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Articles 1 - 30 of 2058

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Resolving A Paradox—High Mercury Deposition, But Low Bioaccumulation In Northeastern Puerto Rico, James B. Shanley, Mark Marvin-Dipasquale, Oksana Lane, Wayne Arendt, Steven Hall, William H. Mcdowell Oct 2019

Resolving A Paradox—High Mercury Deposition, But Low Bioaccumulation In Northeastern Puerto Rico, James B. Shanley, Mark Marvin-Dipasquale, Oksana Lane, Wayne Arendt, Steven Hall, William H. Mcdowell

Steven J. Hall

At a “clean air” trade winds site in northeastern Puerto Rico, we found an apparent paradox: atmospheric total mercury (THg) deposition was highest of any site in the USA Mercury Deposition Network, but assimilation into the local food web was quite low. Avian blood THg concentrations (n = 31, from eight species in five foraging guilds) ranged widely from 0.2 to 32 ng g−1 (median of 4.3 ng g−1). Within this population, THg was significantly greater at a low-elevation site near a wetland compared to an upland montane site, even when the comparison was limited to a ...


Methods For Reproductive Tract Scoring As A Tool For Improving Sow Productivity, M. R. Romoser, B. J. Hale, J. T. Seibert, T. Gall, C. J. Rademacher, K. J. Stalder, L. H. Baumgard, A. F. Keating, J. W. Ross Oct 2019

Methods For Reproductive Tract Scoring As A Tool For Improving Sow Productivity, M. R. Romoser, B. J. Hale, J. T. Seibert, T. Gall, C. J. Rademacher, K. J. Stalder, L. H. Baumgard, A. F. Keating, J. W. Ross

Kenneth J Stalder

Improving sow lifetime productivity (SLP) is essential for maximizing farm profitability. Study objectives were to determine the accuracy for different vulva scoring methods in a commercial production system and to assess whether gilt reproductive tract scoring (evaluated by vulva width; VW) prior to puberty could serve as useful gilt selection criteria. To accomplish this objective, 958 prepubertal replacement gilts in a commercial system were evaluated at approximately 15 weeks of age. Gilt body weight was recorded in addition to four different methods to evaluate VW. Methods for VW assessment included digital caliper measurement (mm), visual evaluation and scoring by trained ...


Determining The Time Required To Detect Induced Sow Lameness Using An Embedded Microcomputer-Based Force Plate System, Brady Mcneil, Julia Calderón Díaz, Caitlyn Bruns, Joe Stock, Suzanne Millman, Anna Johnson, Locke Karriker, Kenneth Stalder Oct 2019

Determining The Time Required To Detect Induced Sow Lameness Using An Embedded Microcomputer-Based Force Plate System, Brady Mcneil, Julia Calderón Díaz, Caitlyn Bruns, Joe Stock, Suzanne Millman, Anna Johnson, Locke Karriker, Kenneth Stalder

Kenneth J Stalder

Lameness in swine breeding herds is a common cause of compromised animal well-being and economic loss to pig producers. Current lameness assessment methods are subjective and require intensive training. It has been shown that embedded microcomputer-based force plate systems can detect lameness by measuring weight distributions in livestock. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum time required to record data from each individual load cell in the force plate system to obtain accurate sow weight distributions on each leg. Sound and induced lameness states were evaluated to ensure that time requirements were similar for both situations. Lameness ...


Scan Sampling Techniques For Behavioral Validation In Nursery Pigs, Josh M. Bowden, Locke A. Karriker, Ken J. Stalder, Anna K. Johnson Oct 2019

Scan Sampling Techniques For Behavioral Validation In Nursery Pigs, Josh M. Bowden, Locke A. Karriker, Ken J. Stalder, Anna K. Johnson

Kenneth J Stalder

Summary and implications

Behavioral observations are a type of "assay" that is used to quantify animal biological responses. As with physiological measurements, methods of behavioral observation should be validated and selected based on the objectives of the particular study. The objective of this study was to validate the accuracy of scan samples at various predetermined intervals for confined nursery pigs. Twenty, 35 day old PIC® (USA) nursery pigs were housed in four pens within a confinement building. Eight scan sample treatments (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes) were individually compared to continuous observation. A scan sample ...


