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Selected Works

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1621

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Chronic Exposure To Combined Carcinogens Enhances Breast Cell Carcinogenesis With Mesenchymal And Stem-Like Cell Properties., Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Wang Jan 2015

Chronic Exposure To Combined Carcinogens Enhances Breast Cell Carcinogenesis With Mesenchymal And Stem-Like Cell Properties., Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer affecting women in North America and Europe. More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce cellular carcinogenesis, we studied the activity of environmental carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using our breast cell carcinogenesis model. Our study revealed, for the first time, that combined NNK and B[a]P enhanced breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced ...


Dietary Variety Is Inversely Associated With Body Adiposity Among Us Adults Using A Novel Food Diversity Index.Pdf, Maya Vadiveloo, L. Beth Dixon, Tod Mijanovich, Brian Elbel, Niyati Parekh Dec 2014

Dietary Variety Is Inversely Associated With Body Adiposity Among Us Adults Using A Novel Food Diversity Index.Pdf, Maya Vadiveloo, L. Beth Dixon, Tod Mijanovich, Brian Elbel, Niyati Parekh

Maya Vadiveloo

Background: Consuming a variety (vs. monotony) of energy-poor, nutrient-dense foods may help individuals adhere to
dietary patterns favorably associated with weight control.
Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether greater healthful food variety quantified using the US
Healthy Food Diversity (HFD) index favorably influenced body adiposity.
Methods: Men and nonpregnant, nonlactating women aged $20 y with two 24-h recalls from the cross-sectional NHANES
2003–2006 (n = 7470) were included in this study. Dietary recalls were merged with the MyPyramid Equivalent database to
generate the US HFD index, which ranges from 0 to ;1, with higher scores indicative ...


Greater Healthful Food Variety As Measured By The Us Healthy Food Diversity Index Is Associated With Lower Odds Of Metabolic Syndrome And Its Components In Us Adults.Pdf, Maya Vadiveloo, Niyati Parekh, Josiemer Mattei Dec 2014

Greater Healthful Food Variety As Measured By The Us Healthy Food Diversity Index Is Associated With Lower Odds Of Metabolic Syndrome And Its Components In Us Adults.Pdf, Maya Vadiveloo, Niyati Parekh, Josiemer Mattei

Maya Vadiveloo

Background: Consuming a wider variety of nutrient-dense foods may promote adherence to healthful dietary patterns, leading to improved dietary quality and enhanced metabolic health.
Objective: We used the US Healthy Food Diversity (HFD) index to simultaneously measure dietary variety, quality, and proportionality, hypothesizing a priori that race/ethnicity may moderate associations between diet and health.
Methods: A representative sample of adults (n = 7470) aged 20+ y with two 24-h recalls and complete outcome data from the cross-sectional NHANES 2003–2006 were selected. US HFD values were generated using a previously validated equation with a theoretical range from 0 to nearly ...


Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle Dec 2014

Modelling Non-Euclideanmovement And Landscape Connectivity In Highly Structured Ecological Networks, Chris Sutherland, Angela Fuller, J. Royle

Chris Sutherland

1. Movement is influenced by landscape structure, configuration and geometry, but measuring distance as perceived by animals poses technical and logistical challenges. Instead, movement is typically measured using Euclidean distance, irrespective of location or landscape structure, or is based on arbitrary cost surfaces. A
recently proposed extension of spatial capture-recapture (SCR)models resolves this issue using spatial encounter
histories of individuals to calculate least-cost paths (ecological distance: Ecology, 94, 2013, 287) thereby relaxing
the Euclidean assumption. We evaluate the consequences of not accounting for movement heterogeneity when
estimating abundance in highly structured landscapes, and demonstrate the value of this approach ...


En El Do De La Unión Europea: Registro De Denominaciones De Origen Protegidas, Indicaciones Geográficas Protegidas, Etc., Luis González Vaqué, Cristina Vidreras Pérez Dec 2014

En El Do De La Unión Europea: Registro De Denominaciones De Origen Protegidas, Indicaciones Geográficas Protegidas, Etc., Luis González Vaqué, Cristina Vidreras Pérez

Luis González Vaqué

No abstract provided.


