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1992

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Articles 1 - 30 of 66

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Nest Usurpation, Supersedure And Colony Failure Contribute To Africanization Of Commercially Managed European Honey Bees In Venezuela, Robert G. Danka, Richard L. Hellmich, Thomas E. Rinderer Dec 1992

Nest Usurpation, Supersedure And Colony Failure Contribute To Africanization Of Commercially Managed European Honey Bees In Venezuela, Robert G. Danka, Richard L. Hellmich, Thomas E. Rinderer

Richard L Hellmich

The fates of 58 colonies in 4 apiaries managed commercially for honey production in northwest Venezuela were determined during 15 months. All colonies had been previously requeened with marked European queens. Heritage of new queens (European daughter replacements versus Africanized usurpers) was traced by mitochondrial DNA and morphological characteristics of worker progeny. Three usurpations (5% of colony fates, at a rate of 4.7% of colonies per year) occurred. These colonies showed congruent African-derived mitochondrial DNA and Africanized morphology. Supersedures accounted for much of the introgression of African genes into the test apiaries. Twenty-eight colonies (48%) superseded their queens once ...


Isolation And Characterization Of The Tricarboxylate Transporter From Pea Mitochondria, Cecilia A. Mcintosh, David J. Oliver Dec 1992

Isolation And Characterization Of The Tricarboxylate Transporter From Pea Mitochondria, Cecilia A. Mcintosh, David J. Oliver

David J. Oliver

The tricarboxylate transporter was solubilized from pea (Pisum sativum) mitochondria with Triton X-114, partially purified over a hydroxylapatite column, and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. The proteoliposomes exchanged external [14C]citrate for internal citrate or malate but not for preloaded D,L-isocitrate. Similarly, although external malate, succinate, and citrate competed with [14C]citrate in the exchange reaction, D,L-isocitrate and phosphoenolpyruvate did not. This tricarboxylate transporter differed from the equivalent activity from animal tissues in that it did not transport isocitrate and phosphoenolpyruvate. In addition, tricarboxylate transport in isolated plant mitochondria, as well as that measured with the partially purified and ...


A Review Of The Factors Influencing The Growth Of The Northern Quahog, Mercenaria Mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758), Michael A. Rice, Jan A. Pechenik Nov 1992

A Review Of The Factors Influencing The Growth Of The Northern Quahog, Mercenaria Mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758), Michael A. Rice, Jan A. Pechenik

Michael A Rice

Factors affecting the growth of larval, juvenile, and adult northern quahogs, Mercenaria mercenaria, are reviewed. Larval growth is affected by temperature, salinity, current speed, dissolved oxygen concentration, and the amount of suspended sediments in the water, along with such nutritional factors as food quantity and quality. Growth of post-set juvenile and adult quahogs is similarly affected by the same physical and nutritional factors. Recent work suggests that there is a strong genetic contribution to quahog growth rate and that selective breeding programs may be useful for producing rapid growth strains. A growing body of evidence suggests that larval growth rates ...


Predicting The Growth Of Salmonella Typhimurium On Beef By Using The Temperature Function Integration Technique, James S. Dickson, G. R. Siragusa, J. E. Wray Jr. Nov 1992

Predicting The Growth Of Salmonella Typhimurium On Beef By Using The Temperature Function Integration Technique, James S. Dickson, G. R. Siragusa, J. E. Wray Jr.

James S. Dickson

Lag and generation times for the growth of Salmonella typhimurium on sterile lean beef were modeled as functions of cooling time under various carcass-chilling scenarios. Gompertz growth models were fit to the log10 colony counts over time at each of six temperatures in the range of 15 to 40 degrees C. Lag and generation times were defined as the points at which the second and first derivatives, respectively, of each growth curve attained a maximum. Generation time and lag time parameters were modeled as functions of temperature by use of exponential-decay models. The models were applied to typical beef carcass-cooling ...


