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A Single Vertebrate Dna Virus Protein Disarms Invertebrate Immunity To Rna Virus Infection, Don B. Gammon, Sophie Duraffour, Daniel K. Rozelle, Heidi Hehnly, Rita Sharma, Michael E. Sparks, Cara C. West, Ying Chen, James J. Moresco, Graciela Andrei, John H. Connor, Darryl Conte Jr., Dawn E. Gundersen-Rindal, William L. Marshall, John R. Yates, Neal S. Silverman, Craig C. Mello Dec 2014

A Single Vertebrate Dna Virus Protein Disarms Invertebrate Immunity To Rna Virus Infection, Don B. Gammon, Sophie Duraffour, Daniel K. Rozelle, Heidi Hehnly, Rita Sharma, Michael E. Sparks, Cara C. West, Ying Chen, James J. Moresco, Graciela Andrei, John H. Connor, Darryl Conte Jr., Dawn E. Gundersen-Rindal, William L. Marshall, John R. Yates, Neal S. Silverman, Craig C. Mello

Neal Silverman

Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. We found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), are completely restricted in their replication after entry into Lepidopteran cells. This restriction is overcome when cells are co-infected with vaccinia virus (VACV), a vertebrate DNA virus. Using RNAi screening, we show that Lepidopteran RNAi, Nuclear Factor-kappaB, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways restrict RNA virus infection. Surprisingly, a highly conserved, uncharacterized VACV protein, A51R, can partially overcome this virus restriction. We show that A51R is also critical for VACV replication in vertebrate cells ...


Bacterial Rna:Dna Hybrids Are Activators Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome, Sivapriya Kailasan Vanaja, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Maninjay K. Atianand, Parisa Kalantari, Brian M. Skehan, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, John M. Leong Dec 2014

Bacterial Rna:Dna Hybrids Are Activators Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome, Sivapriya Kailasan Vanaja, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Maninjay K. Atianand, Parisa Kalantari, Brian M. Skehan, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, John M. Leong

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an extracellular pathogen that causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta, has been linked to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Here we identify the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as an essential mediator of EHEC-induced IL-1beta. Whereas EHEC-specific virulence factors were dispensable for NLRP3 activation, bacterial nucleic acids such as RNA:DNA hybrids and RNA gained cytosolic access and mediated inflammasome-dependent responses. Consistent with a direct role for RNA:DNA hybrids in inflammasome activation, delivery of synthetic EHEC RNA:DNA hybrids into the cytosol ...


Dual Engagement Of The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes By Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin And Dna During Malaria, Parisa Kalantari, Rosane B. Deoliveira, Jennie Chan, Yolanda Corbett, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Andrea Stutz, Eicke Latz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Douglas T. Golenbock, Katherine A. Fitzgerald Dec 2014

Dual Engagement Of The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes By Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin And Dna During Malaria, Parisa Kalantari, Rosane B. Deoliveira, Jennie Chan, Yolanda Corbett, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Andrea Stutz, Eicke Latz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Douglas T. Golenbock, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Hemozoin (Hz) is the crystalline detoxification product of hemoglobin in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes. We previously proposed that Hz can carry plasmodial DNA into a subcellular compartment that is accessible to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), inducing an inflammatory signal. Hz also activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in primed cells. We found that Hz appears to colocalize with DNA in infected erythrocytes, even before RBC rupture or phagolysosomal digestion. Using synthetic Hz coated in vitro with plasmodial genomic DNA (gDNA) or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, we observed that DNA-complexed Hz induced TLR9 translocation, providing a priming and an activation signal for inflammasomes. After phagocytosis, Hz and ...


Malaria-Induced Nlrp12/Nlrp3-Dependent Caspase-1 Activation Mediates Inflammation And Hypersensitivity To Bacterial Superinfection, Marco A. Ataide, Warrison A. Andrade, Dario S. Zamboni, Donghai Wang, Maria Do Carmo Souza, Bernardo S. Franklin, Samir Elian, Flaviano S. Martins, Dhelio Pereira, George W. Reed, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli Dec 2014

