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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez Oct 2019

Canavalia And Dolichos Extracts For Sustainable Pest Biocontrol And Plant Nutrition Improvement In El Salvador, Carlos Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Botanical repellents and pesticides are now being rediscovered as new tools for integrated pest management in order to reduce the use of toxic chemicals in crop production. Canavalia gladiata and Dolichos lablab are two Fabaceae very well adapted to farmlands of El Salvador, effective as living barriers and mostly as cover crops, however, they are not yet very well disseminated. This document describes the potential for using the liquid extracts and the dry flour of raw seeds of those plants for economic benefit and practical convenience for pest management in Salvadorian agriculture under field conditions. Seed extracts were useful when ...


Fall Frost Tolerances Photo Fact Sheet (2019), Carolyn J. Demoranville Oct 2019

Fall Frost Tolerances Photo Fact Sheet (2019), Carolyn J. Demoranville

Cranberry Station Fact Sheets

No abstract provided.


Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher Aug 2019

Evaluating Machine Learning Performance In Predicting Injury Severity In Agribusiness Industries, Fatemeh Davoudi Kakhki, Steven A. Freeman, Gretchen A. Mosher

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Although machine learning methods have been used as an outcome prediction tool in many fields, their utilization in predicting incident outcome in occupational safety is relatively new. This study tests the performance of machine learning techniques in modeling and predicting occupational incidents severity with respect to accessible information of injured workers in agribusiness industries using workers’ compensation claims. More than 33,000 incidents within agribusiness industries in the Midwest of the United States for 2008–2016 were analyzed. The total cost of incidents was extracted and classified from workers’ compensation claims. Supervised machine learning algorithms for classification (support vector machines ...


Molecular Phylogeny Of The Pectinoidea (Bivalvia) Indicates Propeamussiidae To Be A Non-Monophyletic Family With One Clade Sister To The Scallops (Pectinidae), G. Dalton Smedley, Jorge A. Audino, Courtney Grula, Anita Porath-Krause, Autum N. Pairett, Alvin Alejandrino, Latayshia Lacey, Felicity Masters, Peter F. Duncan, Ellen E. Strong, Jeanne M. Serb Aug 2019

Molecular Phylogeny Of The Pectinoidea (Bivalvia) Indicates Propeamussiidae To Be A Non-Monophyletic Family With One Clade Sister To The Scallops (Pectinidae), G. Dalton Smedley, Jorge A. Audino, Courtney Grula, Anita Porath-Krause, Autum N. Pairett, Alvin Alejandrino, Latayshia Lacey, Felicity Masters, Peter F. Duncan, Ellen E. Strong, Jeanne M. Serb

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Scallops (Pectinidae) are one of the most diverse families of bivalves and have been a model system in evolutionary biology. However, in order to understand phenotypic evolution, the Pectinidae needs to be placed in a deeper phylogenetic framework within the superfamily Pectinoidea. We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny for 60 species from four of the five extant families within the Pectinoidea using a five gene dataset (12S, 16S, 18S, 28S rRNAs and histone H3). Our analyses give consistent support for the non-monophyly of the Propeamussiidae, with a subset of species as the sister group to the Pectinidae, the Propeamussiidae type species ...


Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte Jul 2019

Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity: A Study Of Protection By Ascorbic Acid And Epigallocatechin Gallate, Timothy P. Mayotte

Honors Program Projects

Hexavalent chromium, or Cr(VI), is a potent oxidizer and known carcinogen, that is found at varying levels in the water sources of more than 200 million Americans. However, the exact mechanism of carcinogenicity remains unknown, and though the government currently regulates total chromium levels, they have yet to determine a permissible exposure limit for Cr(VI). Moreover, there is currently no preventative treatment for Cr(VI). Because of Cr(VI)’s strong oxidative power, we hypothesized that it causes DNA mutation and cell death via oxidation and that antioxidants could prevent this from occurring. To test this, we first ...