Identification And Prevalence Of A Genetic Defect That Causes Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency In Holstein Cattle, Dale E. Shuster, Marcus E. Kehrli Jr., Mark R. Ackermann, R. O. Gilbert Oct 1992

Identification And Prevalence Of A Genetic Defect That Causes Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency In Holstein Cattle, Dale E. Shuster, Marcus E. Kehrli Jr., Mark R. Ackermann, R. O. Gilbert

Mark R. Ackermann

Two point mutations were identified within the gene encoding bovine CD18 in a Holstein calf afflicted with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD). One mutation causes an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in the highly conserved extracellular region of this adhesion glycoprotein, a region where several mutations have been found to cause human LAD. The other mutation is silent. Twenty calves with clinical symptoms of LAD were tested, and all were homozygous for the D128G allele. In addition, two calves homozygous for the D128G allele were identified during widespread DNA testing, and both were subsequently found to ...


A Comprehensive Genetic Linkage Map Of The Human Genome, Nih/Ceph Collaborators Mapping Group, Helen Donis-Keller Sep 1992

A Comprehensive Genetic Linkage Map Of The Human Genome, Nih/Ceph Collaborators Mapping Group, Helen Donis-Keller

Helen Donis-Keller

A genetic linkage map of the human genome was constructed that consists of 1416 loci, including 279 genes and expressed sequences. The loci are represented by 1676 polymorphic systems genotyped with the CEPH reference pedigree resource. A total of 339 microsatellite repeat markers assayed by PCR are contained within the map, and of the 351 markers with heterozygosities of at least 70%, 205 are microsatellites. Seven telomere loci define physical and genetic endpoints for 2q, 4p, 7q, 8p, 14q, 16p, and 16q, and in other cases distal markers on the maps have been localized to terminal cytogenetic bands. Therefore, at ...


Thermodynamics Of Single-Standard Rna-Binding To Oligolysines Containing Tryptophan, David Mascotti, Timothy Lohman Sep 1992

Thermodynamics Of Single-Standard Rna-Binding To Oligolysines Containing Tryptophan, David Mascotti, Timothy Lohman

David P. Mascotti

These studies provide important comparative information for the interpretation of the thermodynamics of protein-ss nucleic acid interaction.


Nad+-Linked Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: Isolation, Purification, And Characterization Of The Protein From Pea Mitochondria, Cecilia A. Mcintosh, David J. Oliver Sep 1992

Nad+-Linked Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: Isolation, Purification, And Characterization Of The Protein From Pea Mitochondria, Cecilia A. Mcintosh, David J. Oliver

David J. Oliver

The NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) mitochondria was purified more than 200-fold by dye-ligand binding on Matrix Gel Blue A and gel filtration on Superose 6. The enzyme was stabilized during purification by the inclusion of 20% glycerol. In crude matrix extracts, the enzyme activity eluted from Superose 6 with apparent molecular masses of 1400 ± 200, 690 ± 90, and 300 ± 50 kD. During subsequent purification steps the larger molecular mass species disappeared and an additional peak at 94 ± 16 kD was evident. The monomer for the enzyme was tentatively identified at 47 kD by sodium ...


The Cpce And Cpcf Genes Of Synechococcus Sp. Pcc 7002. Construction And Phenotypic Characterization Of Interposon Mutants, J Zhou, G E. Gasparich, V L. Stirewalt, R De Lorimier, D A. Bryant Aug 1992

The Cpce And Cpcf Genes Of Synechococcus Sp. Pcc 7002. Construction And Phenotypic Characterization Of Interposon Mutants, J Zhou, G E. Gasparich, V L. Stirewalt, R De Lorimier, D A. Bryant

Gail Gasparich

The 3' region of the cpc operon of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 has been sequenced, transcriptionally characterized, and analyzed by interposon mutagenesis. The cpc operon contains six genes, 5' cpcB-cpcA-cpcC-cpcD-cpcE-cpcF 3', and gives rise to at least eight (more likely ten) discrete mRNA transcripts. The steady-state levels of transcripts for the cpcE and cpcF genes are very low and are estimated to represent only about 1-2% of the total transcripts arising from the cpc locus. The cpcE gene predicts a protein of 268 amino acid residues, whereas the cpcF gene predicts a protein of 205 amino acid residues. The deduced ...