Malaria-Induced Nlrp12/Nlrp3-Dependent Caspase-1 Activation Mediates Inflammation And Hypersensitivity To Bacterial Superinfection, Marco A. Ataide, Warrison A. Andrade, Dario S. Zamboni, Donghai Wang, Maria Do Carmo Souza, Bernardo S. Franklin, Samir Elian, Flaviano S. Martins, Dhelio Pereira, George W. Reed, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Cyclic paroxysm and high fever are hallmarks of malaria and are associated with high levels of pyrogenic cytokines, including IL-1beta. In this report, we describe a signature for the expression of inflammasome-related genes and caspase-1 activation in malaria. Indeed, when we infected mice, Plasmodium infection was sufficient to promote MyD88-mediated caspase-1 activation, dependent on IFN-gamma-priming and the expression of inflammasome components ASC, P2X7R, NLRP3 and/or NLRP12. Pro-IL-1beta expression required a second stimulation with LPS and was also dependent on IFN-gamma-priming and functional TNFR1. As a consequence of Plasmodium-induced caspase-1 activation, mice produced extremely high levels of IL-1beta upon a ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara Oct 2014

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20141018

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/63

Tattletales is my concept to multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors ("Tattletales", which is also the overall concept name) and multicolor FP reporters ("T-Bow" for Rainbow T-cells and tumor cells) to study the physiology of live cells.

These are based on:

1. LacI-GFP :: LacO operator synthetic tandem repeat array (Robinett et al 1996 JCB, Fig 4A, http://jcb.rupress.org/content/135/6/1685.full.pdf )

2. the plethora of fluorescent protein biosensors - see page 1 of this "63" download site.

3. the many colors, and combinations of colors (CY11.5 ...


Development And Evaluation Of A Replicon Particle Vaccine Expressing The E2 Glycoprotein Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) In Cattle, John Dustin Loy, Jill Gander, Mark Mogler, Ryan Vander Veen, Julia Ridpath, Delbert Hank Harris, Kurt Kamrud Oct 2014

Development And Evaluation Of A Replicon Particle Vaccine Expressing The E2 Glycoprotein Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Bvdv) In Cattle, John Dustin Loy, Jill Gander, Mark Mogler, Ryan Vander Veen, Julia Ridpath, Delbert Hank Harris, Kurt Kamrud

John Loy

Background: Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be utilized in a standard prime/boost vaccination strategy in calves against a commercially significant bovine pathogen. Findings: Replicon particles that express bovine viral diarrhea virus sub-genotype 1b E2 glycoprotein were generated ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Chronic Alcohol-Induced Microrna-155 Contributes To Neuroinflammation In A Tlr4-Dependent Manner In Mice, Dora Lippai, Shashi Bala, Timea Csak, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Chronic Alcohol-Induced Microrna-155 Contributes To Neuroinflammation In A Tlr4-Dependent Manner In Mice, Dora Lippai, Shashi Bala, Timea Csak, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) and interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) pathway induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation is involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Inflammation is a highly regulated process. Recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial role in fine tuning gene expression and miR-155 is a major regulator of inflammation in immune cells after TLR stimulation. AIM: To evaluate the role of miR-155 in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. METHODS: Wild type (WT), miR-155- and TLR4-knockout (KO) mice received 5% ethanol-containing or isocaloric ...


Another Armed Cd4(+) T Cell Ready To Battle Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Roniel Cabrera, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Another Armed Cd4(+) T Cell Ready To Battle Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Roniel Cabrera, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

No abstract provided.


Human Ezrin-Moesin-Radixin Proteins Modulate Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Terence Bukong, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Human Ezrin-Moesin-Radixin Proteins Modulate Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Terence Bukong, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Host cytoskeletal proteins of the ezrin-moesin-radixin (EMR) family have been shown to modulate single-stranded RNA virus infection through regulating stable microtubule formation. Antibody engagement of CD81, a key receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry, induces ezrin phosphorylation. Here we tested the role of EMR proteins in regulating HCV infection and explored potential therapeutic targets. We show that HCV E2 protein induces rapid ezrin phosphorylation and its cellular redistribution with F-actin by way of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK). Therapeutically blocking the functional roles of SYK or F-actin reorganization significantly reduced Huh7.5 cell susceptibility to HCV J6/JFH-1 infection. Using ...