Drug Safety Africa: An Overview Of Safety Pharmacology & Toxicology In South Africa., Brian D Guth, Anne F Grobler, Kendall S Frazier, Andrea Greiter-Wilke, Danuta Herzyk, Tertius A Hough, Asrar Ali Khan, Michael Markert, James D Smith, Karen L. Svenson, Sara Wells, Michael K Pugsley Jul 2019

Drug Safety Africa: An Overview Of Safety Pharmacology & Toxicology In South Africa., Brian D Guth, Anne F Grobler, Kendall S Frazier, Andrea Greiter-Wilke, Danuta Herzyk, Tertius A Hough, Asrar Ali Khan, Michael Markert, James D Smith, Karen L. Svenson, Sara Wells, Michael K Pugsley

Faculty Research 2019

This meeting report is based on presentations given at the first Drug Safety Africa Meeting in Potchefstroom, South Africa from November 20-22, 2018 at the North-West University campus. There were 134 attendees (including 26 speakers and 34 students) from the pharmaceutical industry, academia, regulatory agencies as well as 6 exhibitors. These meeting proceedings are designed to inform the content that was presented in terms of Safety Pharmacology (SP) and Toxicology methods and models that are used by the pharmaceutical industry to characterize the safety profile of novel small chemical or biological molecules. The first part of this report includes an ...


"Flagella Base Model" And "Flagellin Monomer", Brandon Lasalle, Rebecca Roston Jun 2019

"Flagella Base Model" And "Flagellin Monomer", Brandon Lasalle, Rebecca Roston

3-D printed model structural files

"Flagella Base Model" and "Flagellin monomer"

Description: This is a teaching model of the proteins that make a bacterial flagella. All models are depicted in space-fill. The Flagellin monomer and the Flagella base can slot together to show protein quaternary structure and filamentous protein assembly.

Printable models are already uploaded to Shapeways.com in the MacroMolecules shop under the names "Flagella Base Model" and "Flagellin monomer".

This model has been printed successfully using these parameters on Shapeways’ laser sintering printer in the following material: Processed Versatile Plastic (Strong & Flexible Plastic).

Model designer: Brandon Lasalle Authors: Brandon Lasalle and Rebecca Roston ...


Investigating The Drivers Of Farm Diversification Among U.S. Fruit And Vegetable Operations, Nicholas A. Lancaster, Ariana P. Torres Jun 2019

Investigating The Drivers Of Farm Diversification Among U.S. Fruit And Vegetable Operations, Nicholas A. Lancaster, Ariana P. Torres

Purdue University Libraries Open Access Publishing Support Fund

Diversification of an agricultural operation’s crop mix is considered an environmental and financial management strategy. Environmentally, crop diversification can stabilize the ecosystem via the introduction of biodiversity, allowing for more rapid response to physical and social changes. Economically, crop mix diversification can mitigate risk. Though there are environmental and economic benefits of crop diversification, little economic work has been conducted on crop diversification outside of the row crop industry. This study estimated how internal and external factors aect crop diversification among fruit and vegetable (FV) operations. External factors included access to markets and land; internal factors included farmer beliefs ...


Integrating Arthropod And Weed Management In A Water-Stressed Agro-Ecosystem, Ricardo Ramirez Jun 2019

Integrating Arthropod And Weed Management In A Water-Stressed Agro-Ecosystem, Ricardo Ramirez

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Probabilistic Modeling Of Personalized Drug Combinations From Integrated Chemical Screen And Molecular Data In Sarcoma., Noah E Berlow, Rishi Rikhi, Mathew Geltzeiler, Jinu Abraham, Matthew N Svalina, Lara E Davis, Erin Wise, Maria Mancini, Jonathan Noujaim, Atiya Mansoor, Michael J Quist, Kevin L Matlock, Martin W Goros, Brian S Hernandez, Yee C Doung, Khin Thway, Tomohide Tsukahara, Jun Nishio, Elaine T Huang, Susan Airhart, Carol J Bult, Regina Gandour-Edwards, Robert G Maki, Robin L Jones, Joel E Michalek, Milan Milovancev, Souparno Ghosh, Ranadip Pal, Charles Keller Jun 2019

