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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Quantitative Evaluation Of Growth In Leptodea Fragilis Before And After The Arrival Of Zebra Mussels In Lake Erie, Elizabeth Barkett, Robert A. Krebs, Matthew T. Begley Nov 2019

A Quantitative Evaluation Of Growth In Leptodea Fragilis Before And After The Arrival Of Zebra Mussels In Lake Erie, Elizabeth Barkett, Robert A. Krebs, Matthew T. Begley

Robert A. Krebs

The arrival of zebra mussels in the Great Lakes in the 1980’s marked several environmental changes, most notably in freshwater mussels in the Unionidae. There are no studies of population demographics of native Great Lake species before this period of time. In this study, several recent shell collections of Leptodea fragilis, a fast-growing freshwater mussel, were made on various beaches along Lake Erie. To compare the effects of the zebra mussels on L. fragilis, we compared growth rates, determined from size and estimated age of shells, to additional collections of L. fragilis from 1941 to 1967available at the Cleveland ...


Characterization Of The Microbiome And Bioluminescent Symbionts Across Life Stages Of Ceratioid Anglerfishes Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Lindsay L. Freed, Cole Easson, Lydia Baker, D. Fenolio, Tracey Sutton, Yasmin Khan, Patricia Blackwelder, Tory Hendry, Jose Lopez Nov 2019

Characterization Of The Microbiome And Bioluminescent Symbionts Across Life Stages Of Ceratioid Anglerfishes Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Lindsay L. Freed, Cole Easson, Lydia Baker, D. Fenolio, Tracey Sutton, Yasmin Khan, Patricia Blackwelder, Tory Hendry, Jose Lopez

Patricia Blackwelder

The interdependence of diverse organisms through symbiosis reaches even the deepest parts of the oceans. As part of the DEEPEND project (deependconsortium.org) research on deep Gulf of Mexico biodiversity, we profiled the bacterial communities (‘microbiomes’) and luminous symbionts of 36 specimens of adult and larval deep-sea anglerfishes of the suborder Ceratioidei using 16S rDNA. Transmission Electron Microscopy was used to characterize the location of symbionts in adult light organs (esca). Whole larval microbiomes, and adult skin and gut microbiomes, were dominated by bacteria in the genera Moritella and Pseudoalteromonas genera. 16S rDNA sequencing results from adult fishes corroborate the ...


Convergent And Alternative Designs For Vertebrate Suspension Feeding, S. Laurie Sanderson Oct 2019

Convergent And Alternative Designs For Vertebrate Suspension Feeding, S. Laurie Sanderson

S. Laurie Sanderson

In this authoritative three-volume reference work, leading researchers bring together current work to provide a comprehensive analysis of the comparative morphology, development, evolution, and functional biology of the skull.


Taking The Metabolic Pulse Of The World's Coral Reefs, Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J. Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R. Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E. Corredor, Rob B. Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D. Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I. Kline, David A. Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly Mcmahon, Melissa Melendez, Heather N. Page, Isaac R. Santos, Kai G. Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto Sep 2019

Taking The Metabolic Pulse Of The World's Coral Reefs, Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J. Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R. Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E. Corredor, Rob B. Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D. Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I. Kline, David A. Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly Mcmahon, Melissa Melendez, Heather N. Page, Isaac R. Santos, Kai G. Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto

Tyler Cyronak

Worldwide, coral reef ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressure from a variety of anthropogenic perturbations including ocean warming and acidification, increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and overfishing, which could shift reefs to a condition of net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution and erosion. Herein, we determine the net calcification potential and the relative balance of net organic carbon metabolism (net community production; NCP) and net inorganic carbon metabolism (net community calcification; NCC) within 23 coral reef locations across the globe. In light of these results, we consider the suitability of using these two metrics developed from total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC ...