Proceedings Of The Second Rhode Island Shellfish Industry Conference, Michael Rice, Deborah Grossman-Garber Aug 1992

Proceedings Of The Second Rhode Island Shellfish Industry Conference, Michael Rice, Deborah Grossman-Garber

Michael A Rice

Various papers from presentations at the conference


Diversity Among Rhizobia Effective With Robinia Pseudoacacia L, Janet Mccray-Batzli, William R. Graves, Peter Van Berkum Jul 1992

Diversity Among Rhizobia Effective With Robinia Pseudoacacia L, Janet Mccray-Batzli, William R. Graves, Peter Van Berkum

William R Graves

The diversity of rhizobia that form symbioses with roots of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), an economically important leguminous tree species, was examined by inoculating seedling root zones with samples of soil collected from the United States, Canada, and China. Bacteria were isolated from nodules, subcultured, and verified to be rhizobia. The 186 isolates varied significantly in their resistance to antibiotics and NaCl, their growth on different carbohydrates, and their effect on the pH of culture media. Most isolates showed intermediate antibiotic resistance, the capacity to use numerous carbohydrates, and a neutral to acid pH response. Isolates had greater similarity ...


Die Konsequenzen Eines Lebens Im Druckbehälter. Biotheoretische Implikationen Der Organisation Pflanzlicher Organismen [The Consequences Of Living In A Pressure Pot. Biotheoretical Implications Of The Organismic Architecture Of Plants], Winfried Peters, Hubert Felle Jun 1992

Die Konsequenzen Eines Lebens Im Druckbehälter. Biotheoretische Implikationen Der Organisation Pflanzlicher Organismen [The Consequences Of Living In A Pressure Pot. Biotheoretical Implications Of The Organismic Architecture Of Plants], Winfried Peters, Hubert Felle

Winfried S. Peters

Die Betrachtung der sich aus der zellulären Osmo- und Druckregulation ergebenden konstruktiven Zwänge erlaubt es, invariante Eigenschaften makroskopischer Pflanzen abzuleiten. Sessilität wird als grundsätzlich unumgänglich erkannt; Autotrophie als zwangsläufige Ernährungsform kann nur durch Parasitismus oder Beteiligung an Symbiosen umgangen werden. Hieraus ergibt sich die Antwort auf die Frage nach dem “Unterschied” zwischen Tieren und Pflanzen: die Bildung clonarer Kolonien (Metapopulationen) kann bei sessilen Organismen besonders plausibel begründet werden, zumal, wenn diese autotroph leben. Sessilität stellt bei Tieren eine Option, bei makroskopischen Pflanzen aber eine Notwendigkeit dar. Das Vorherrschen des Konstruktionstyps “Metapopulation” bei Pflanzen ist damit vorgezeichnet; dies ist letztlich eine ...


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Aerosolized Pseudomonas Elastase And Lung Fluid Balance In Anesthetized Sheep, B. T. Peterson, M. L. Collins, L. D. Gray, Ali Azghani Apr 1992

Aerosolized Pseudomonas Elastase And Lung Fluid Balance In Anesthetized Sheep, B. T. Peterson, M. L. Collins, L. D. Gray, Ali Azghani

Ali Azghani

The role of the lung epithelium in lung fluid balance was studied by ventilating anesthetized sheep with an aerosol of 20 mg of elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. elastase) to increase lung epithelial permeability without affecting lung endothelial permeability or lung vascular pressures. Ps. elastase had no effect on the lung vascular pressures, the alveolar-arterial PO2 gradient (A-aPO2), the flow or protein concentration of the lung lymph, or the postmortem water volume of the lungs. The morphological alveolar flooding score in these sheep was 2.5 times the control level, but this was only marginally significant. Elevation of the left ...