Probabilistic Modeling Of Personalized Drug Combinations From Integrated Chemical Screen And Molecular Data In Sarcoma., Noah E Berlow, Rishi Rikhi, Mathew Geltzeiler, Jinu Abraham, Matthew N Svalina, Lara E Davis, Erin Wise, Maria Mancini, Jonathan Noujaim, Atiya Mansoor, Michael J Quist, Kevin L Matlock, Martin W Goros, Brian S Hernandez, Yee C Doung, Khin Thway, Tomohide Tsukahara, Jun Nishio, Elaine T Huang, Susan Airhart, Carol J Bult, Regina Gandour-Edwards, Robert G Maki, Robin L Jones, Joel E Michalek, Milan Milovancev, Souparno Ghosh, Ranadip Pal, Charles Keller

Faculty Research 2019

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients with advanced disease routinely exhaust available clinical regimens and lack actionable genomic medicine results, leaving a large patient population without effective treatments options when their disease inevitably progresses. To address the unmet clinical need for evidence-based therapy assignment when standard clinical approaches have failed, we have developed a probabilistic computational modeling approach which integrates molecular sequencing data with functional assay data to develop patient-specific combination cancer treatments.

METHODS: Tissue taken from a murine model of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was used to perform single agent drug screening and DNA/RNA sequencing experiments; results integrated via our computational modeling approach ...


Combinatorial Biosynthesis And The Basis For Substrate Promiscuity In Class I Diterpene Synthases, Meirong Jia, Sambit K. Mishra, Samuel Tufts, Robert L. Jernigan, Reuben J. Peters Jun 2019

Combinatorial Biosynthesis And The Basis For Substrate Promiscuity In Class I Diterpene Synthases, Meirong Jia, Sambit K. Mishra, Samuel Tufts, Robert L. Jernigan, Reuben J. Peters

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Terpene synthases are capable of mediating complex reactions, but fundamentally simply catalyze lysis of allylic diphosphate esters with subsequent deprotonation. Even with the initially generated tertiary carbocation this offers a variety of product outcomes, and deprotonation further can be preceded by the addition of water. This is particularly evident with labdane-related diterpenes (LRDs) where such lysis follows bicyclization catalyzed by class II diterpene cyclases (DTCs) that generates preceding structural variation. Previous investigation revealed that two diterpene synthases (DTSs), one bacterial and the other plant-derived, exhibit extreme substrate promiscuity, but yet still typically produce exo-ene or tertiary alcohol LRD derivatives ...


Loneliness In The United States: A 2018 National Panel Survey Of Demographic, Structural, Cognitive, And Behavioral Characteristics, Liana Desharnais Bruce, Joshua S. Wu, Stuart L. Lustig, Daniel W. Rusell, Douglas A. Nemecek Jun 2019

Loneliness In The United States: A 2018 National Panel Survey Of Demographic, Structural, Cognitive, And Behavioral Characteristics, Liana Desharnais Bruce, Joshua S. Wu, Stuart L. Lustig, Daniel W. Rusell, Douglas A. Nemecek

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Purpose: To inform health behavior intervention design, we sought to quantify loneliness and its correlates, including social media use, among adults in the United States. Design: Cross-sectional research panel questionnaire. Setting: Responses were gathered from individuals in all 50 states surveyed via Internet from February 2018 to March 2018. Participants: A total of 20 096 US panel respondents aged 18þ. Measures: The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (theoretical score range ¼ 20-80) was administered along with demographic, structural, cognitive, and behavioral items. Analysis: After calibrating the sample to population norms, we conducted multivariable linear regression analysis ...


Mitochondria Modulation Of Postmortem Proteolysis And Tenderization, Sulaiman K. Matarneh Jun 2019

Mitochondria Modulation Of Postmortem Proteolysis And Tenderization, Sulaiman K. Matarneh

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Integrated Analysis Of Clinical And Microbiome Risk Factors Associated With The Development Of Oral Candidiasis During Cancer Chemotherapy., Patricia I Diaz, Bo-Young Hong, Amanda K Dupuy, Linda Choquette, Angela Thompson, Andrew L Salner, Peter K Schauer, Upendra Hegde, Joseph A Burleson, Linda D Strausbaugh, Douglas E Peterson, Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou Jun 2019