Temperature-Induced Viral Resistance In Emiliania Huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), B. Jacob Kendrick, Giacomo R. Ditullio, Tyler Cyronak, James M. Fulton, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, Kay D. Bidle Sep 2019

Temperature-Induced Viral Resistance In Emiliania Huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae), B. Jacob Kendrick, Giacomo R. Ditullio, Tyler Cyronak, James M. Fulton, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, Kay D. Bidle

Tyler Cyronak

Annual Emiliania huxleyi blooms (along with other coccolithophorid species) play important roles in the global carbon and sulfur cycles. E. huxleyi blooms are routinely terminated by large, host-specific dsDNA viruses, (Emiliania huxleyi Viruses; EhVs), making these host-virus interactions a driving force behind their potential impact on global biogeochemical cycles. Given projected increases in sea surface temperature due to climate change, it is imperative to understand the effects of temperature on E. huxleyi’s susceptibility to viral infection and its production of climatically active dimethylated sulfur species (DSS). Here we demonstrate that a 3°C increase in temperature induces EhV-resistant phenotypes ...


Nitrous Oxide And Methane Dynamics In A Coral Reef Lagoon Driven By Pore Water Exchange: Insights From Automated High‐Frequency Observations, Chiara O'Reilly, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Ashly Mcmahon, Damien T. Maher Sep 2019

Nitrous Oxide And Methane Dynamics In A Coral Reef Lagoon Driven By Pore Water Exchange: Insights From Automated High‐Frequency Observations, Chiara O'Reilly, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Ashly Mcmahon, Damien T. Maher

Tyler Cyronak

Automated cavity ring down spectroscopy was used to make continuous measurements of dissolved methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide in a coral reef lagoon for 2 weeks (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef). Radon (222Rn) was used to trace the influence of tidally driven pore water exchange on greenhouse gas dynamics. Clear tidal variation was observed for CH4, which correlated to 222Rn in lagoon waters. N2O correlated to 222Rn during the day only, which appears to be a response to coupled nitrification‐denitrification in oxic sediments, fueled by nitrate derived from bird guano. The lagoon was a ...


Permeable Coral Reef Sediment Dissolution Driven By Elevated Pco2 And Pore Water Advection, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre Sep 2019

Permeable Coral Reef Sediment Dissolution Driven By Elevated Pco2 And Pore Water Advection, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to drive the transition of coral reef ecosystems from net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitating to net dissolving within the next century. Although permeable sediments represent the largest reservoir of CaCO3 in coral reefs, the dissolution of shallow CaCO3 sands under future pCO2 levels has not been measured under natural conditions. In situ, advective chamber incubations under elevated pCO2 (~800 µatm) shifted the sediments from net precipitating to net dissolving. Pore water advection more than doubled dissolution rates (1.10 g CaCO3 m−2 d−1) when compared to diffusive ...


Hysteresis Between Coral Reef Calcification And The Seawater Aragonite Saturation State, Ashly Mcmahon, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre Sep 2019

Hysteresis Between Coral Reef Calcification And The Seawater Aragonite Saturation State, Ashly Mcmahon, Isaac R. Santos, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Some predictions of how ocean acidification (OA) will affect coral reefs assume a linear functional relationship between the ambient seawater aragonite saturation state (Ωa) and net ecosystem calcification (NEC). We quantified NEC in a healthy coral reef lagoon in the Great Barrier Reef during different times of the day. Our observations revealed a diel hysteresis pattern in the NEC versus Ωa relationship, with peak NEC rates occurring before the Ωa peak and relatively steady nighttime NEC in spite of variable Ωa. Net ecosystem production had stronger correlations with NEC than light, temperature, nutrients, pH, and Ω ...


Groundwater And Porewater As Major Sources Of Alkalinity To A Fringing Coral Reef Lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands), Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Bradley D. Eyre Sep 2019

Groundwater And Porewater As Major Sources Of Alkalinity To A Fringing Coral Reef Lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands), Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations) and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn) to total alkalinity (TA) dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging ...


