Ning Li, Yinhua Huang, Michael W. Bruford, Xiangjiang Zhan, Andrew Dixon, Mads F. Bertelsen, Elizabeth Derryberry, Wesley Warren, Richard K. Wilson, Shengbin Li, David A. Ray, Richard E. Green, Stephen J. O'Brien, Darren Griffin, Warren E. Johnson, David Haussler, Oliver A. Ryder, Eske Willerslev, Gary R. Graves, Per Alström, Jon Fjeldså, David P. Mindell, Scott V. Edwards, Edward L. Braun, Carsten Rahbek, David W. Burt, Peter Houde, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Avian Genome Consortium, Erich D. Jarvis, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Jun Wang

Jay F. Storz Publications

Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses ...


A Social–Ecological Systems Approach To Non-Native Species: Habituation And Its Effect On Management Of Coqui Frogs In Hawaii, Emily A. Kalnicky, Mark W. Brunson, Karen H. Beard Dec 2014

A Social–Ecological Systems Approach To Non-Native Species: Habituation And Its Effect On Management Of Coqui Frogs In Hawaii, Emily A. Kalnicky, Mark W. Brunson, Karen H. Beard

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Non-native species introductions have the ability to affect both ecological and social systems, thus to address those outcomes both ecological and social influences on an invasion need to be understood. We use a social–ecological systems approach to investigate connections between human and ecological factors that affect efforts to control the non-native coqui frog (Eleutherodactylus coqui) on the island of Hawaii. The coqui frog is recognized as a ‘pest’ and ‘injurious wildlife’ by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture. Because the coqui occurs on many small private properties across the island, it is necessary to enlist private citizens in control efforts ...


Linking The Green And Brown Worlds: The Prevalence And Effect Of Multichannel Feeding In Food Webs, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Stefano Allesina, Kathryn L. Cottingham, John C. Moore, Stuart A. Sandin, Claire De Mazancourt Dec 2014

Linking The Green And Brown Worlds: The Prevalence And Effect Of Multichannel Feeding In Food Webs, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Stefano Allesina, Kathryn L. Cottingham, John C. Moore, Stuart A. Sandin, Claire De Mazancourt

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Recent advances in food‐web ecology highlight that most real food webs (1) represent an interplay between producer‐ and detritus‐based webs and (2) are governed by consumers which are rampant omnivores; feeding on varied prey across trophic levels and resource channels. A possible avenue to unify these advances comes from models demonstrating that predators feeding on distinctly different channels may stabilize food webs. Empirical studies suggest many consumers engage in such behavior by feeding on prey items from both living‐autotroph (green) and detritus‐based (brown) webs, what we term “multichannel feeding,” yet we know little about how common ...


River Health In Puyo, Ecuador The Use Of Macroinvertebrates As Bioindicators Of Water Quality And Alternatives To Chlorine For Whitening Clothes In The Puyo River Watershed, Allison Rowe Dec 2014

River Health In Puyo, Ecuador The Use Of Macroinvertebrates As Bioindicators Of Water Quality And Alternatives To Chlorine For Whitening Clothes In The Puyo River Watershed, Allison Rowe

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Fresh water is an important resource in Puyo, Ecuador, a city named after the Kichwa word for ‘cloudy’ in reference to its overcast weather. However, the Puyo River watershed is the most contaminated in all of Pastaza Province. The objective of this investigation was first to evaluate the health of the Puyo River using macroinvertebrate analyses and measurements of chlorine concentrations, temperature, pH, turbidity, velocity, and flow rate. The second objective was to learn about practices used to whiten clothes in Puyo and perceptions of water quality in order to understand the magnitude of bleach pollution and the population’s ...


New Observations Of The Andean Ibis (Theristicus Branickii, Threskiornithidae): Distribution, Movements, And Behavior Near Volcán Antisana, Benjamin West Dec 2014

New Observations Of The Andean Ibis (Theristicus Branickii, Threskiornithidae): Distribution, Movements, And Behavior Near Volcán Antisana, Benjamin West

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Andean Ibis (Theristicus branickii) of the highland grasslands of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia is listed globally as Near Threatened and Critically Endangered in Ecuador. The Ecuadorian population is estimated at 100 individuals and is restricted to the vicinities of Volcán Antisana and Volcán Cotopaxi. Knowledge of the nesting biology of the Andean Ibis in Ecuador consists of a single filming in 1989. Much of its general ecology and movements is also unknown. The purpose of this study was to find evidence of nesting ibis in Ecuador while also collecting data on behavior, population, movements and interspecific interactions. Data was ...