Differences In Innate Immune Signaling Between Alcoholic And Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis, Jan Petrasek, Timea Csak, Michal Ganz, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Differences In Innate Immune Signaling Between Alcoholic And Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis, Jan Petrasek, Timea Csak, Michal Ganz, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

The similar histopathological characteristics of alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the crucial role of the innate immune response in both conditions may lead to the assumption that ASH and NASH represent the same pathophysiological entities caused by different risk factors. In this review paper, we elaborate on the pathophysiological differences between these two entities and highlight the disease-specific involvement of signaling molecules downstream of the Toll-like receptor 4, and the differential mechanism by which the inflammasome contributes to ASH versus NASH. Our findings emphasize that ASH and NASH have disease-specific mechanisms and therefore represent distinct biological entities ...


Micro-Rna-155 Deficiency Prevents Alcohol-Induced Serum Endotoxin Increase And Small Bowel Inflammation In Mice, Dora Lippai, Shashi Bala, Donna Catalano, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Micro-Rna-155 Deficiency Prevents Alcohol-Induced Serum Endotoxin Increase And Small Bowel Inflammation In Mice, Dora Lippai, Shashi Bala, Donna Catalano, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol impairs gut barrier function and induces inflammatory cytokines. The effects of acute alcohol binge on the gut are partially understood. Micro-RNA-155 (miR-155), a modulator of cytokine and T-cell immune response in the gut, stabilizes tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) mRNA. Here, we investigated the role of the inflammation modulator miR-155 as well as the effects of acute binge and chronic alcohol feeding in the small bowel (SB) in mice. METHODS: For the acute alcohol binge, wild-type (WT) mice received 5 g/kg 50% alcohol/d or equal amount of water oral gavage for 3 days. WT and miR-155-deficient ...


Human Type 2 Myeloid Dendritic Cells Produce Interferon-Lambda And Amplify Interferon-Alpha In Response To Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Shuye Zhang, Karen Kodys, Kui Li, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Human Type 2 Myeloid Dendritic Cells Produce Interferon-Lambda And Amplify Interferon-Alpha In Response To Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Shuye Zhang, Karen Kodys, Kui Li, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND and AIMS: The type III interferons (IFN-lambdas: interleukin [IL]-28a, IL-28b, and IL-29) have important roles in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but little is understood about what cells produce these cytokines or how production is activated. We investigated whether human immune cells recognize HCV-infected cells and respond by producing IFN-lambda. METHODS: We cultured healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with different populations of immune cells and Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 (JFH-1) HCV-infected Huh7.5 (cell culture-derived HCV particles [HCVcc]/Huh7.5) cells. RESULTS: Human PBMCs recognized HCVcc/Huh7.5 cells and responded by producing IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IFN-lambda ...


Converging Actions Of Alcohol On Liver And Brain Immune Signaling, Gyongyi Szabo, Dora Lippai Sep 2014

Converging Actions Of Alcohol On Liver And Brain Immune Signaling, Gyongyi Szabo, Dora Lippai

Gyongyi Szabo

Chronic excessive alcohol consumption results in inflammation in multiple organs, including the brain. While the contribution of neuroinflammation to alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction and behavioral alterations is established, the mechanisms by which alcohol triggers inflammation in the brain are only partially understood. There are acute and long-term alterations in brain function due to intercellular and intracellular changes of different cell types as a result of alcohol consumption. This review focuses on the alcohol-induced proinflammatory cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system. Alcohol passes through the blood-brain barrier and alters neurotransmission. Alcohol use activates microglia and astrocyte, contributing to neurodegeneration ...


Both Bone Marrow-Derived And Non-Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Contribute To Aim2 And Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation In A Myd88-Dependent Manner In Dietary Steatohepatitis, Timea Csak, Arun Pillai, Michal Ganz, Dora Lippai, Jan Petrasek, Jin-Kyu Park, Karen Kodys, Angela Dolganiuc, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Both Bone Marrow-Derived And Non-Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Contribute To Aim2 And Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation In A Myd88-Dependent Manner In Dietary Steatohepatitis, Timea Csak, Arun Pillai, Michal Ganz, Dora Lippai, Jan Petrasek, Jin-Kyu Park, Karen Kodys, Angela Dolganiuc, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND and AIMS: Inflammation promotes the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR9 activation through myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and production of mature interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) via inflammasome activation contribute to steatohepatitis. Here, we investigated the inter-relationship between TLR signalling and inflammasome activation in dietary steatohepatitis.