A Single Vertebrate Dna Virus Protein Disarms Invertebrate Immunity To Rna Virus Infection, Don B. Gammon, Sophie Duraffour, Daniel K. Rozelle, Heidi Hehnly, Rita Sharma, Michael E. Sparks, Cara C. West, Ying Chen, James J. Moresco, Graciela Andrei, John H. Connor, Darryl Conte Jr., Dawn E. Gundersen-Rindal, William L. Marshall, John R. Yates, Neal S. Silverman, Craig C. Mello Dec 2014

A Single Vertebrate Dna Virus Protein Disarms Invertebrate Immunity To Rna Virus Infection, Don B. Gammon, Sophie Duraffour, Daniel K. Rozelle, Heidi Hehnly, Rita Sharma, Michael E. Sparks, Cara C. West, Ying Chen, James J. Moresco, Graciela Andrei, John H. Connor, Darryl Conte Jr., Dawn E. Gundersen-Rindal, William L. Marshall, John R. Yates, Neal S. Silverman, Craig C. Mello

Neal Silverman

Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. We found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), are completely restricted in their replication after entry into Lepidopteran cells. This restriction is overcome when cells are co-infected with vaccinia virus (VACV), a vertebrate DNA virus. Using RNAi screening, we show that Lepidopteran RNAi, Nuclear Factor-kappaB, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways restrict RNA virus infection. Surprisingly, a highly conserved, uncharacterized VACV protein, A51R, can partially overcome this virus restriction. We show that A51R is also critical for VACV replication in vertebrate cells ...


Examining The Regulatory Value Of Multi-Route Mammalian Acute Systemic Toxicity Studies, Troy Seidle, Pilar Prieto, Anna Bulgheroni Dec 2014

Examining The Regulatory Value Of Multi-Route Mammalian Acute Systemic Toxicity Studies, Troy Seidle, Pilar Prieto, Anna Bulgheroni

Troy Seidle, PhD

Regulatory information requirements for pesticides call for submission of acute systemic toxicity data for up to three different exposure routes (oral, dermal, inhalation) for both active ingredients and formulated products. Similar multi-route testing is required in the European Union and elsewhere for industrial chemicals. To determine the value of acute toxicity testing by more than one route, oral-dermal and oralinhalation concordances among regulatory classifications were examined for large data sets of chemicals and pesticide active ingredients. Across all sectors examined, oral acute toxicity classifications for pure active substances were more severe than those derived from dermal data in more than ...


Can Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Tests Be Replaced With Oral Tests? A Comparison Of Route-Specific Systemic Toxicity And Hazard Classifications Under The Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals (Ghs), Nigel P. Moore, David J. Andrew, Donald L. Bjerke, Stuart Creton, David Dreher, Thomas Holmes, Pilar Prieto, Troy Seidle, Tim G. Rowan Dec 2014

Can Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Tests Be Replaced With Oral Tests? A Comparison Of Route-Specific Systemic Toxicity And Hazard Classifications Under The Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals (Ghs), Nigel P. Moore, David J. Andrew, Donald L. Bjerke, Stuart Creton, David Dreher, Thomas Holmes, Pilar Prieto, Troy Seidle, Tim G. Rowan

Troy Seidle, PhD

Acute systemic toxicity data (LD50 values) and hazard classifications derived in the rat following oral administration and dermal application have been analysed to examine whether or not orally-derived hazard classification or LD50 values can be used to determine dermal hazard classification. Comparing the oral and dermal classifications for 335 substances derived from oral and dermal LD50 values respectively revealed 17% concordance, and indicated that 7% of substances would be classified less severely while 76% would be classified more severely if oral classifications were applied directly to the dermal route. In contrast, applying the oral LD50 values within the dermal classification ...


An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle Dec 2014

An Evaluation Of The Us High Production Volume (Hpv) Chemical-Testing Programme: A Study In (Ir)Relevance, Redundancy And Retro Thinking, Andrew Nicholson, Jessica Sandler, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Programme, chemical companies have volunteered to conduct screening-level toxicity tests on approximately 2800 widely-used industrial chemicals. Participating companies are committed to providing available toxicity information to the EPA and presenting testing proposals for review by the EPA and posting on the EPA Web site as public information. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and a coalition of animal protection organisations have reviewed all the test plans submitted by the participating chemical companies for compliance with the original HPV framework, as well as with animal welfare guidelines ...


Cross-Sector Review Of Drivers And Available 3rs Approaches For Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing, Troy Seidle, Sally Robinson, Tom Holmes, Stuart Creton, Pilar Prieto, Julia Scheel, Magda Chlebus Dec 2014

Cross-Sector Review Of Drivers And Available 3rs Approaches For Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing, Troy Seidle, Sally Robinson, Tom Holmes, Stuart Creton, Pilar Prieto, Julia Scheel, Magda Chlebus

Troy Seidle, PhD

Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or ...