Methods For Reproductive Tract Scoring As A Tool For Improving Sow Productivity, M. R. Romoser, B. J. Hale, J. T. Seibert, T. Gall, C. J. Rademacher, K. J. Stalder, L. H. Baumgard, A. F. Keating, J. W. Ross Oct 2019

Methods For Reproductive Tract Scoring As A Tool For Improving Sow Productivity, M. R. Romoser, B. J. Hale, J. T. Seibert, T. Gall, C. J. Rademacher, K. J. Stalder, L. H. Baumgard, A. F. Keating, J. W. Ross

Aileen Keating

Improving sow lifetime productivity (SLP) is essential for maximizing farm profitability. Study objectives were to determine the accuracy for different vulva scoring methods in a commercial production system and to assess whether gilt reproductive tract scoring (evaluated by vulva width; VW) prior to puberty could serve as useful gilt selection criteria. To accomplish this objective, 958 prepubertal replacement gilts in a commercial system were evaluated at approximately 15 weeks of age. Gilt body weight was recorded in addition to four different methods to evaluate VW. Methods for VW assessment included digital caliper measurement (mm), visual evaluation and scoring by trained ...


A Novel Environmental Enrichment Device Increased Physical Activity And Walking Distance In Broilers, Meaghan M. Meyer, Anna K. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Bobeck Oct 2019

A Novel Environmental Enrichment Device Increased Physical Activity And Walking Distance In Broilers, Meaghan M. Meyer, Anna K. Johnson, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Modern broilers are selected for fast growth and a large proportion of breast tissue, contributing to a top-heavy phenotype, leg disorders, and inactivity as birds reach market weight. Therefore, the objective was to motivate broilers to move through environmental enrichment. A total of 1,200 Ross 308 broilers were housed in pens of 30 for 6 wk: 600 birds were exposed to a novel laser enrichment device (LASER) and 600 were control. Each device projected 2 randomly moving red laser dots onto the floor 4 times/day for 4-min “laser periods.” Seven LASER and 7 control pens, with 5 focal ...


A Proactive Blueprint To Demonstrate On-Farm Animal Welfare, Anna K. Johnson, Jessica D. Colpoys, Arlene Garcia, Cassandra Jass, Suzanne T. Millman, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Christopher J. Rademacher, Shawna L. Weimer, Samaneh Azarpajouh Oct 2019

A Proactive Blueprint To Demonstrate On-Farm Animal Welfare, Anna K. Johnson, Jessica D. Colpoys, Arlene Garcia, Cassandra Jass, Suzanne T. Millman, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Christopher J. Rademacher, Shawna L. Weimer, Samaneh Azarpajouh

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Farm animal welfare has become an increasing area of consumer and customer interest globally and this has resulted in dramatic changes related to on-farm accountability. Some markets are demanding an-on farm, transparent and accountable animal welfare program. Knowing what key elements are required is critical. Key elements range from (a) caretaker qualities; (b) record keeping and standard operating procedures (SOP) (c) animal- and resource based measures (d) communication and (e) caretaker empowerment. The ultimate on-farm welfare program goal is to provide the highest animal care. This review paper will provide context to these key elements that in turn can be ...


The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff Oct 2019

The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff

Jason Holderieath

BACKGROUND: Blackbird (Icteridae) damage to ripening sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been a persistent economic issue in the USA for the last five decades. To quantify losses, we surveyed blackbird damage from 2001 to 2013 (excluding 2004) to physiologically mature sunflower in eight states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, Kansas, and Vermont.

RESULTS:We pooled data gathered during the most recent 5 years (2009 to 2013) of the survey and found losses averaged $US2.5 million and $US11.3 million for confectionery and oilseed hybrids, respectively. Three states, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, had sufficient acreage ...


The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder Oct 2019

The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

The problem of animal awareness lies at the interface of science and philosophy. As a starting point for the study of phenomena such as awareness, mind, consciousness, etc., we hardly have any reference other than our own human experience and in the context of a nondualistic ontology this can be justified. In philosophy and psychology it appears to be very difficult to give direct operational definitions of terms such as consciousness, etc. So we might expect this to be even more difficult in the study of animals. A detailed knowledge of animals and their behaviour is necessary in order to ...


Animal Boredom: Is A Scientific Study Of The Subjective Experiences Of Animals Possible?, Françoise Wemelsfelder Oct 2019

Animal Boredom: Is A Scientific Study Of The Subjective Experiences Of Animals Possible?, Françoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between different meta-scientific frameworks and the science of animal welfare. Animal Boredom 117 During the past few years, I have become more and more convinced that the great difficulty science has in studying subjective experience in its objects, might be related to the denial of any role to subjective experience in the observer as an interpretational guide. Can a quality in the world around us be observed, when this same quality is deliberately excluded from the process of observing?