METHODS: Wild type (WT), TLR4- and MyD88-deficient (KO) mice received methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) or -supplemented (MCS) diets for 5 weeks and a subset was challenged with TLR9 ligand CpG-DNA.

RESULTS: TLR4, TLR9, AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) and NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome mRNA, and mature ...


Toll-Like Receptors In Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Timea Csak, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Toll-Like Receptors In Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Timea Csak, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways is of central importance in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent studies demonstrated that Toll-like receptors, the sensors of microbial and endogenous danger signals, are expressed and activated in innate immune cells as well as in parenchymal cells in the liver and thereby contribute to ALD and NASH. In this review, we emphasize the importance of gut-derived endotoxin and its recognition by TLR4 in the liver. The significance of TLR-induced intracellular signaling pathways and cytokine production as well as the contribution of individual cell types to the inflammation is ...


Exosome-Mediated Delivery Of Functionally Active Mirna-155 Inhibitor To Macrophages, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala, Terence Bukong, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Exosome-Mediated Delivery Of Functionally Active Mirna-155 Inhibitor To Macrophages, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala, Terence Bukong, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Exosomes, membranous nanovesicles, naturally carry bio-macromolecules and play pivotal roles in both physiological intercellular crosstalk and disease pathogenesis. Here, we showed that B cell-derived exosomes can function as vehicles to deliver exogenous miRNA-155 mimic or inhibitor into hepatocytes or macrophages, respectively. Stimulation of B cells significantly increased exosome production. Unlike in parental cells, baseline level of miRNA-155 was very low in exosomes derived from stimulated B cells. Exosomes loaded with a miRNA-155 mimic significantly increased miRNA-155 levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and the liver of miRNA-155 knockout mice. Treatment of RAW macrophages with miRNA-155 inhibitor loaded exosomes resulted in statistically ...


High Fat Diet Feeding Results In Gender Specific Steatohepatitis And Inflammasome Activation, Michal Ganz, Timea Csak, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

High Fat Diet Feeding Results In Gender Specific Steatohepatitis And Inflammasome Activation, Michal Ganz, Timea Csak, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

AIM: To develop an animal model that encompasses the different facets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which has been a challenge. METHODS: In this study, we used a high fat diet (HFD) feeding supplemented with fructose and sucrose in the water mimicking the high-fructose corn syrup that is abundant in the diet in the United States. We used C57Bl/6 wild-type mice for short and long-term feedings of 6 and 16 wk respectively, and evaluated the extent of liver damage, steatosis, and inflammasome activation. Our methods included histopathological analysis to assess liver damage and steatosis, which involved H and E and ...


Immune And Inflammatory Pathways In Nash, Michal Ganz, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Immune And Inflammatory Pathways In Nash, Michal Ganz, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Immune and inflammatory pathways have a central role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to the development of NAFLD. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns are known to activate a variety of pattern-recognition receptors that result in inflammation. The key features of the immune system and inflammatory pathways in the development of NAFLD are discussed in this review.


Innate Immune Cell Networking In Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Banishree Saha, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Innate Immune Cell Networking In Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Banishree Saha, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Persistent viral infection, such as HCV infection, is the result of the inability of the host immune system to mount a successful antiviral response, as well as the escape strategies devised by the virus. Although each individual component of the host immune system plays important roles in antiviral immunity, the interactive network of immune cells as a whole acts against the virus. The innate immune system forms the first line of host defense against viral infection, and thus, virus elimination or chronic HCV infection is linked to the direct outcome of the interactions between the various innate immune cells and ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Granzyme B Secretion By Human Memory Cd4 T Cells Is Less Strictly Regulated Compared To Memory Cd8 T Cells, Lin Lin, Jacob Couturier, Xiaoying Yu, Miguel A. Medina, Claudia A. Kozinetz, Dorothy E. Lewis Sep 2014

Granzyme B Secretion By Human Memory Cd4 T Cells Is Less Strictly Regulated Compared To Memory Cd8 T Cells, Lin Lin, Jacob Couturier, Xiaoying Yu, Miguel A. Medina, Claudia A. Kozinetz, Dorothy E. Lewis

Claudia A. Kozinetz

Background: Granzyme B (GrzB) is a serine proteinase expressed by memory T cells and NK cells. Methods to measure GrzB protein usually involve intracellular (flow cytometry) and extracellular (ELISA and ELISpot) assays. CD8 T cells are the main source of GrzB during immunological reactions, but activated CD4 T cells deploy GrzB as well. Because GrzB is an important mediator of cell death, tissue pathology and disease, clarification of differences of GrzB expression and secretion between CD4 and CD8 T cells is important for understanding effector functions of these cells.
Results: Memory CD4 and memory CD8 T cells were purified from ...


Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae - A Primary Cause Of Severe Pneumonia Epizootics In The Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos Moschatus) Population, Torstein Tengs Dr. Sep 2014

Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae - A Primary Cause Of Severe Pneumonia Epizootics In The Norwegian Muskox (Ovibos Moschatus) Population, Torstein Tengs Dr.

Dr. Torstein Tengs

The Norwegian muskox (Ovibos moschatus) population lives on the high mountain plateau of Dovre and originates from animals introduced from Greenland. In the late summers of 2006 and 2012, severe outbreaks of pneumonia with mortality rates of 25-30% occurred. During the 2012 epidemic high quality samples from culled sick animals were obtained for microbiological and pathological examinations. High throughput sequencing (pyrosequencing) of pneumonic lung tissue revealed high concentrations of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in all six animals examined by this method and Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida in four animals, whereas no virus sequences could be identified. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and P. multocida multocida ...


Dengue: Defining Protective Versus Pathologic Immunity, Alan Rothman Aug 2014

Dengue: Defining Protective Versus Pathologic Immunity, Alan Rothman

Alan Rothman

Dengue is an expanding public health problem, and an effective vaccine remains elusive. This review discusses how the significant influence of sequential infection with different dengue virus serotypes on the severity of disease can be viewed in terms of beneficial and detrimental effects of heterologous immunity. A more complete understanding of these effects is likely to be critical for predicting optimal vaccine-induced immune responses.


Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein Ns5 Induces Interleukin-8 Transcription And Secretion, Carey L. Medin, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Alan L. Rothman Aug 2014

Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein Ns5 Induces Interleukin-8 Transcription And Secretion, Carey L. Medin, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Alan L. Rothman

Alan Rothman

Elevated circulating levels of chemokines have been reported in patients with dengue fever and are proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of dengue disease. To establish in vitro models for chemokine induction by dengue 2 virus (DEN2V), we studied a variety of human cell lines and primary cells. DEN2V infection of HepG2 and primary dendritic cells induced the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8), RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta, whereas only IL-8 and RANTES were induced following dengue virus infection of HEK293 cells. Chemokine secretion was accompanied by an increase in steady-state mRNA levels. No chemokine induction was observed in HEK293 cells treated ...


T Cell Receptor Vbeta Gene Usage In Thai Children With Dengue Virus Infection, Susan Gagnon, Anita Leporati, Sharone Green, Siripen Kalayanarooj, David Vaughn, Henry Stephens, Saroj Suntayakorn, Ichiro Kurane, Francis Ennis, Alan Rothman Aug 2014

T Cell Receptor Vbeta Gene Usage In Thai Children With Dengue Virus Infection, Susan Gagnon, Anita Leporati, Sharone Green, Siripen Kalayanarooj, David Vaughn, Henry Stephens, Saroj Suntayakorn, Ichiro Kurane, Francis Ennis, Alan Rothman

Alan Rothman

T lymphocyte activation during dengue is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). We examined the T cell receptor Vbeta gene usage by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay during infection and after recovery in 13 children with DHF and 13 children with dengue fever (DF). There was no deletion of specific Vbeta gene families. We detected significant expansions in usage of single Vbeta families in six subjects with DHF and three subjects with DF over the course of infection, but these did not show an association with clinical diagnosis, viral serotype, or HLA alleles. Differences ...


Dengue Viral Rna Levels In Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Associated With Disease Severity And Preexisting Dengue Immune Status, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Robert V. Gibbons, Sharone Green, Daniel H. Libraty, Timothy P. Endy, Francis A. Ennis, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Alan L. Rothman Aug 2014

Dengue Viral Rna Levels In Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are Associated With Disease Severity And Preexisting Dengue Immune Status, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Robert V. Gibbons, Sharone Green, Daniel H. Libraty, Timothy P. Endy, Francis A. Ennis, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Alan L. Rothman

Alan Rothman

BACKGROUND: Infection with dengue viruses (DENV) causes a wide range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a febrile illness called dengue fever (DF), to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The in vivo targets of DENV and the relation between the viral burden in these cells and disease severity are not known.