The Development Of New Concepts For Assessing Reproductive Toxicity Applicable To Large Scale Toxicological Programmes, S. Bremer, C. Pellizzer, S. Hoffmann, T. Seidle, T. Hartung Dec 2014

The Development Of New Concepts For Assessing Reproductive Toxicity Applicable To Large Scale Toxicological Programmes, S. Bremer, C. Pellizzer, S. Hoffmann, T. Seidle, T. Hartung

Troy Seidle, PhD

Large scale toxicological testing programmes which are currently ongoing such as the new European chemical legislation REACH require the development of new integrated testing strategies rather than applying traditional testing schemes to thousands of chemicals. The current practice of requiring in vivo testing for every possible adverse effect endanger the success of these programmes due (i) to limited testing facilities and sufficient capacity of scientific/technical knowledge for reproductive toxicity; (ii) an unacceptable number of laboratory animals involved (iii) an intolerable number of chemicals classified as false positive.

A key aspect of the implementation of new testing strategies is the ...


Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens Dec 2014

Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens

Troy Seidle, PhD

Conventional toxicological testing methods are often decades old, costly and low-throughput, with questionable relevance to the human condition. Several of these factors have contributed to a backlog of chemicals that have been inadequately assessed for toxicity. Some authorities have responded to this challenge by implementing large-scale testing programmes. Others have concluded that a paradigm shift in toxicology is warranted. One such call came in 2007 from the United States National Research Council (NRC), which articulated a vision of ‘‘21st century toxicology” based predominantly on non-animal techniques. Potential advantages of such an approach include the capacity to examine a far greater ...


A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann Dec 2014

A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann

Troy Seidle, PhD

The European Union’s Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) legislation mandates testing and evaluation of approximately 30,000 existing substances within a short period of time, beginning with the most widely used “high production volume” (HPV) chemicals. REACH testing requirements for the roughly 3000 HPV chemicals specify three separate tests for reproductive toxicity: two developmental toxicity studies on different animal species (OECD Test Guideline 414) and a two-generation reproduction toxicity study (OECD TG 416). These studies are highly costly in both economic and animal welfare terms. OECD TG 416 is a fertility study intended to evaluate reproductive performance ...


Ideology Masquerading As Science: The Case Of Endocrine Disrupter Screening Programmes, Troy Seidle Dec 2014

Ideology Masquerading As Science: The Case Of Endocrine Disrupter Screening Programmes, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

The global move to develop novel testing methods and strategies to identify suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals offers a unique opportunity to move away from traditional animal testing paradigms in this new area of regulatory concern. Regrettably, the programmes under development, both in the USA and internationally through the OECD, have thus far failed to consider in vitro and other nonanimal test methods as more than “pre-screening” or “priority-setting” tools in a larger, animal-based testing strategy. Validation efforts to date have focused almost exclusively on the modification of existing animal tests to detect “endocrine effects”, with no demonstrable effort to promote ...


Levels Of Citation Of Nonhuman Animal Studies Conducted At A Canadian Research Hospital, Anne Innis Dagg, Troy K. Seidle Dec 2014

Levels Of Citation Of Nonhuman Animal Studies Conducted At A Canadian Research Hospital, Anne Innis Dagg, Troy K. Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

The publication of scientific articles that receive few or no citations raises questions of the appropriate use of resources as well as ethics. In the case of animal research, the ethics issue extends beyond human patients to nonhuman animals, as the research subjects them to pain and, typically, to death. This study is a citation analysis of animal research conducted at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children (HSC). Of the 594 publications (1990 to 1995) on animal research by affiliates of HSC, 29% received Iower than 10 citations in a 10-year period. We compare the research history of 13 "best ...


Humane Society International’S Global Campaign To End Animal Testing, Troy Seidle Dec 2014

Humane Society International’S Global Campaign To End Animal Testing, Troy Seidle

Troy Seidle, PhD

The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in ...


Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang Dec 2014

Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

Most breast cancers occur sporadically due to long-term exposure to low-dose carcinogens in the diet and the environment. Specifically, smoke, polluted air, and high temperature-cooked meats comprise multiple carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5–b]pyridine (PhIP). We sought to determine if these carcinogens act together to induce breast cell carcinogenesis, and if so, whether non-cytotoxic dietary agents could intervene. We demonstrated that co-exposure to physiologically-achievable doses of NNK, B[α]P, and PhIP (NBP) holistically enhanced initiation and progression of breast cell carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species ...


Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

Landmark Ruling On Whaling From The International Court Of Justice, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

On 31 March 2014, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that Japan’s whaling activities in Antarctica did not comply with Article VIII of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), which permits whaling for scientific purposes. Copious and confusing media commentary followed the decision. This included seemingly conflicting reports from within Japan, which initially indicated whole-hearted compliance with the ruling, which required this whaling to cease, but later suggested that implementation by Japan might be limited to a brief halt followed by a launch of a new Antarctic ‘research’ programme including lethal take.