Trends In Overwintering Egg Populations Of A Pine Sawfly, Neodiprion Autumnalis, On Ponderosa Pine Sampled In January And December 1991 Near Ft. Meade In South Dakota, Judith E. Pasek, Willis C. Schaupp Jr Apr 1992

Trends In Overwintering Egg Populations Of A Pine Sawfly, Neodiprion Autumnalis, On Ponderosa Pine Sampled In January And December 1991 Near Ft. Meade In South Dakota, Judith E. Pasek, Willis C. Schaupp Jr

Judith E Pasek

In 1990 and 1991, a number of outbreaks of the pine sawfly, Neodiprion autumnalis, were reported in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming. Near Ft. Meade in South Dakota, defoliation in 1990 was heavy at the center of the infestation and decreased to light defoliation at a distance of 1 mile from the center. Defoliation at the same location in 1991 appeared to range from heavy to moderate.

Three sites near Ft. Meade that were sampled in January 1991 were resurveyed in December 1991 to assess changes in overwintering egg populations and degree of defoliation and to determine the potential ...


H-Protein Of The Glycine Decarboxylase Multienzyme Complex: Complementary Dna Encoding The Protein From Arabidopsis Thaliana, David J. Oliver Apr 1992

H-Protein Of The Glycine Decarboxylase Multienzyme Complex: Complementary Dna Encoding The Protein From Arabidopsis Thaliana, David J. Oliver

David J. Oliver

The glycine decarboxylase multienzyme complex is composed of four component enzymes, the 100-kD P-protein (a pyridoxal 5-phosphate-dependent amino acid decarboxylase), the 14-kD H-protein (a lipoamide-containing carrier protein), the 45-kD T-protein (a tetrahydrofolate transferase), and the 59-kD L-protein (lipoamide dehydrogenase) (5). The Iipoamide cofactor of the H-protein carries reaction intermediates between the active sites of the other three component proteins. These proteins form a large molecular weight complex (4) within the matrix ofleaf mitochondria where, together with the enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase, it catalyzes the photorespiratory conversion of two molecules of glycine to one each of serine, NH3, and CO2 with the ...


Canid Elicitation Of Blood-Squirting In A Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma Cornutum), George Middendorf, Wade Sherbrooke Mar 1992

Canid Elicitation Of Blood-Squirting In A Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma Cornutum), George Middendorf, Wade Sherbrooke

George Middendorf

No abstract provided.


Soy Protein, Phytate, And Iron Absorption In Humans, Richard F. Hurrell, Marcel-A Juillerat, Manju B. Reddy, Sean R. Lynch, Sandra A. Dassenko, James D. Cook Mar 1992

Soy Protein, Phytate, And Iron Absorption In Humans, Richard F. Hurrell, Marcel-A Juillerat, Manju B. Reddy, Sean R. Lynch, Sandra A. Dassenko, James D. Cook

Manju B. Reddy

The effect of reducing the phytate in soy-protein isolates on nonheme-iron absorption was examined in 32 human subjects. Iron absorption was measured by using an extrinsic radioiron label in liquid-formula meals containing hydrolyzed corn starch, corn oil, and either egg white or one of a series ofsoy-protein isolates with different phytate contents. Iron absorption increased four- to fivefold when phytic acid was reduced from its native amount of 49-8.4 to < 0.01 mg/g of isolate. Even relatively small quantities of residual phytate were strongly inhibitory and phytic acid had to be reduced to < 0.3 mg/g of isolate (corresponding to < 10 mg phytic acid/meal) before a meaningful increase in iron absorption was observed. However, even after removal ofvirtually all the phytic acid, iron absorption from the soy-protein meal was still only half that of the egg white control. It is concluded that phytic acid is a major inhibitory factor of iron absorption in soy-protein isolates but that other factors contribute to the poor bioavailability of iron from these products.


Populations Of Douglas-Fir Beetle In Green Trees Three Years After The Clover Mist Fire On The Clarks Fork Ranger District, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming, Judith Pasek, Willis Schaupp Feb 1992

Populations Of Douglas-Fir Beetle In Green Trees Three Years After The Clover Mist Fire On The Clarks Fork Ranger District, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming, Judith Pasek, Willis Schaupp

Judith E Pasek

Brood densities of Douglas-fir beetle (DFB), Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, in green trees adjoining areas burned by the 1988 Clover Mist Fire varied by site, but averaged 8 per 36 sq. in. for bark samples at all sites examined during November 1991. Brood densities were much reduced from 1990 levels, but were similar to densities found in blackened trees in fall 1989. The reduction from 1990 levels was attributed to heavy winter mortality of brood caused by prolonged extreme cold temperatures. Most brood in fall 1991 samples was present in the callow adult stage, similar to 1989 samples, and in contrast ...