As a practical example for the discussion described above, the phenomenon ...


Risk Assessment Of Catch And Release, Rolf Erik Olsen, Tor Fredrik Næsje, Trygve Poppe, Lynne Sneddon, John Webb Oct 2019

Risk Assessment Of Catch And Release, Rolf Erik Olsen, Tor Fredrik Næsje, Trygve Poppe, Lynne Sneddon, John Webb

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The report was produced during most of 2009, and gives a state of art overview of current knowledge on the effects of catch and release practices on these fish species’ welfare, using accessible and peer reviewed published literature as basis for the assessment. Anecdotic and non-published reports have been used to a limited extent as they are regarded as untested or containing unverified statements. The Panel on Animal Health and Welfare discussed the full report in a meeting on the 9th of December, and gave its support to the conclusions drawn by the ad hoc-group. The report has concentrated on ...


Report Of A Meeting On Contemporary Topics In Zebrafish Husbandry And Care, Nikki Osborne, Gregory Paull, Adam Grierson, Karen Dunford, Elisabeth M. Busch-Nentwich, Lynne U. Sneddon, Natalie Wren, Joe Higgins, Penny Hawkins Oct 2019

Report Of A Meeting On Contemporary Topics In Zebrafish Husbandry And Care, Nikki Osborne, Gregory Paull, Adam Grierson, Karen Dunford, Elisabeth M. Busch-Nentwich, Lynne U. Sneddon, Natalie Wren, Joe Higgins, Penny Hawkins

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

A meeting on Contemporary Topics in Zebrafish Husbandry and Care was held in the United Kingdom in 2014, with the aim of providing a discussion forum for researchers, animal technologists, and veterinarians from academia and industry to share good practice and exchange ideas. Presentation topics included protocols for optimal larval rearing, implementing the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) in large-scale colony management, and environmental enrichment. The audience also participated in a survey of current practice relating to practical husbandry, cryopreservation, and the provision of enrichment.


Physiological And Behavioural Evaluation Of Common Anaesthesia Practices In The Rainbow Trout, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Physiological And Behavioural Evaluation Of Common Anaesthesia Practices In The Rainbow Trout, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Anaesthetic drugs are commonly administered to fish in aquaculture, research and veterinary contexts. Anaesthesia causes temporary absence of consciousness and may reduce the stress and/or pain associated with handling and certain invasive procedures. The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a widely-used model species with relevance to both aquaculture and natural ecosystems. This study sought to establish the relative acute impact of commonly used anaesthetics on rainbow trout when used for anaesthesia or euthanasia by exploring their effects on aversion behaviour and stress physiology. Five widely used anaesthetics were investigated at two concentrations reflective of common laboratory practises: MS-222, benzocaine ...


Reduction In Activity By Noxious Chemical Stimulation Is Ameliorated By Immersion In Analgesic Drugs In Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Reduction In Activity By Noxious Chemical Stimulation Is Ameliorated By Immersion In Analgesic Drugs In Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Research has recently demonstrated that larval zebrafish show similar molecular responses to nociception to those of adults. Our study explored whether unprotected larval zebrafish exhibited altered behaviour after exposure to noxious chemicals and screened a range of analgesic drugs to determine their efficacy to reduce these responses. This approach aimed to validate larval zebrafish as a reliable replacement for adults as well as providing a high-throughput means of analysing behavioural responses. Zebrafish at 5 days postfertilization were exposed to known noxious stimuli: acetic acid (0.01%, 0.1% and 0.25%) and citric acid (0.1%, 1% and 5%). The ...


Impact Of Stress, Fear And Anxiety On The Nociceptive Responses Of Larval Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Impact Of Stress, Fear And Anxiety On The Nociceptive Responses Of Larval Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Both adult and larval zebrafish have been demonstrated to show behavioural responses to noxious stimulation but also to potentially stress- and fear or anxiety- eliciting situations. The pain or nociceptive response can be altered and modulated by these situations in adult fish through a mechanism called stress-induced analgesia. However, this phenomenon has not been described in larval fish yet. Therefore, this study explores the behavioural changes in larval zebrafish after noxious stimulation and exposure to challenges that can trigger a stress, fear or anxiety reaction. Five-day post fertilization zebrafish were exposed to either a stressor (air emersion), a predatory fear ...