The Fine-Scale Habitat Use Of Risso’S Dolphins Off Bardsey Island, Cardigan Bay (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

The Fine-Scale Habitat Use Of Risso’S Dolphins Off Bardsey Island, Cardigan Bay (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, Sonja Eisfeld, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The main objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the population size of Risso’s dolphins off Bardsey Island using mark-recapture techniques (De Boer et al., 2013); and (2) to study habitat-use in relation to fine-scale oceanographic features. This work provides preliminary information on the habitat-use of Risso’s dolphins and will benefit future studies, along with the development of effective conservation measures for this species throughout the region.


Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders Dec 2014

Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

A photo-identification study on Risso’s dolphins was carried out off Bardsey Island in Wales (July to September, 1997-2007). Their local abundance was estimated using two different analytical techniques: 1) mark-recapture of well-marked dolphins using a “closed-population” model; and 2) a census technique based on the total number of iden-tified individual dolphins sighted over the study period. The mark-recapture estimates of 121 (left sides; 64 - 178, 95% CI; CV 0.24) and 145 dolphins (right sides; 78 - 213, 95% CI; CV 0.24) closely matched the census technique estimates (population size of 90 - 151). It was found that the dolphins ...


Marine Noise Pollution - Increasing Recognition But Need For More Practical Action, Mark P. Simmonds, Sarah J. Dolman, Michael Jasny, E. C. M. Parsons, Lindy Weilgart, Andrew J. Wright, Russell Leaper Dec 2014

Marine Noise Pollution - Increasing Recognition But Need For More Practical Action, Mark P. Simmonds, Sarah J. Dolman, Michael Jasny, E. C. M. Parsons, Lindy Weilgart, Andrew J. Wright, Russell Leaper

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Over the last two decades, marine noise pollution has become increasingly recognized as an issue of major significance. The issue has become a primary focus of marine mammal research, but is also of concern to the public and policy makers. The result has been efforts involving a variety of disciplines, and relevant legislation and associated guidance are now in place in many parts of the world. Most current mitigation efforts are directed at reducing the risk of injury from exposure to intense noise, although the effectiveness of such mitigation measures in terms of risk reduction has rarely been quantified. Longer-term ...


Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds Dec 2014

Cetaceans And Marine Debris: The Great Unknown, Mark Peter Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Plastics and other marine debris have been found in the gastrointestinal tracts of cetaceans, including instances where large quantities of material have been found that are likely to cause impairment to digestive processes and other examples, where other morbidity and even death have resulted. In some instances, debris may have been ingested as a result of the stranding process and, in others, it may have been ingested when feeding. Those species that are suction or “ram” feeders may be most at risk. There is also evidence of entanglement of cetaceans in marine debris. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish ...


Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds Dec 2014

Interactions Between Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) And The Winter Pelagic Pair-Trawl Fishery Ff Southwest England (Uk), Marijke N. De Boer, James T. Saulino, Mardik F. Leopold, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

During offshore and onshore studies (2004 to 2009), the interactions between pair-trawls and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) were studied to better understand the impact of bycatch. A ‘hotspot’ area where pair-trawls overlapped with high dolphin abundance was identified. We made comparisons between boat-based data collected in absence and presence of pair-trawlers. The relative abundance and group-size of dolphins was significantly higher in the presence of pair-trawlers. Dolphins were observed associating with towing and hauling procedures. Significantly, more carcasses occurred in areas with hauling-activity than those without. Body-temperatures obtained from carcasses found near operating pair-trawlers indicated that bycatch mostly occurred ...


The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts Dec 2014

The Influence Of Topographic And Dynamic Cyclic Variables On The Distribution Of Small Cetaceans In A Shallow Coastal System, Marijke N. De Boer, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders, Geert Aarts

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

The influence of topographic and temporal variables on cetacean distribution at a fine-scale is still poorly understood. To study the spatial and temporal distribution of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and the poorly known Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus we carried out land-based observations from Bardsey Island (Wales, UK) in summer (2001–2007). Using Kernel analysis and Generalized Additive Models it was shown that porpoises and Risso’s appeared to be linked to topographic and dynamic cyclic variables with both species using different core areas (dolphins to the West and porpoises to the East off Bardsey). Depth, slope and aspect and ...