Integrated Analysis Of Clinical And Microbiome Risk Factors Associated With The Development Of Oral Candidiasis During Cancer Chemotherapy., Patricia I Diaz, Bo-Young Hong, Amanda K Dupuy, Linda Choquette, Angela Thompson, Andrew L Salner, Peter K Schauer, Upendra Hegde, Joseph A Burleson, Linda D Strausbaugh, Douglas E Peterson, Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou

Faculty Research 2019

Oral candidiasis is a common side effect of cancer chemotherapy. To better understand predisposing factors, we followed forty-five subjects who received 5-fluorouracil- or doxorubicin-based treatment, during one chemotherapy cycle. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, prior to the first infusion, and at three additional visits within a two-week window. We assessed the demographic, medical and oral health parameters, neutrophil surveillance, and characterized the salivary bacteriome and mycobiome communities through amplicon high throughput sequencing. Twenty percent of all subjects developed oral candidiasis. Using multivariate statistics, we identified smoking, amount of dental plaque, low bacteriome and mycobiome alpha-diversity, and the proportions of specific ...


Fostering Bioinformatics Education Through Skill Development Of Professors: Big Genomic Data Skills Training For Professors., Yingqian Ada Zhan, Charles Gregory Wray, Sandeep Namburi, Spencer T Glantz, Reinhard Laubenbacher, Jeffrey H Chuang Jun 2019

Fostering Bioinformatics Education Through Skill Development Of Professors: Big Genomic Data Skills Training For Professors., Yingqian Ada Zhan, Charles Gregory Wray, Sandeep Namburi, Spencer T Glantz, Reinhard Laubenbacher, Jeffrey H Chuang

Faculty Research 2019

Bioinformatics has become an indispensable part of life science over the past 2 decades. However, bioinformatics education is not well integrated at the undergraduate level, especially in liberal arts colleges and regional universities in the United States. One significant obstacle pointed out by the Network for Integrating Bioinformatics into Life Sciences Education is the lack of faculty in the bioinformatics area. Most current life science professors did not acquire bioinformatics analysis skills during their own training. Consequently, a great number of undergraduate and graduate students do not get the chance to learn bioinformatics or computational biology skills within a structured ...


Changes In The Gut Microbiome And Fermentation Products Concurrent With Enhanced Longevity In Acarbose-Treated Mice., Byron J Smith, Richard A Miller, Aaron C Ericsson, David E Harrison, Randy Strong, Thomas M Schmidt Jun 2019

Changes In The Gut Microbiome And Fermentation Products Concurrent With Enhanced Longevity In Acarbose-Treated Mice., Byron J Smith, Richard A Miller, Aaron C Ericsson, David E Harrison, Randy Strong, Thomas M Schmidt

Faculty Research 2019

BACKGROUND: Treatment with the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose increases median lifespan by approximately 20% in male mice and 5% in females. This longevity extension differs from dietary restriction based on a number of features, including the relatively small effects on weight and the sex-specificity of the lifespan effect. By inhibiting host digestion, acarbose increases the flux of starch to the lower digestive system, resulting in changes to the gut microbiota and their fermentation products. Given the documented health benefits of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the dominant products of starch fermentation by gut bacteria, this secondary effect of acarbose could contribute to ...


Plasticity In Standard And Maximum Aerobic Metabolic Rates In Two Populations Of An Estuarine Dependent Teleost, Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus), Jingwei Song, Richard W. Brill, Jan R. Mcdowell Jun 2019

Plasticity In Standard And Maximum Aerobic Metabolic Rates In Two Populations Of An Estuarine Dependent Teleost, Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion Nebulosus), Jingwei Song, Richard W. Brill, Jan R. Mcdowell

VIMS Articles

We studied the effects of metabolic cold adaptation (MCA) in two populations of a eurythermal species, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) along the U.S. East Coast. Fish were captured from their natural environment and acclimated at control temperatures 15 °C or 20 °C. Their oxygen consumption rates, a proxy for metabolic rates, were measured using intermittent flow respirometry during acute temperature decrease or increase (2.5 °C per hour). Mass-specific standard metabolic rates (SMR) were higher in fish from the northern population across an ecologically relevant temperature gradient (5 °C to 30 °C). SMR were up to 37% higher in ...