Expanding Aquatic Observations Through Recreation, Robert J. W. Brewin, Kieran Hyder, Andreas J. Andersson, Oliver Billson, Philip J. Bresnahan, Thomas G. Brewin, Tyler Cyronak, Giorgio Dall'olmo, Lee De Mora, George Graham, Thomas Jackson, Dionysios E. Raitsos Sep 2019

Expanding Aquatic Observations Through Recreation, Robert J. W. Brewin, Kieran Hyder, Andreas J. Andersson, Oliver Billson, Philip J. Bresnahan, Thomas G. Brewin, Tyler Cyronak, Giorgio Dall'olmo, Lee De Mora, George Graham, Thomas Jackson, Dionysios E. Raitsos

Tyler Cyronak

Accurate observations of the Earth system are required to understand how our planet is changing and to help manage its resources. The aquatic environment—including lakes, rivers, wetlands, estuaries, coastal and open oceans—is a fundamental component of the Earth system controlling key physical, biological, and chemical processes that allow life to flourish. Yet, this environment is critically undersampled in both time and space. New and cost-effective sampling solutions are urgently needed. Here, we highlight the potential to improve aquatic sampling by tapping into recreation. We draw attention to the vast number of participants that engage in aquatic recreational activities ...


Drivers Of Pco2 Variability In Two Contrasting Coral Reef Lagoons: The Influence Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Damien T. Maher, Bradley D. Eyre Sep 2019

Drivers Of Pco2 Variability In Two Contrasting Coral Reef Lagoons: The Influence Of Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Tyler Cyronak, Isaac R. Santos, Dirk V. Erler, Damien T. Maher, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

The impact of groundwater on pCO2 variability was assessed in two coral reef lagoons with distinct drivers of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, 222Rn‐derived SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the water column was influenced by the high pCO2 (5501 µatm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through the ...


Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre Sep 2019

Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Physical uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is the dominant driver of ocean acidification (OA) in the open ocean. Due to expected decreases in calcification and increased dissolution of CaCO3 framework, coral reefs are thought to be highly susceptible to OA. However, biogeochemical processes can influence the pCO2 and pH of coastal ecosystems on diel and seasonal time scales, potentially modifying the long‐term effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. By compiling data from the literature and removing the effects of short‐term variability, we show that the average pCO2 of coral reefs throughout the globe has increased ...


Coral Reef Carbonate Chemistry Variability At Different Functional Scales, Yuichiro Takeshita, Tyler Cyronak, Todd R. Martz, Theodor Kindeberg, Andreas J. Andersson Sep 2019

Coral Reef Carbonate Chemistry Variability At Different Functional Scales, Yuichiro Takeshita, Tyler Cyronak, Todd R. Martz, Theodor Kindeberg, Andreas J. Andersson

Tyler Cyronak

There is a growing recognition for the need to understand how seawater carbonate chemistry over coral reef environments will change in a high-CO2 world to better assess the impacts of ocean acidification on these valuable ecosystems. Coral reefs modify overlying water column chemistry through biogeochemical processes such as net community organic carbon production (NCP) and calcification (NCC). However, the relative importance and influence of these processes on seawater carbonate chemistry vary across multiple functional scales (defined here as space, time, and benthic community composition), and have not been fully constrained. Here, we use Bermuda as a case study to ...


Comparing Chemistry And Census-Based Estimates Of Net Ecosystem Calcification On A Rim Reef In Bermuda, Travis A. Courtney, Andreas J. Andersson, Nicholas R. Bates, Andrew R. Collins, Tyler Cyronak, Samantha J. De Putron, Bradley D. Eyre, Rebecca Garley, Eric J. Hochberg, Rodney Johnson, Sylvia Musielewicz, Tim J. Noyes, Christopher L. Sabine, Adrienne J. Sutton, Jessy Toncin, Aline Tribollet Sep 2019