Do Painful Sensations And Fear Exist In Fish?, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Do Painful Sensations And Fear Exist In Fish?, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The detection of pain and fear in fi sh has been subject to much debate and, since fi sh are a popular experimental model and commercially important in both angling and aquaculture, many procedures that fi sh are subjected to cause injury, fear and stress. These injuries would give rise to the sensation of pain in humans but whether fi sh have the capacity for pain is relatively under explored. Recent evidence has shown that fi sh have the same neural apparatus to detect pain that mammals and humans do, that their brain is active during a potentially painful experience ...


Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown Sep 2019

Fish Sentience Denial: Muddying The Waters, Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Recent empirical studies have reported evidence that many aquatic species, including fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, have the capacity for nociception and pain, and that their welfare should be taken into consideration. Some sceptics, rejecting the precautionary principle, have denied that any study demonstrates pain or other aspects of sentience in fish. This target article discusses some of the scientific shortcomings of these critiques through a detailed analysis of a study exploring nociception and analgesia in larval zebrafish.


Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown Sep 2019

Ample Evidence For Fish Sentience And Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Donald M. Broom, Culum Brown

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The majority of commentaries are supportive of our position on the scepticism that muddies the waters surrounding fish pain and sentience. There is substantial empirical evidence for pain in fish. Animals’ experience of pain cannot be compared to artificial intelligence (AI) because AI can only mimic responses to nociceptive input on the basis of human observations and programming. Accepting that fish are sentient would not be detrimental to the industries reliant on fish. A more proactive discussion between scientists and stakeholders is needed to improve fish welfare for the benefit of all.


Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach Sep 2019

Anthropomorphic Denial Of Fish Pain, Lynne U. Sneddon, Matthew C. Leach

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Key (2016) affirms that we do not know how the fish brain processes pain but denies — because fish lack a human-like cortex — that fish can feel pain. He affirms that birds, like fish, have a singly-laminated cortex and that the structure of the bird brain is quite different from that of the human brain, yet he does not deny that birds can feel pain. In this commentary we describe how Key cites studies that substantiate mammalian pain but discounts the same kind of data as evidence of fish pain. We suggest that Key's interpretations are illogical, do not reflect ...


Genetic Lines Respond Uniquely Within The Chicken Thymic Transcriptome To Acute Heat Stress And Low Dose Lipopolysaccharide, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont Sep 2019

Genetic Lines Respond Uniquely Within The Chicken Thymic Transcriptome To Acute Heat Stress And Low Dose Lipopolysaccharide, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Max Rothschild

Exposure to high temperatures is known to impair immune functions and disease resistance of poultry. Characterizing changes in the transcriptome can help identify mechanisms by which immune tissues, such as the thymus, respond to heat stress. In this study, 22-day-old chickens from two genetic lines (a relatively resistant Fayoumi line and a more susceptible broiler line) were exposed to acute heat stress (35 °C) and/or immune simulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 µg/kg). Transcriptome responses in the thymus were identified by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Expression of most genes was unaffected by heat and/or LPS in the Fayoumi line, whereas ...


Genetic Lines Respond Uniquely Within The Chicken Thymic Transcriptome To Acute Heat Stress And Low Dose Lipopolysaccharide, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont Sep 2019

Genetic Lines Respond Uniquely Within The Chicken Thymic Transcriptome To Acute Heat Stress And Low Dose Lipopolysaccharide, Melissa S. Monson, Angelica G. Van Goor, Michael E. Persia, Max F. Rothschild, Carl J. Schmidt, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exposure to high temperatures is known to impair immune functions and disease resistance of poultry. Characterizing changes in the transcriptome can help identify mechanisms by which immune tissues, such as the thymus, respond to heat stress. In this study, 22-day-old chickens from two genetic lines (a relatively resistant Fayoumi line and a more susceptible broiler line) were exposed to acute heat stress (35 °C) and/or immune simulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 µg/kg). Transcriptome responses in the thymus were identified by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Expression of most genes was unaffected by heat and/or LPS in the Fayoumi line, whereas ...