METHOD: The levels of positive and negative strand viral RNA in peripheral blood monocytes, T/NK cells, and B cells and in plasma of DF and DHF cases were measured by quantitative RT-PCR.

RESULTS: Positive strand viral RNA was detected in monocytes, T/NK cells and B cells with the ...


Quantitation Of Cd8+ T Cell Responses To Newly Identified Hla-A*0201-Restricted T Cell Epitopes Conserved Among Vaccinia And Variola (Smallpox) Viruses, Masanori Terajima, John Cruz, Gregory Raines, Elizabeth Kilpatrick, Jeffrey Kennedy, Alan Rothman, Francis Ennis Aug 2014

Quantitation Of Cd8+ T Cell Responses To Newly Identified Hla-A*0201-Restricted T Cell Epitopes Conserved Among Vaccinia And Variola (Smallpox) Viruses, Masanori Terajima, John Cruz, Gregory Raines, Elizabeth Kilpatrick, Jeffrey Kennedy, Alan Rothman, Francis Ennis

Alan Rothman

Immunization with vaccinia virus resulted in long-lasting protection against smallpox and was the approach used to eliminate natural smallpox infections worldwide. Due to the concern about the potential use of smallpox virus as a bioweapon, smallpox vaccination is currently being reintroduced. Severe complications from vaccination were associated with congenital or acquired T cell deficiencies, but not with congenital agammaglobulinemia, suggesting the importance of T cell immunity in recovery from infection. In this report, we identified two CD8+ T cell epitopes restricted by the most common human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele, HLA-A*0201. Both epitopes are highly conserved ...


Prediction Of Dengue Disease Severity Among Pediatric Thai Patients Using Early Clinical Laboratory Indicators, James A. Potts, Robert V. Gibbons, Alan L. Rothman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Stephen J. Thomas, Pra-On Supradish, Stephenie C. Lemon, Daniel H. Libraty, Sharone Green, Siripen Kalayanarooj Aug 2014

Prediction Of Dengue Disease Severity Among Pediatric Thai Patients Using Early Clinical Laboratory Indicators, James A. Potts, Robert V. Gibbons, Alan L. Rothman, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Stephen J. Thomas, Pra-On Supradish, Stephenie C. Lemon, Daniel H. Libraty, Sharone Green, Siripen Kalayanarooj

Alan Rothman

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is endemic in tropical and sub-tropical resource-poor countries. Dengue illness can range from a nonspecific febrile illness to a severe disease, Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS), in which patients develop circulatory failure. Earlier diagnosis of severe dengue illnesses would have a substantial impact on the allocation of health resources in endemic countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared clinical laboratory findings collected within 72 hours of fever onset from a prospective cohort children presenting to one of two hospitals (one urban and one rural) in Thailand. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to develop diagnostic algorithms using different ...


Telomere Length Dynamics In Human Memory T Cells Specific For Viruses Causing Acute Or Latent Infections, Joel M. O'Bryan, Marcia Woda, Mary Dawn T. Co, Anuja Mathew, Alan Rothman Aug 2014

Telomere Length Dynamics In Human Memory T Cells Specific For Viruses Causing Acute Or Latent Infections, Joel M. O'Bryan, Marcia Woda, Mary Dawn T. Co, Anuja Mathew, Alan Rothman

Alan Rothman

BACKGROUND: Declining telomere length (TL) is associated with T cell senescence. While TL in naive and memory T cells declines with increasing age, there is limited data on TL dynamics in virus-specific memory CD4+ T cells in healthy adults. We combined BrdU-labeling of virus-stimulated T cells followed with flow cytometry-fluorescent in situ hybridization for TL determination. We analyzed TL in T cells specific for several virus infections: non-recurring acute (vaccinia virus, VACV), recurring-acute (influenza A virus, IAV), and reactivating viruses (varicella-zoster virus, VZV, and cytomegalovirus, CMV) in 10 healthy subjects. Additionally, five subjects provided multiple blood samples separated by up ...