Comparing Chemistry And Census-Based Estimates Of Net Ecosystem Calcification On A Rim Reef In Bermuda, Travis A. Courtney, Andreas J. Andersson, Nicholas R. Bates, Andrew R. Collins, Tyler Cyronak, Samantha J. De Putron, Bradley D. Eyre, Rebecca Garley, Eric J. Hochberg, Rodney Johnson, Sylvia Musielewicz, Tim J. Noyes, Christopher L. Sabine, Adrienne J. Sutton, Jessy Toncin, Aline Tribollet

Tyler Cyronak

Coral reef net ecosystem calcification (NEC) has decreased for many Caribbean reefs over recent decades primarily due to changes in benthic community composition. Chemistry-based approaches to calculate NEC utilize the drawdown of seawater total alkalinity (TA) combined with residence time to calculate an instantaneous measurement of NEC. Census-based approaches combine annual growth rates with benthic cover and reef structural complexity to estimate NEC occurring over annual timescales. Here, NEC was calculated for Hog Reef in Bermuda using both chemistry and census-based NEC techniques to compare the mass-balance generated by the two methods and identify the dominant biocalcifiers at Hog Reef ...


Evolving And Sustaining Ocean Best Practices And Standards For The Next Decade, Frank Muller-Karger Sep 2019

Evolving And Sustaining Ocean Best Practices And Standards For The Next Decade, Frank Muller-Karger

Frank E. Muller-Karger

The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet’s ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies for structuring observing systems, sensor deployment and usage, and the generation of data and information products, to ethical and governance aspects when executing ocean observing. To meet the urgent, planet-wide challenges we ...


Antagonistic Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Rising Sea Surface Temperature On The Dissolution Of Coral Reef Carbonate Sediments, Daniel Trnovsky, Laura Stoltenberg, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre Sep 2019

Antagonistic Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Rising Sea Surface Temperature On The Dissolution Of Coral Reef Carbonate Sediments, Daniel Trnovsky, Laura Stoltenberg, Tyler Cyronak, Bradley D. Eyre

Tyler Cyronak

Increasing atmospheric CO2 is raising sea surface temperature (SST) and increasing seawater CO2 concentrations, resulting in a lower oceanic pH (ocean acidification; OA), which is expected to reduce the accretion of coral reef ecosystems. Although sediments comprise most of the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) within coral reefs, no in situ studies have looked at the combined effects of increased SST and OA on the dissolution of coral reef CaCO3 sediments. In situ benthic chamber incubations were used to measure dissolution rates in permeable CaCO3 sands under future OA and SST scenarios in a coral reef lagoon ...


Evaluating Climatic Response To External Radiative Forcing During The Late Miocene To Early Pliocene: New Perspectives From Eastern Equatorial Pacific (Iodp U1338) And North Atlantic (Odp 982) Locations, Anna J. Drury, Cédric M. John, Amelia E. Shevenell Sep 2019

Evaluating Climatic Response To External Radiative Forcing During The Late Miocene To Early Pliocene: New Perspectives From Eastern Equatorial Pacific (Iodp U1338) And North Atlantic (Odp 982) Locations, Anna J. Drury, Cédric M. John, Amelia E. Shevenell

Amelia Shevenell

Orbital‐scale climate variability during the latest Miocene‐early Pliocene is poorly understood due to a lack of high‐resolution records spanning 8.0–3.5 Ma, which resolve all orbital cycles. Assessing this variability improves understanding of how Earth's system sensitivity to insolation evolves and provides insight into the factors driving the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and the Late Miocene Carbon Isotope Shift (LMCIS). New high‐resolution benthic foraminiferal Cibicidoides mundulus δ18O and δ13C records from equatorial Pacific International Ocean Drilling Program Site U1338 are correlated to North Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 982 ...