New Study Of Altitude And Butterfly Diversity Evaluation Of Butterfly Diversity In La Hesperia And Influence Of Altitude On Diversity, Savannah Artusi Dec 2014

New Study Of Altitude And Butterfly Diversity Evaluation Of Butterfly Diversity In La Hesperia And Influence Of Altitude On Diversity, Savannah Artusi

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Due to the increasing effects of climate change, studies focusing on bioindicator species are becoming more necessary than ever. Additionally, knowledge about global biodiversity can be very useful to conservation organizations because it helps them determine what areas need to be conserved the most .Butterflies are useful as bioindicators due to their complex life cycles, importance in the food chain, and sensitivity to environmental changes. This project focused on studying the overall biodiversity of butterflies in the La Hesperia reserve. In addition, this study aimed to determine how butterfly diversity varies at different altitudes. To do this, the reserve was ...


Trophic Dynamic Interactions In A Temperate Karst River, Elizabeth Malloy Dec 2014

Trophic Dynamic Interactions In A Temperate Karst River, Elizabeth Malloy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Surface streams in karst landscapes are often characterized by high nutrient levels due to incomplete filtration through series of innumerable, below-ground conduits. Seasonal growth of the filamentous alga, Cladophora, is typically associated with nutrient-rich waters. This research compared macroinvertebrate food web structure between riverine reaches with contrasting underlying karst topography, nutrient levels, and Cladophora cover during summer 2012 and autumn 2013. Recent work in these reaches found a high correlation between Cladophora cover and nutrient content, particularly nitrate. Four questions were addressed during this study: 1. Do longitudinal trends in algal and consumer δ13C values relate to decreased DIC availability ...


Interactions Of Exyra Ridingsii, Riding's Pitcherplant Looper Moth And Sarracenia Flava , The Yellow Pitcher Plant, Christine A Ricci Dec 2014

Interactions Of Exyra Ridingsii, Riding's Pitcherplant Looper Moth And Sarracenia Flava , The Yellow Pitcher Plant, Christine A Ricci

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

1. Exyra ridingsii is a host specific moth that spends its entire immature life cycle in the fire dependent Sarracenia flava pitcher plant. Sarracenia flava requires acidic, moist soil that undergoes frequent burns. 2. Habitat selection and the effects of fire as well as other habitat characteristics were examined for E. ridingsii during this study. 3. For this study, five sites in the Croatan National Forest were surveyed four times each year for two years. Only one site had no disturbances since 2009; the remaining four sites were evenly split with two having had burns occur in them and two ...


Reconstructing Vegetation Past: Pre-Euro-American Vegetation For The Midwest Driftless Area, Usa, Monika E. Shea, Lisa A. Schulte, Brian J. Palik Dec 2014

Reconstructing Vegetation Past: Pre-Euro-American Vegetation For The Midwest Driftless Area, Usa, Monika E. Shea, Lisa A. Schulte, Brian J. Palik

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Historical reference conditions provide important context for creating ecological restoration and management plans. The U.S. 19th Century Public Land Survey (PLS) records provide extensive ecological information for constructing such reference conditions. We used PLS records to reconstruct pre-Euro-American tree species cover class and vegetation structure types for the Midwest Driftless Area, a 55,000 km2 region currently experiencing multiple conservation threats. We related cover classes to soil texture, topographic roughness, and distance from waterway. Our analyses revealed that the landscape of the Driftless Area was mostly composed of savanna, with two large patches of closed forest and smaller, scattered ...


Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver Dec 2014

Book Review Of Conservation By Proxy: Indicator, Umbrella, Keystone, Flagship, And Other Surrogate Species, Tyler J. Grant, Peter G. Eyheralde, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Amy L. Moorhouse, Rebecca A. Reeves, Karin Grimlund, Amy Podaril, Sarah E. Emeterio, Robert W. Klaver

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

In the tallgrass prairies of the United States, the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) often is considered a reliable indicator of high quality remnant habitat. Purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens) is considered an indicator of high quality oak savanna habitat at the edge of prairie. Indicator and other surrogate species often are regarded as inescapable necessities in conservation, because limited budgets and the myriad pieces of an ecosystem render comprehensive monitoring impossible. Regardless of whether or not surrogate species are necessary, do they really work?


Reproductive Success Of The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus Palliatus) In Texas, Lianne M. Koczur, Alexandra E. Munters, Susan A. Heath, Bart M. Ballard, M. Clay Green, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Fidel Hernández Dec 2014

Reproductive Success Of The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus Palliatus) In Texas, Lianne M. Koczur, Alexandra E. Munters, Susan A. Heath, Bart M. Ballard, M. Clay Green, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Fidel Hernández

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) is listed as a Species of High Concern in the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan due to a small population size and threats during its annual cycle. Previous studies of the American Oystercatcher have focused on Atlantic Coast populations; however, little is known about the reproductive success of the western Gulf Coast population. The objective of this study was to determine nest and brood survival of American Oystercatchers in Texas. A total of 337 nests and 121 broods were monitored on the Texas Gulf Coast during 2011–2013. The top model for nest survival in ...