Young Dairymen, Mammoth Cave Chapter (Mss 662), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Jun 2019

Young Dairymen, Mammoth Cave Chapter (Mss 662), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid and full-text scans of scrapbooks (Click on "Additional Files" below) for Manuscripts Collection 662. Scrapbooks (scanned copies only) and newsletters for the Young Dairymen, Mammoth Cave Chapter which was located in south central Kentucky and organized byH. Bland Dorris, Jr. The scrapbooks chiefly contain photographs of the group’s activities. Also included are the Chapter’s newsletters, 1982-1986.


Twentieth Century Geomorphic Changes Of The Lower Green River In Canyonlands National Park, Utah: An Investigation Of Timing, Magnitude And Process, Alexander E. Walker, John C. Schmidt, Paul E. Grams Jun 2019

Twentieth Century Geomorphic Changes Of The Lower Green River In Canyonlands National Park, Utah: An Investigation Of Timing, Magnitude And Process, Alexander E. Walker, John C. Schmidt, Paul E. Grams

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Since the early 20th century, the Green River, the longest tributary of the Colorado River, has narrowed, decreasing available riparian and aquatic habitat.

Initially, the widespread establishment of non-native tamarisk was considered to be the primary driver of channel narrowing. An alternative hypothesis postulated that changes in hydrology drove narrowing. Reductions in total streamflow and changes to flow regime occurred due to wide-spread water development, decreased snowmelt flood magnitude, and the increased cyclicity of wet and dry years. The two hypotheses agree on channel narrowing, but each influences modern river management differently. A tamarisk-driven model of narrowing implies that ...


The Foot And Ankle Structures Reveal Emergent Properties Analogous To Passive Springs During Human Walking, Erica Hedrick, Steven J. Stanhope, Kota Z. Takahashi Jun 2019

The Foot And Ankle Structures Reveal Emergent Properties Analogous To Passive Springs During Human Walking, Erica Hedrick, Steven J. Stanhope, Kota Z. Takahashi

Journal Articles

An objective understanding of human foot and ankle function can drive innovations of bio-inspired wearable devices. Specifically, knowledge regarding how mechanical force and work are produced within the human foot-ankle structures can help determine what type of materials or components are required to engineer devices. In this study, we characterized the combined functions of the foot and ankle structures during walking by synthesizing the total force, displacement, and work profiles from structures distal to the shank. Eleven healthy adults walked at four scaled speeds. We quantified the ground reaction force and center-of-pressure displacement in the shank’s coordinate system during ...


A Computational Method To Aid The Design And Analysis Of Single Cell Rna-Seq Experiments For Cell Type Identification., Douglas Abrams, Parveen Kumar, Radha Krishna Murthy Karuturi, Joshy George Jun 2019

A Computational Method To Aid The Design And Analysis Of Single Cell Rna-Seq Experiments For Cell Type Identification., Douglas Abrams, Parveen Kumar, Radha Krishna Murthy Karuturi, Joshy George

Faculty Research 2019

BACKGROUND: The advent of single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) enabled researchers to study transcriptomic activity within individual cells and identify inherent cell types in the sample. Although numerous computational tools have been developed to analyze single cell transcriptomes, there are no published studies and analytical packages available to guide experimental design and to devise suitable analysis procedure for cell type identification.

RESULTS: We have developed an empirical methodology to address this important gap in single cell experimental design and analysis into an easy-to-use tool called SCEED (Single Cell Empirical Experimental Design and analysis). With SCEED, user can choose a variety ...


Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields Jun 2019

Parasitic Dinoflagellate Hematodinium Perezi Prevalence In Larval And Juvenile Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus From Coastal Bays Of Virginia, Hj Small, Jp Huchin-Mian, Ks Reece, Km Pagenkopp Lohan, Mj Butler Iv, Jd Shields

VIMS Articles

The parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi infects the American blue crab Callinectes sapidus and other decapods along the Eastern seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of the USA. Large juvenile and adult blue crabs experience high mortality during seasonal outbreaks of H. perezi, but less is known about its presence in the early life history stages of this host. We determined the prevalence of H. perezi in megalopae and early benthic juvenile crabs from multiple locations along the Virginia portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. The DNA of H. perezi was not detected in any megalopae collected from several locations within the ...