Seascapes As A New Vernacular For Pelagic Ocean Monitoring, Management And Conservation, Maria T. Kavanaugh, Matthew J. Oliver, Francisco P. Chavez, Ricardo M. Letelier, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Scott C. Doney Sep 2019

Seascapes As A New Vernacular For Pelagic Ocean Monitoring, Management And Conservation, Maria T. Kavanaugh, Matthew J. Oliver, Francisco P. Chavez, Ricardo M. Letelier, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Scott C. Doney

Frank E. Muller-Karger

For terrestrial and marine benthic ecologists, landscape ecology provides a framework to address issues of complexity, patchiness, and scale—providing theory and context for ecosystem based management in a changing climate. Marine pelagic ecosystems are likewise changing in response to warming, changing chemistry, and resource exploitation. However, unlike spatial landscapes that migrate slowly with time, pelagic seascapes are embedded in a turbulent, advective ocean. Adaptations from landscape ecology to marine pelagic ecosystem management must consider the nature and scale of biophysical interactions associated with organisms ranging from microbes to whales, a hierarchical organization shaped by physical processes, and our limited ...


Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Monitoring Of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products From Noaa Coral Reef Watch, Gang Liu, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, María Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, Erick F. Geiger, William J. Skirving, Timothy F. R. Burgess, Alan E. Strong, Andy Harris, Eileen Maturi, Alexander Ignatov, John Sapper, Jianke Li, Susan Lynds Sep 2019

Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Monitoring Of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products From Noaa Coral Reef Watch, Gang Liu, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, María Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, Erick F. Geiger, William J. Skirving, Timothy F. R. Burgess, Alan E. Strong, Andy Harris, Eileen Maturi, Alexander Ignatov, John Sapper, Jianke Li, Susan Lynds

Frank E. Muller-Karger

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program has developed a daily global 5-km product suite based on satellite observations to monitor thermal stress on coral reefs. These products fulfill requests from coral reef managers and researchers for higher resolution products by taking advantage of new satellites, sensors and algorithms. Improvements of the 5-km products over CRW’s heritage global 50-km products are derived from: (1) the higher resolution and greater data density of NOAA’s next-generation operational daily global 5-km geo-polar blended sea surface temperature (SST) analysis; and (2) implementation of a new ...


Characterization Of Available Light For Seagrass And Patch Reef Productivity In Sugarloaf Key, Lower Florida Keys, Gerardo Toro-Farmer, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Maria Vega-Rodriguez, Nelson Melo, Kimberly Yates, Sergio Cerdeira-Estrada, Stanley R. Herwitz Sep 2019

Characterization Of Available Light For Seagrass And Patch Reef Productivity In Sugarloaf Key, Lower Florida Keys, Gerardo Toro-Farmer, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Maria Vega-Rodriguez, Nelson Melo, Kimberly Yates, Sergio Cerdeira-Estrada, Stanley R. Herwitz

Frank E. Muller-Karger

Light availability is an important factor driving primary productivity in benthic ecosystems, but in situ and remote sensing measurements of light quality are limited for coral reefs and seagrass beds. We evaluated the productivity responses of a patch reef and a seagrass site in the Lower Florida Keys to ambient light availability and spectral quality. In situ optical properties were characterized utilizing moored and water column bio-optical and hydrographic measurements. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was also estimated for these study sites using benthic productivity chambers. Our results show higher spectral light attenuation and absorption, and lower irradiance during low tide ...


A Compilation Of Global Bio-Optical In Situ Data For Ocean-Colour Satellite Applications, Frank Muller-Karger Sep 2019

A Compilation Of Global Bio-Optical In Situ Data For Ocean-Colour Satellite Applications, Frank Muller-Karger

Frank E. Muller-Karger

A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open ...


Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana Sep 2019

Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana

Frank E. Muller-Karger

We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming ...