A Function Of The Subelytral Chamber Of Tenebrionid Beetles, Con Slobodchikoff, Kim Wisman Sep 2019

A Function Of The Subelytral Chamber Of Tenebrionid Beetles, Con Slobodchikoff, Kim Wisman

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

1. The subelytral chamber is an air space between the elytra and the dorsum of the abdomen of some Tenebrionid beetles. Postulated functions for the subelytral chamber have been a reduction of transpiratory water loss and a thermal buffer for heat flow from the elytra to the abdomen.

2. We show that there is a significant correlation between water loss and the depth of the subelytral chamber.

3. This implies that the chamber may be a structure that permits the rapid expansion of the abdomen, providing the beetles with a mechanism by which they can quickly drink large quantities of ...


Systematic And Evolutionary Implications Of Parthenogenesis In The Hymenoptera, C. N. Slobodchikoff, Howell V. Daly Sep 2019

Systematic And Evolutionary Implications Of Parthenogenesis In The Hymenoptera, C. N. Slobodchikoff, Howell V. Daly

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

Two types of parthenogenesis, arrhenotoky and thelytoky, exist in the Hymenoptera. Arrhenotoky, the development of males from unfertilized eggs, is present in all wasps and bees. Thelytoky, the development of diploid females from unfertilized eggs, is present in a few species. Two types of thelytoky, apomixis and automixis, are known. Most thelytokous Hymenoptera are automictic. No meiosis, only mitosis, occurs in apomixis. Meiosis does occur in automixis, allowing crossing-over and segregation of genes. Advantages of thelytoky are that heterotic combinations become fixed, gene loss is reduced, and reproduction requires only a single individual. One advantage of arrhenotoky is that genetic ...


Geographic Variation In Alarm Calls Of Gunnison's Prairie Dogs, C. N. Slobodchikoff, S. H. Ackers, M. Van Ert Sep 2019

Geographic Variation In Alarm Calls Of Gunnison's Prairie Dogs, C. N. Slobodchikoff, S. H. Ackers, M. Van Ert

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

Geographic variation in alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) was analyzed at regional and local scales. Alarm calls in response to a common stimulus (the same human) were recorded at four colonies near Flagstaff, Arizona, and at six sites throughout the southwestern United States. The acoustic structure of calls was analyzed for seven call variables. Regional differences fit the prediction of greater differences with increased geographical separation. Differences between colonies at a local scale were not related to geographical distance, suggesting that local dialects exist within a region. Differences in the level of predation by humans between ...


Dna Fingerprinting Reveals Low Genetic Diversity In Gunnison's Prairie Dog (Cynomys Gunnisoni), Steven E. Travis, C. N. Slobodchikoff, Paul Keim Sep 2019

Dna Fingerprinting Reveals Low Genetic Diversity In Gunnison's Prairie Dog (Cynomys Gunnisoni), Steven E. Travis, C. N. Slobodchikoff, Paul Keim

Con Slobodchikoff, PhD

The use of molecular techniques for the assessment of familial relationships among social species of mammals has become relatively commonplace. However, some species represent poor candidates for such studies due to naturally low levels of genetic diversity, leading to unacceptably large standard errors associated with estimates of relatedness. Here, we report on a preliminary study of genetic diversity within two populations of a social species of ground squirrel, Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) using DNA fingerprinting. We observed low levels of diversity in the form of large mean coefficients of genetic similarity among individuals occupying the same population. Overall ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren Sep 2019

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Jacek A. Koziel

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren Sep 2019

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Devin L. Maurer

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Raising Consciousness About Chicken Consciousness, Bernard Rollin Sep 2019

Raising Consciousness About Chicken Consciousness, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

The topics explored by Marino are definitive, and should work well to lay to rest forever the widespread belief that chickens have no personality, are unintelligent, or in any other way lack a mental life.


Far More To Sheep Than Meets The Casual Eye, Bernard Rollin Sep 2019

Far More To Sheep Than Meets The Casual Eye, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Marino & Merskin’s survey of the cognitive and social capacities of sheep is an eye-opener about the individuality and emotionality of this most maligned of all farm animals. My own eyes had already been opened by an adopted orphaned lamb, so much more like a dog as a companion animal than the mindless robot I had been conditioned to expect. I am morally certain that Marino & Merskin’s survey will have a similar effect on readers open to changing their minds.


Raising The Moral Consciousness Of Science, Bernard Rollin Sep 2019

Raising The Moral Consciousness Of Science, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Precaution on behalf of sentient animals should not be tempered by the questionable principle of the amorality of science.