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Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Tail Wagging The Dog: Positive Attitude Towards Livestock Guarding Dogs Do Not Mitigate Pastoralists’ Opinions Of Wolves Or Grizzly Bears, Daniel Kinka, Julie K. Young Oct 2019

The Tail Wagging The Dog: Positive Attitude Towards Livestock Guarding Dogs Do Not Mitigate Pastoralists’ Opinions Of Wolves Or Grizzly Bears, Daniel Kinka, Julie K. Young

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

While the re-establishment of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) in the American West marks a success for conservation, it has been contentious among pastoralists. Coincidentally, livestock guarding dogs (LGDs; Canis familiaris) have been widely adopted by producers of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the United States to mitigate livestock depredation by wild carnivores. We surveyed pastoralists to measure how experience with and attitudes towards LGDs related to attitudes towards livestock predators, and found positive responses regarding LGDs and negative responses regarding wolves and grizzly bears. The more respondents agreed that LGDs reduce the need for lethal management ...


A Case For Eustress In Grazing Animals, Juan J. Villalba, Xavier Manteca Sep 2019

A Case For Eustress In Grazing Animals, Juan J. Villalba, Xavier Manteca

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Herbivores grazing in extensive systems are exposed to a series of challenges, rooted in the inherent spatial and temporal variability of their environment that potentially constrain their health, nutrition, and welfare. Nevertheless, in this review, we argue that challenges induced by some biotic (e.g., vegetation) and abiotic (e.g., terrain) factors may also be viewed as “positive” sources of stress or eustress, since they present complex problems, that when solved successfully elicit a greater degree of behavioral plasticity and adaptability in grazing animals. Chemically and structurally diverse landscapes require animals to display complex behaviors and exhibit adaptive capabilities, like ...


Environmental Differences Between Migratory And Resident Ungulates—Predicting Movement Strategies In Rocky Mountain Mule Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus) With Remotely Sensed Plant Phenology, Snow, And Land Cover, Benjamin Robb, Qiongyu Huang, Joseph O. Sexton, David C. Stoner, Peter Leimgruber Aug 2019

Environmental Differences Between Migratory And Resident Ungulates—Predicting Movement Strategies In Rocky Mountain Mule Deer (Odocoileus Hemionus) With Remotely Sensed Plant Phenology, Snow, And Land Cover, Benjamin Robb, Qiongyu Huang, Joseph O. Sexton, David C. Stoner, Peter Leimgruber

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Migration is a valuable life history strategy for many species because it enables individuals to exploit spatially and temporally variable resources. Globally, the prevalence of species’ migratory behavior is decreasing as individuals forgo migration to remain resident year-round, an effect hypothesized to result from anthropogenic changes to landscape dynamics. Efforts to conserve and restore migrations require an understanding of the ecological characteristics driving the behavioral tradeoff between migration and residence. We identified migratory and resident behaviors of 42 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) based on GPS locations and correlated their locations to remotely sensed indicators of forage quality, land cover, snow ...


Temperature Triggers A Non-Linear Response In Resource–Consumer Interaction Strength, Gustavo S. Betini, Tal Avgar, Kevin S. Mccann, John M. Fryxell Aug 2019

Temperature Triggers A Non-Linear Response In Resource–Consumer Interaction Strength, Gustavo S. Betini, Tal Avgar, Kevin S. Mccann, John M. Fryxell

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Although temperature is recognized as a major determinant of many ecological processes, it is still not clear whether temperature increase caused by climate change will strengthen or weaken species interactions. One hypothesis is that interactions will respond non‐monotonically to temperature because thermal performance curves, which determine the strength of these interactions, are also non‐monotonic. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a temperature‐dependent consumer–resource model and tested predictions from this model in large freshwater mesocosms populated with green algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and herbivorous zooplankton (Daphnia magna). We found both in the model simulations and empirical investigations that ...


Synthesis Paper: Targeted Livestock Grazing: Prescription For Healthy Rangelands, Derek W. Bailey, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Richard E. Estell, Andres F. Cibils, Marc Horney, John R. Hendrickson, John W. Walker, Karen L. Launchbaugh, Elizabeth A. Burritt Aug 2019

Synthesis Paper: Targeted Livestock Grazing: Prescription For Healthy Rangelands, Derek W. Bailey, Jeffrey C. Mosley, Richard E. Estell, Andres F. Cibils, Marc Horney, John R. Hendrickson, John W. Walker, Karen L. Launchbaugh, Elizabeth A. Burritt

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Targeted livestock grazing is a proven tool for manipulating rangeland vegetation, and current knowledge about targeted livestock grazing is extensive and expanding rapidly. Targeted grazing prescriptions optimize the timing, frequency, intensity, and selectivity of grazing (or browsing) in combinations that purposely exert grazing/browsing pressure on specific plant species or portions of the landscape. Targeted grazing differs from traditional grazing management in that the goal of targeted grazing is to apply defoliation or trampling to achieve specific vegetation management objectives, whereas the goal of traditional livestock grazing management is generally the production of livestock commodities. A shared aim of targeted ...