Seastar: A Mission To Study Ocean Submesoscale Dynamics And Small-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Processes In Coastal, Shelf And Polar Seas, Christine Gommenginger, Bertrand Chapron, Andy Hogg, Christian Buckingham, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Leif Eriksson, Francois Soulat, Clement Ubelmann, Francisco Ocampo-Torres, Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, David Griffin, Paco Lopez-Dekker, Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Lars Stenseng, Neil Stapleton, William Perrie, Nelson Violante-Carvalho, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, David Woolf, Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Fabrice Ardhuin, Patrice Klein, Alexis Mouche, Ananda Pascual, Xavier Capet, Daniele Hauser, Ad Stoffelen, Rosemary Morrow, Lotfi Aouf, Øyvind Breivik, Lee-Leung Fu, Johnny A. Johannessen, Yevgeny Aksenov, Lucy Bricheno, Joel Hirschi, Adrien C. H. Martin, Adrian P. Martin, George Nurser, Jeff Polton, Judith Wolf, Harald Johnsen, Alexander Soloviev, Gregg A. Jacobs, Fabrice Collard, Steve Groom, Vladimir Kudryavtsev, John Wilkin, Victor Navarro, Alex Babanin, Matthew Martin, John Siddorn, Andrew Saulter, Tom Rippeth, Bill Emery, Nikolai Maximenko, Roland Romeiser, Hans Graber, Aida Alvera Azcarate, Chris W. Hughes, Doug Vandemark, Jose Da Silva, Peter Jan Van Leeuwen, Alberto Naveira-Garabato, Johannes Gemmrich, Amala Mahadevan, Jose Marquez, Yvonne Munro, Sam Doody, Geoff Burbidge Aug 2019

Seastar: A Mission To Study Ocean Submesoscale Dynamics And Small-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Processes In Coastal, Shelf And Polar Seas, Christine Gommenginger, Bertrand Chapron, Andy Hogg, Christian Buckingham, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Leif Eriksson, Francois Soulat, Clement Ubelmann, Francisco Ocampo-Torres, Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, David Griffin, Paco Lopez-Dekker, Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Lars Stenseng, Neil Stapleton, William Perrie, Nelson Violante-Carvalho, Johannes Schulz-Stellenfleth, David Woolf, Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Fabrice Ardhuin, Patrice Klein, Alexis Mouche, Ananda Pascual, Xavier Capet, Daniele Hauser, Ad Stoffelen, Rosemary Morrow, Lotfi Aouf, Øyvind Breivik, Lee-Leung Fu, Johnny A. Johannessen, Yevgeny Aksenov, Lucy Bricheno, Joel Hirschi, Adrien C. H. Martin, Adrian P. Martin, George Nurser, Jeff Polton, Judith Wolf, Harald Johnsen, Alexander Soloviev, Gregg A. Jacobs, Fabrice Collard, Steve Groom, Vladimir Kudryavtsev, John Wilkin, Victor Navarro, Alex Babanin, Matthew Martin, John Siddorn, Andrew Saulter, Tom Rippeth, Bill Emery, Nikolai Maximenko, Roland Romeiser, Hans Graber, Aida Alvera Azcarate, Chris W. Hughes, Doug Vandemark, Jose Da Silva, Peter Jan Van Leeuwen, Alberto Naveira-Garabato, Johannes Gemmrich, Amala Mahadevan, Jose Marquez, Yvonne Munro, Sam Doody, Geoff Burbidge

Alexander Soloviev

High-resolution satellite images of ocean color and sea surface temperature reveal an abundance of ocean fronts, vortices and filaments at scales below 10 km but measurements of ocean surface dynamics at these scales are rare. There is increasing recognition of the role played by small scale ocean processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling, upper-ocean mixing and ocean vertical transports, with advanced numerical models and in situ observations highlighting fundamental changes in dynamics when scales reach 1 km. Numerous scientific publications highlight the global impact of small oceanic scales on marine ecosystems, operational forecasts and long-term climate projections through strong ageostrophic circulations, large ...