Nanomodulation Of Macrophages In Multiple Sclerosis., Frances K. Nally, Chiara De Santi, Claire E. Mccoy Jun 2019

Nanomodulation Of Macrophages In Multiple Sclerosis., Frances K. Nally, Chiara De Santi, Claire E. Mccoy

Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics Articles

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating autoimmune disease primarily affecting young adults. Despite an unclear causal factor, symptoms and pathology arise from the infiltration of peripheral immune cells across the blood brain barrier. Accounting for the largest fraction of this infiltrate, macrophages are functionally heterogeneous innate immune cells capable of adopting either a pro or an anti-inflammatory phenotype, a phenomenon dependent upon cytokine milieu in the CNS. This functional plasticity is of key relevance in MS, where the pro-inflammatory state dominates the early stage, instructing demyelination and axonal loss while the later anti-inflammatory state holds a key role in ...


Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta Jun 2019

Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Background

Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays L.) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return on fungicide investment (ROI) across multiple locations.

Objective

Compare yield response of fungicide application timing across multiple fungicide classes and calculate the probability of ...


Messy Eating, Samantha King, R Scott Carey, Isabel Macquarie, Victoria Millious, Elaine Power Jun 2019

Messy Eating, Samantha King, R Scott Carey, Isabel Macquarie, Victoria Millious, Elaine Power

Environmental Studies

Literature on the ethics and politics of food and that on animal-human relationships have infrequently converged. Representing an initial step towards bridging this divide, Messy Eating features interviews with thirteen prominent and emerging scholars about the connections between their academic work and their approach to consuming animals as food. The collection explores how authors working across a range of perspectives—postcolonial, Indigenous, Black, queer, trans, feminist, disability, poststructuralist, posthumanist, and multispecies—weave their theoretical and political orientations with daily, intimate, and visceral practices of food consumption, preparation, and ingestion.

Contributors: Neel Ahuja, Billy Ray Belcourt, Matthew Calarco, Lauren Corman, Naisargi ...


Quantification Of Site Layout And Filter Characteristics On Primary Filter Airflow Reduction On Commercial Swine Sites In Iowa, Benjamin Smith, Steven Hoff, Jay Harmon, Daniel Andersen, Jeffrey Zimmerman, John Stinn Jun 2019

Quantification Of Site Layout And Filter Characteristics On Primary Filter Airflow Reduction On Commercial Swine Sites In Iowa, Benjamin Smith, Steven Hoff, Jay Harmon, Daniel Andersen, Jeffrey Zimmerman, John Stinn

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Fresh air intake filtration is used on commercial swine breeding-gestation-farrowing farms to reduce the frequency of airborne infectious agents. For swine producers, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), influenza A virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered the most economically challenging airborne pathogens. Reduced frequency of disease outbreaks has been attributed to retrofitting existing systems with filtration. Economic analysis of operating costs includes energy use, maintenance and replacement of filters. Filter replacement, the largest operational cost, is dependent on filter lifespan. However, limited data is available on filter lifespan and the rate of airflow reduction during the high dust-loading periods ...


A Critical Analysis Of Powell’S Results On The Interdivision Time Distribution, Vincent Quedeville, Jérôme Morchain, Philippe Villedieu, Rodney O. Fox Jun 2019

A Critical Analysis Of Powell’S Results On The Interdivision Time Distribution, Vincent Quedeville, Jérôme Morchain, Philippe Villedieu, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The cell-age and interdivision-time probability density functions (PDFs) have been extensively investigated since the 1940s due to their fundamental role in cell growth. The pioneering work of Powell established the first relationship between the interdivision-time and cell-age PDFs. In the literature, two definitions for the interdivision-time PDF have been proposed. One stands for the age-at-rupture PDF and is experimentally observable, whereas the other is the probability density that a cell divides at a certain age and is unobservable. From Powell’s results pertaining to the unobservable interdivision-time PDF, Painter and Marr derived an inequality that is true but is incorrectly ...