Thresholds Are In The Eye Of The Beholder: Plants And Wildlife Respond Differently To Short‐Term Cattle Corrals, Kari E. Veblen, Lauren M. Porensky Jul 2019

Thresholds Are In The Eye Of The Beholder: Plants And Wildlife Respond Differently To Short‐Term Cattle Corrals, Kari E. Veblen, Lauren M. Porensky

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Rangelands are governed by threshold dynamics, and factors such as drought, wildfire, and herbivory can drive change across thresholds and between ecological states. Most work on this topic has focused on shifts in a single response variable, vegetation, and little research has considered how to reconcile responses of more than one variable to determine whether a system has undergone a genuine state change. In sub‐Saharan Africa, mobile overnight livestock corrals (bomas) can be used by managers to precipitate ecological transitions from areas dominated by bare ground to productive ecosystem hotspots (glades) that are attractive to wild herbivores. We asked ...


Persistence And Conspecific Observations Improve Problem-Solving Abilities Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, Stacey P. Brummer Jul 2019

Persistence And Conspecific Observations Improve Problem-Solving Abilities Of Coyotes, Julie K. Young, Laura Touzot, Stacey P. Brummer

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Social learning has important ecological and evolutionary consequences but the role of certain factors, such as social rank, neophobia (i.e., avoidance of novel stimuli), persistence, and task-reward association, remain less understood. We examined the role of these factors in social learning by captive coyotes (Canis latrans) via three studies. Study 1 involved individual animals and eliminated object neophobia by familiarizing the subjects to the testing apparatus prior to testing. Studies 2 and 3 used mated pairs to assess social rank, and included object neophobia, but differed in that study 3 decoupled the food reward from the testing apparatus (i ...


Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston Jul 2019

Determining The Sensitivity Of Grassland Area Burned To Climate Variation In Xilingol, China, With An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach, Ali Hassan Shabbir, Jiquan Zhang, Xingpeng Liu, James A. Lutz, Carlos Valencia, James D. Johnston

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

We examined the relationship between climate variables and grassland area burned in Xilingol, China, from 2001 to 2014 using an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, and describe the application of this econometric method to studies of climate influences on wildland fire. We show that there is a stationary linear combination of non-stationary climate time series (cointegration) that can be used to reliably estimate the influence of different climate signals on area burned. Our model shows a strong relationship between maximum temperature and grassland area burned. Mean monthly wind speed and monthly hours of sunlight were also strongly associated with area ...


Estimating Historical Forest Density From Land‐Survey Data: A Response To Baker And Williams (2018), Carrie R. Levine, Charles V. Cogbill, Brandon M. Collins, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz, Malcolm P. North, Christina M. Restaino, Hugh D. Safford, Scott L. Stephens, John J. Battles Jun 2019

Estimating Historical Forest Density From Land‐Survey Data: A Response To Baker And Williams (2018), Carrie R. Levine, Charles V. Cogbill, Brandon M. Collins, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz, Malcolm P. North, Christina M. Restaino, Hugh D. Safford, Scott L. Stephens, John J. Battles

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

In the Western United States, historical forest conditions are used to inform land management and ecosystem restoration goals (North et al. 2009, Stephens et al. 2016). This interest is based on the premise that historical forests were resilient to ecological disturbances (Keane et al. 2018). Researchers throughout the United States have used the General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late 19th and early 20th centuries to estimate historical forest conditions (Bourdo 1956, Schulte and Mladenoff 2001, Cogbill et al. 2002, Paciorek et al. 2016). These surveys were conducted throughout the United States and represent a systematic, historical sample of ...


Amphibians Of Santa Teresa, Brazil: The Hotspot Further Evaluated, Rodrigo Barbosa Ferreira, Alexander Tamanini Mônico, Emanuel Teixeira Da Silva, Fernanda Cristina Ferreira Lirio, Cássio Zocca, Marcio Marques Mageski, João Filipe Riva Tonini, Karen H. Beard, Charles Duca, Thiago Silva-Soares Jun 2019

Amphibians Of Santa Teresa, Brazil: The Hotspot Further Evaluated, Rodrigo Barbosa Ferreira, Alexander Tamanini Mônico, Emanuel Teixeira Da Silva, Fernanda Cristina Ferreira Lirio, Cássio Zocca, Marcio Marques Mageski, João Filipe Riva Tonini, Karen H. Beard, Charles Duca, Thiago Silva-Soares

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

A checklist of the amphibians of Santa Teresa municipality, in southeastern Brazil is presented based on fieldwork, examination of specimens in collections, and a literature review. This new amphibian list of Santa Teresa includes 108 species, of which 106 (~98%) belong to Anura and two (~2%) to Gymnophiona. Hylidae was the most represented family with 47 species (43%). Compared to the previous amphibian lists for Santa Teresa, 14 species were added, 17 previously reported species were removed, and 13 species were re-identified based on recent taxonomic rearrangements. Of the 14 species added, 11 (79%) were first recorded during our fieldwork ...