Status And Trends Of Mountain Pine Beetle Populations In The Bear Mountain And White House Gulch Areas On The Harney Ranger District, Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, Judith E. Pasek, Willis C. Schaupp Jr Feb 1992

Status And Trends Of Mountain Pine Beetle Populations In The Bear Mountain And White House Gulch Areas On The Harney Ranger District, Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, Judith E. Pasek, Willis C. Schaupp Jr

Judith E Pasek

Increasing and epidemic populations of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were detected and evaluated in the southcentral Black Hills. Mortality of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., in the area increased each year since 1988 and was six times greater in 1991 than in 1989. Survey results indicate an average of 29 trees killed per acre by this bark beetle from 1989 through 1991 in the Bearhouse project area. Infestation is especially concentrated in the Bear Mountain Basin area, where between 27 and 103 trees per acre have been killed, and a large beetle population ...


Microbiological Decontamination Of Food Animal Carcasses By Washing And Sanitizing Systems: A Review, James S. Dickson, Maynard E. Anderson Feb 1992

Microbiological Decontamination Of Food Animal Carcasses By Washing And Sanitizing Systems: A Review, James S. Dickson, Maynard E. Anderson

James S. Dickson

Microbial contamination of animal carcasses is a result of the necessary procedures required to process live animals into retail meat. The contamination can be minimized by good manufacturing processes, but the total elimination of foodborne pathogenic microorganisms is difficult, if not impossible. A variety of methods have been developed to reduce the levels of contaminating bacteria on carcasses, although most of the current methods focus on washing and sanitizing procedures. The commonly used sanitizing agents include hot water, chlorine, and short-chain organic acids. The effectiveness of these compounds varies by the concentration used, the temperature of the sanitizers and contact ...


Serotonergic Phase Shifts Of The Mammalian Circadian Clock: Effects Of Tetrodotoxin And High Mg2+, Rebecca Prosser, H. Heller, Joseph Miller Jan 1992

Serotonergic Phase Shifts Of The Mammalian Circadian Clock: Effects Of Tetrodotoxin And High Mg2+, Rebecca Prosser, H. Heller, Joseph Miller

Rebecca Prosser

The mammalian circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) can be phase-shifted in vitro by the serotonin agonist quipazine. Here we show that quipazine resets the SCN clock in the presence of tetrodotoxin or 10 mM Mg2+, treatments that block Na+ action potentials and Ca2+ channels, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that quipazine resets the clock by stimulating receptors located on clock elements rather than on cells afferent to the clock.


Interaction Of Single And Double Stranded Nucleic Acids With Charged Oligopeptides Containing Tryptophan, David Mascotti, T. Lohman Jan 1992

Interaction Of Single And Double Stranded Nucleic Acids With Charged Oligopeptides Containing Tryptophan, David Mascotti, T. Lohman

David P. Mascotti

No abstract provided.


Where To Buy Velofel In South Africa Male Enhancement Pills?, Velofelpills Za Jan 1992

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Experimental Manipulations Of The Organic Chemistry Of Seawater: Implications For Studies Of Energy Budgets In Marine Invertebrate Larvae, William Jaeckle Jan 1992

Experimental Manipulations Of The Organic Chemistry Of Seawater: Implications For Studies Of Energy Budgets In Marine Invertebrate Larvae, William Jaeckle

William Jaeckle

Correct measurement of changes in biomass and metabolic rates over time are two essential elements for the accurate construction of energy budgets for invertebrate larvae. Both components of larval energetics are altered by changes in the organic chemistry of the seawater. Axenic (bacteria-free) veliger larvae (88 µm shell length) of the bivalve Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1795) had a 53% enhancement of their metabolic rate relative to control values (5.8 ± 0.6 pmol larva -1 h -1 , x¯ ± 1 SE) when exposed to seawater to which 1 µM glucose had been added. Gastrulae increased their rate of respiration by 35 ...