Mucus Entrapment Of Particles By A Suspension-Feeding Tilapia (Pisces: Cichlidae), S. Laurie Sanderson, Michael C. Stebar, K. Lara Ackermann, Samuel H. Jones, Ioannis E. Batjakas, Les Kaufman Jul 2019

Mucus Entrapment Of Particles By A Suspension-Feeding Tilapia (Pisces: Cichlidae), S. Laurie Sanderson, Michael C. Stebar, K. Lara Ackermann, Samuel H. Jones, Ioannis E. Batjakas, Les Kaufman

S. Laurie Sanderson

A miniature fiberoptic endoscope was used to observe the processes of particle encounter and retention inside the buccopharyngeal cavity of suspension-feeding tilapia. Small particles (38 µm to 1.0 mm in diameter) were trapped in strands and aggregates of mucus, which usually slid posteriorly on the ceratobranchials of arches I­IV towards the esophagus while the fish pumped water through the buccopharyngeal cavity. During stage 1 of periodic reversals of water flow inside the buccopharynx, mucus-bound particles usually lifted off the arch surfaces and travelled a short distance in an anterior or anterodorsal direction. During stage 2 of a reversal ...


Feeding Mechanisms In Carp: Crossflow Filtration, Palatal Protrusions And Flow Reversals, Todd Callan, S. Laurie Sanderson Jul 2019

Feeding Mechanisms In Carp: Crossflow Filtration, Palatal Protrusions And Flow Reversals, Todd Callan, S. Laurie Sanderson

S. Laurie Sanderson

It has been hypothesized that, when engulfing food mixed with inorganic particles during benthic feeding, cyprinid fish use protrusions of tissue from the palatal organ to retain the food particles while the inorganic particles are expelled from the opercular slits. In crossflow filtration, the particle suspension is pumped parallel to the filter surface as filtrate exits through the filter pores, causing the suspension to become more concentrated as it travels downstream along the filter. We used high-speed video endoscopy to determine whether carp Cyprinus carpio use crossflow filtration and/or palatal protrusions during benthic feeding. We found that carp use ...


Integration Of Swimming Kinematics And Ram Suspension Feeding In A Model American Paddlefish, Polyodon Spathula, Grant Emerson Haines, S. Laurie Sanderson Jul 2019

Integration Of Swimming Kinematics And Ram Suspension Feeding In A Model American Paddlefish, Polyodon Spathula, Grant Emerson Haines, S. Laurie Sanderson

S. Laurie Sanderson

Ram suspension-feeding fishes swim with an open mouth to force water through the oral cavity and extract prey items that are too small to be pursued individually. Recent research has indicated that, rather than using a dead-end mechanical sieve, American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) employ vortical cross-step filtration. In this filtration mechanism, vortical flow that is generated posterior to the branchial arches organizes crossflow filtration processes into a spatial structure across the gill rakers. Despite the known impact of locomotor kinematics on fluid flow around the bodies of swimming fish, the effects of locomotor kinematics on filtration mechanisms in ram suspension ...


Intra-Oral Flow Patterns And Speeds In A Suspension-Feeding Fish With Gill Rakers Removed Versus Intact, Jennifer S. Smith, S. Laurie Sanderson Jul 2019

Intra-Oral Flow Patterns And Speeds In A Suspension-Feeding Fish With Gill Rakers Removed Versus Intact, Jennifer S. Smith, S. Laurie Sanderson

S. Laurie Sanderson

Oreochromis aureus, a species of tilapia, is a suspension-feeding fish that employs a pumping action to bring water into its mouth for filtering.To address questions about water flow inside the mouth, we used a microthermistor flow probe to determine the speed of intra-oral flow during suspension feeding in this species before and after surgical removal of gill rakers. Synchronization with high-speed external videotapes of the fish and high-speed video endoscopy inside the oropharyngeal cavity allowed the first correlation of oral actions with intra-oral flow patterns and speeds during feeding. This analysis established the occurrence of a brief reversal of ...