Proteome Of The Central Apparatus Of A Ciliary Axoneme, Lei Zhao, Yuqing Hou, Tyler Picariello, Branch Craige, George B. Witman Jun 2019

Proteome Of The Central Apparatus Of A Ciliary Axoneme, Lei Zhao, Yuqing Hou, Tyler Picariello, Branch Craige, George B. Witman

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Nearly all motile cilia have a "9+2" axoneme containing a central apparatus (CA), consisting of two central microtubules with projections, that is essential for motility. To date, only 22 proteins are known to be CA components. To identify new candidate CA proteins, we used mass spectrometry to compare axonemes of wild-type Chlamydomonas and a CA-less mutant. We identified 44 novel candidate CA proteins, of which 13 are conserved in humans. Five of the latter were studied more closely, and all five localized to the CA; therefore, most of the other candidates are likely to also be CA components. Our ...


Glycine Supplementation Extends Lifespan Of Male And Female Mice., Richard A Miller, David E Harrison, Clinton Michael Astle, Molly A. Bogue, Joel Brind, Elizabeth Fernandez, Kevin Flurkey, Martin Javors, Warren Ladiges, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Francesca Macchiarini, James Nelson, Alexey G Ryazanov, Jessica Snyder, Timothy M Stearns, Douglas E Vaughan, Randy Strong Jun 2019

Glycine Supplementation Extends Lifespan Of Male And Female Mice., Richard A Miller, David E Harrison, Clinton Michael Astle, Molly A. Bogue, Joel Brind, Elizabeth Fernandez, Kevin Flurkey, Martin Javors, Warren Ladiges, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Francesca Macchiarini, James Nelson, Alexey G Ryazanov, Jessica Snyder, Timothy M Stearns, Douglas E Vaughan, Randy Strong

Faculty Research 2019

Diets low in methionine extend lifespan of rodents, though through unknown mechanisms. Glycine can mitigate methionine toxicity, and a small prior study has suggested that supplemental glycine could extend lifespan of Fischer 344 rats. We therefore evaluated the effects of an 8% glycine diet on lifespan and pathology of genetically heterogeneous mice in the context of the Interventions Testing Program. Elevated glycine led to a small (4%-6%) but statistically significant lifespan increase, as well as an increase in maximum lifespan, in both males (p = 0.002) and females (p < 0.001). Pooling across sex, glycine increased lifespan at each of the three independent sites, with significance at p = 0.01, 0.053, and 0.03, respectively. Glycine-supplemented females were lighter than controls, but there was no effect on weight in males. End-of-life necropsies suggested that glycine-treated mice were less likely than controls to die of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (p = 0.03). Of the 40 varieties of incidental pathology evaluated in these mice, none were increased to a significant degree by the glycine-supplemented diet. In parallel analyses of the same cohort, we found no benefits from TM5441 (an inhibitor of PAI-1, the primary inhibitor of tissue and urokinase plasminogen activators), inulin (a source of soluble fiber), or aspirin at either of two doses. Our glycine results strengthen the idea that modulation of dietary amino acid levels can increase healthy lifespan in mice, and provide a foundation for further investigation of dietary effects on aging and late-life diseases.


Effects Of Igf-1 Isoforms On Muscle Growth And Sarcopenia., Francesca Ascenzi, Laura Barberi, Gabriella Dobrowolny, Aline Villa Nova Bacurau, Carmine Nicoletti, Emanuele Rizzuto, Nadia Rosenthal, Bianca Maria Scicchitano, Antonio Musarò Jun 2019

Effects Of Igf-1 Isoforms On Muscle Growth And Sarcopenia., Francesca Ascenzi, Laura Barberi, Gabriella Dobrowolny, Aline Villa Nova Bacurau, Carmine Nicoletti, Emanuele Rizzuto, Nadia Rosenthal, Bianca Maria Scicchitano, Antonio Musarò

Faculty Research 2019

The decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength occurring in aging, referred as sarcopenia, is the result of many factors including an imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, changes in metabolic/hormonal status, and in circulating levels of inflammatory mediators. Thus, factors that increase muscle mass and promote anabolic pathways might be of therapeutic benefit to counteract sarcopenia. Among these, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated in many anabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. IGF-1 exists in different isoforms that might exert different role in skeletal muscle. Here we study the effects of two full propeptides IGF-1Ea and IGF-1Eb ...