Non-Oral Etiologies Of Oral Malodor And Altered Chemosensation, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Non-Oral Etiologies Of Oral Malodor And Altered Chemosensation, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

A number of non-oral causes for oral malodor have been discussed. Several well documented etiologies for non-oral malodor include renal failure, cirrhosis of the liver, and diabetes mellitus. Each of these conditions has been examined using analytical instrumentation. In addition there appear to be several other metabolic conditions involving enzymatic and transport anomalies (such as trimethylaminuria) which lead to the systemic production of volatile malodors that manifest themselves as halitosis and/or altered chemoreception. Our studies include patients who have been referred to us after being examined by numerous clinical specialists with no identification or relief from their problem. This ...


Information Content Of Prey Odor Plumes: What Do Foraging Leach's Storm Petrels Know?, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah Jan 1992

Information Content Of Prey Odor Plumes: What Do Foraging Leach's Storm Petrels Know?, Larry Clark, Pankaj Shah

Larry Clark

Electrophysiological responses to odor have been recorded for concen­ trations as low as 0.01 ppm for Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus and Black-footed Albatrosses Diomedea nigripes, indicating that relative to most birds, procellariiforms have a keen sense of smell (Wenzel and Sieck 1972, cf.clark 1991; Clark and Smeraski 1990; Clark and Mason 1989). Such acuity is not unexpected, given the extensive development of the olfactory anatomy of these species (Bang and Wenzel 1986). Field observations indi­ cate that Procellariiformes use their sense of smell to locate food (Grubb 1972; Hutchison and Wenzel 1980; Lequette, Verheyden and Jouventin 1989). -_ ...


Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Avian Chemical Repellency: A Structure-Activity Approach And Implications, Pankaj Shah, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Until recently, the discovery of avian sensory repellents has been empirical (MaRnn, AnAmR 'Inn l;qr\r FlR'l), Hm> !ilv!ilr, recent liltudilillil in our laboratory have shown that many avian repellents have similar perceptual and structural properties (Mason et al. 1989; Mason Clark and Shah 1991; Clark and Shah 1991; Clark, Shah and Mason 1991; Shah, Clark and Mason 1991). For example, methyl anthranilate, which has a grapy odor, is repel­ lent to birds (Kare and Pick, 1960). Ortho-aminoacetophenone has an odor and structure similar to that of methyl anthranilate, differing only in the substitution of a ketone ...


Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Nonlethal Repellents: The Development Of Cost-Effective, Practical Solutions To Agricultural And Industrial Problems, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Repellents substances and devices cause pest species to avoid otherwise attractive or palatable materials. For birds, repellents can be visual, auditory, pyrotechnic, tactile, chemosensory, physiologic, or physical. Here, we consider chemical agents only. Few substances arc registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and thus legally available for use. This lack of available bird repellent technology reflects the small demonstrable economic impact of many agricultural bird damage problems. Accurate information about damage and market size is virtually nonexistent, and private companies are reluctant to invest resources in the unknown. To successfully commercialize new repellents, clearly lucrative markets must ...


Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark Jan 1992

Capsaicin Effects On Consumption Of Food By Cedar Waxwings And House Finches.­, Donald Norman, Russell Mason, Larry Clark

Larry Clark

Capsaicin effects on consumption of food by Cedar Waxwings and House Finches.­ Capsaicinoids (e.g., N-vanillyl-n-nonamide. norcapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin; Hoffman 1983) are aromatic am­ ides and the pungent principles in Capsicum peppers. Although these substances are strong chemical irritants for most mammals (e.g.. Rozin et a!. 1979), the available data suggest that they are inoffensive to some birds. For example. European Starlings (Sturn us vulgaris) and Rock Doves (Columba Iivia) are unresponsive to these compounds, even when con­ centrations greatly exceed those which mammals avoid (Szolcsanyi et al. 1986; Mason et a!.. in press).