Physiological Integration Of Coral Colonies Is Correlated With Bleaching Resistance, Timothy D. Swain, Emily C. Bold, Phillip C. Osborn, Andrew H. Baird, Mark W. Westneat, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino Jul 2019

Physiological Integration Of Coral Colonies Is Correlated With Bleaching Resistance, Timothy D. Swain, Emily C. Bold, Phillip C. Osborn, Andrew H. Baird, Mark W. Westneat, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino

Timothy Swain

Inter-module physiological integration of colonial organisms can facilitate colony-wide coordinated responses to stimuli that strengthen colony fitness and stress resistance. In scleractinian corals, whose colonial integration ranges from isolated polyps to a seamless continuum of polyp structures and functions, this coordination improves responses to injury, predation, disease, and stress and may be one of the indications of an evolutionary origin of Symbiodinium symbiosis. However, observations of species-specific coral bleaching patterns suggest that highly integrated coral colonies may be more susceptible to thermal stress, and support the hypothesis that communication pathways between highly integrated polyps facilitate the dissemination of toxic byproducts ...


Skeletal Light-Scattering Accelerates Bleaching Response In Reef-Building Corals, Timothy D. Swain, Emily Dubois, Andrew Gomes, Valentina P. Stoyneva, Andrew J. Radosevich, Jillian Henss, Michelle E. Wagner, Justin Derbas, Hannah Grooms, Elizabeth M. Velazquez, Joshua Traub, Brian J. Kennedy, Arabela A. Grigorescu, Mark W. Westneat, Kevin Sanborn, Shoshana Levine, Mark Schick, George Parsons, Brendan C. Briggs, Jeremy D. Rogers, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino Jul 2019

Skeletal Light-Scattering Accelerates Bleaching Response In Reef-Building Corals, Timothy D. Swain, Emily Dubois, Andrew Gomes, Valentina P. Stoyneva, Andrew J. Radosevich, Jillian Henss, Michelle E. Wagner, Justin Derbas, Hannah Grooms, Elizabeth M. Velazquez, Joshua Traub, Brian J. Kennedy, Arabela A. Grigorescu, Mark W. Westneat, Kevin Sanborn, Shoshana Levine, Mark Schick, George Parsons, Brendan C. Briggs, Jeremy D. Rogers, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino

Timothy Swain

Background At the forefront of ecosystems adversely affected by climate change, coral reefs are sensitive to anomalously high temperatures which disassociate (bleaching) photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium) from coral hosts and cause increasingly frequent and severe mass mortality events. Susceptibility to bleaching and mortality is variable among corals, and is determined by unknown proportions of environmental history and the synergy of Symbiodinium- and coral-specific properties. Symbiodinium live within host tissues overlaying the coral skeleton, which increases light availability through multiple light-scattering, forming one of the most efficient biological collectors of solar radiation. Light-transport in the upper ~200 μm layer of corals skeletons ...


Modulation Of Light-Enhancement To Symbiotic Algae By Light-Scattering In Corals And Evolutionary Trends In Bleaching, Luisa A. Marcelino, Mark W. Westneat, Valentina P. Stoyneva, Jillian Henss, Jeremy Rogers, Andrew J. Radosevich, Vladimir Turzhitsky, Margaret Siple, Andrew Fang, Timothy D. Swain, Jennifer Fung, Vadim Backman Jul 2019

Modulation Of Light-Enhancement To Symbiotic Algae By Light-Scattering In Corals And Evolutionary Trends In Bleaching, Luisa A. Marcelino, Mark W. Westneat, Valentina P. Stoyneva, Jillian Henss, Jeremy Rogers, Andrew J. Radosevich, Vladimir Turzhitsky, Margaret Siple, Andrew Fang, Timothy D. Swain, Jennifer Fung, Vadim Backman

Timothy Swain

Calcium carbonate skeletons of scleractinian corals amplify light availability to their algal symbionts by diffuse scattering, optimizing photosynthetic energy acquisition. However, the mechanism of scattering and its role in coral evolution and dissolution of algal symbioses during “bleaching” events are largely unknown. Here we show that differences in skeletal fractal architecture at nano/micro-lengthscales within 96 coral taxa result in an 8-fold variation in light-scattering and considerably alter the algal light environment. We identified a continuum of properties that fall between two extremes: (1) corals with low skeletal fractality that are efficient at transporting and redistributing light throughout the colony ...