Faces: Diversity-Aware Entity Summarization Using Incremental Hierarchical Conceptual Clustering, Kalpa Gunaratna, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit P. Sheth Dec 2014

Faces: Diversity-Aware Entity Summarization Using Incremental Hierarchical Conceptual Clustering, Kalpa Gunaratna, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit P. Sheth

Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan

Semantic Web documents that encode facts about entities on the Web have been growing rapidly in size and evolving over time. Creating summaries on lengthy Semantic Web documents for quick identification of the corresponding entity has been of great contemporary interest. In this paper, we explore automatic summarization techniques that characterize and enable identification of an entity and create summaries that are human friendly. Specifically, we highlight the importance of diversified (faceted) summaries by combining three dimensions: diversity, uniqueness, and popularity. Our novel diversity-aware entity summarization approach mimics human conceptual clustering techniques to group facts, and picks representative facts from ...


Ontology Supported Knowledge Discovery In The Field Of Human Performance And Cognition, Christopher Thomas, Pablo N. Mendes, Delroy H. Cameron, Amit P. Sheth, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Cartic Ramakrishnan Dec 2014

Ontology Supported Knowledge Discovery In The Field Of Human Performance And Cognition, Christopher Thomas, Pablo N. Mendes, Delroy H. Cameron, Amit P. Sheth, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Cartic Ramakrishnan

Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan

No abstract provided.


Semantics-Empowered Big Data Processing With Applications, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit P. Sheth Dec 2014

Semantics-Empowered Big Data Processing With Applications, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Amit P. Sheth

Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan

We discuss the nature of Big Data and address the role of semantics in analyzing and processing Big Data that arises in the context of Physical-Cyber-Social Systems. We organize our research around the Five Vs of Big Data, where four of the Vs are harnessed to produce the fifth V - value. To handle the challenge of Volume, we advocate semantic perception that can convert low-level observational data to higher-level abstractions more suitable for decision-making. To handle the challenge of Variety, we resort to the use of semantic models and annotations of data so that much of the intelligent processing can ...


Some Trust Issues In Social Networks And Sensor Networks, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Pramod Anantharam, Cory Andrew Henson, Amit P. Sheth Dec 2014

Some Trust Issues In Social Networks And Sensor Networks, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Pramod Anantharam, Cory Andrew Henson, Amit P. Sheth

Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan

Trust and reputation are becoming increasingly important in diverse areas such as search, e-commerce, social media, semantic sensor networks, etc. We review past work and explore future research issues relevant to trust in social/sensor networks and interactions. We advocate a balanced, iterative approach to trust that marries both theory and practice. On the theoretical side, we investigate models of trust to analyze and specify the nature of trust and trust computation. On the practical side, we propose to uncover aspects that provide a basis for trust formation and techniques to extract trust information from concrete social/sensor networks and ...


Some Trust Issues In Social Networks And Sensor Networks, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Pramod Anantharam, Cory Andrew Henson, Amit P. Sheth Dec 2014

Some Trust Issues In Social Networks And Sensor Networks, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Pramod Anantharam, Cory Andrew Henson, Amit P. Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

Trust and reputation are becoming increasingly important in diverse areas such as search, e-commerce, social media, semantic sensor networks, etc. We review past work and explore future research issues relevant to trust in social/sensor networks and interactions. We advocate a balanced, iterative approach to trust that marries both theory and practice. On the theoretical side, we investigate models of trust to analyze and specify the nature of trust and trust computation. On the practical side, we propose to uncover aspects that provide a basis for trust formation and techniques to extract trust information from concrete social/sensor networks and ...


Iexplore: Interactive Browsing And Exploring Biomedical Knowledge, Vinh Nguyen, Olivier Bodenreider, Jagannathan Srinivasan, Todd Minning, Thomas Rindflesch, Bastien Rance, Ramakanth Kavuluru, Himi Yalamanchili, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Satya S. Sahoo, Amit P. Sheth Dec 2014

Iexplore: Interactive Browsing And Exploring Biomedical Knowledge, Vinh Nguyen, Olivier Bodenreider, Jagannathan Srinivasan, Todd Minning, Thomas Rindflesch, Bastien Rance, Ramakanth Kavuluru, Himi Yalamanchili, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, Satya S. Sahoo, Amit P. Sheth

Amit P. Sheth

We present iExplore, a Semantic Web based application that helps biomedical researchers study and explore biomedical knowledge interactively. iExplore uses the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR), which integrates knowledge from various sources ranging from information extracted from biomedical literature (from PubMed) to many structured vocabularies in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The current version of BKR provides a unified provenance representation for 12 million semantic predications (triples with a predicate connecting a subject and an object) derived from 87 vocabulary families in the UMLS and 14 million predications extracted from 21 million PubMed abstracts. To engage the domain experts in ...