Pasture Chemoscapes And Their Ecological Services, Juan J. Villalba, Karen A. Beauchemin, Pablo Gregorini, Jennifer W. Macadam Jun 2019

Pasture Chemoscapes And Their Ecological Services, Juan J. Villalba, Karen A. Beauchemin, Pablo Gregorini, Jennifer W. Macadam

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Ruminant livestock-production systems are between a rock and a hard place; they are experiencing increasing societal pressure to reduce environmental impacts in a world that demands increased food supply. Recent improvements in the understanding of the nutritional ecology of livestock by scientists may help livestock producers respond to these seemingly contradictory demands. Forages are nutrition and pharmacy centers with primary (nutrients) and plant secondary compounds (PSC; pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals), which can provide multiple services for the proper functioning of agroecosystems. Legumes with lower contents of fiber and higher contents of nonstructural carbohydrates, coupled with different types and concentrations of PSC (e ...


Fuel Dynamics After Reintroduced Fire In An Old-Growth Sierra Nevada Mixed-Conifer Forest, C. Alina Cansler, Mark E. Swanson, Tucker J. Furniss, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz May 2019

Fuel Dynamics After Reintroduced Fire In An Old-Growth Sierra Nevada Mixed-Conifer Forest, C. Alina Cansler, Mark E. Swanson, Tucker J. Furniss, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Background: Surface fuel loadings are some of the most important factors contributing to fire intensity and fire spread. In old-growth forests where fire has been long excluded, surface fuel loadings can be high and can include woody debris ≥100 cm in diameter. We assessed surface fuel loadings in a long-unburned old-growth mixed-conifer forest in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, and assessed fuel consumption from a management-ignited fire set to control the progression of the 2013 Rim Fire. Specifically, we characterized the distribution and heterogeneity of pre-fire fuel loadings, both along transects and contained in duff mounds around large trees. We ...


Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun May 2019

Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Global urbanization is rapidly changing the landscape for wildlife species that must learn to persist in declining wild spacing, adapt, or risk extinction. Many mesopredators have successfully exploited urban niches, and research on these species in an urban setting offers insights into the traits that facilitate their success. In this study, we examined space use and activity patterns from GPS-collared bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Texas, USA. We found that bobcats select for natural/agricultural features, creeks, and water ways and there is greater home-range overlap in these habitats. They avoid roads and are less likely ...


Ectoparasite Burden Influences The Denning Behavior Of A Small Desert Carnivore, Bryan M. Kluever, David T. Iles, Eric M. Gese May 2019

Ectoparasite Burden Influences The Denning Behavior Of A Small Desert Carnivore, Bryan M. Kluever, David T. Iles, Eric M. Gese

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Quantifying the impacts of parasitism on a host can be arduous and is generally understudied for ectoparasites, with known works being either laboratory‐focused, correlational‐based, or only focusing on a few species and spatial extents. Many mammalian species have evolved the modality of denning behavior, a lifestyle that can lead to higher ectoparasite burden, and it has been posited that animals may alter their denning behavior in an attempt to reduce exposure to ectoparasites. We conducted a test of the ectoparasite release hypothesis for kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and fleas in the Great Basin Desert of the western United ...


Additional Thoughts On Rigor In Wildlife Science: Unappreciated Impediments, John A. Bissonette May 2019

Additional Thoughts On Rigor In Wildlife Science: Unappreciated Impediments, John A. Bissonette

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Traditionally, most scientists accepted reductionist and mechanistic approaches as the rigorous way to do science. Sells et al. (2018) recently raised the argument about reliability in wildlife science. Chamberlin (1890), Platt (1964), Romesburg (1981, 1991, 2009), and Williams (1997) were rightly referenced as very influential papers. My intention in this letter is not to refute the essence of the Sells et al. (2018) commentary but to add seldom addressed but important aspects that influence the attainment of rigor and certainty in wildlife studies. The elements of a rigorous approach (i.e., strong inference) as described by Platt (1964) included devising ...


Decline Of An Ecotone Forest: 50 Years Of Demography In The Southern Boreal Forest, Joseph D. Birch, James A. Lutz, E. H. Hogg, Suzanne W. Simard, Rick Pelletier, George H. Laroi, Justine Karst Apr 2019

Decline Of An Ecotone Forest: 50 Years Of Demography In The Southern Boreal Forest, Joseph D. Birch, James A. Lutz, E. H. Hogg, Suzanne W. Simard, Rick Pelletier, George H. Laroi, Justine Karst

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Variation in tree recruitment, mortality, and growth can alter forest community composition and structure. Because tree recruitment and mortality events are generally infrequent, long‐time scales are needed to confirm trends in forests. We performed a 50‐yr demographic census of a forest plot located on the southern edge of the Canadian boreal forest, a region currently experiencing forest die‐back in response to direct and indirect effects of recent severe droughts. Here, we show that over the last 30 yr biomass, basal area, growth, and recruitment have decreased along with a precipitous rise in mortality across the dominant tree ...


Genetic And Spatial Structuring Of Populus Tremuloides In A Mixed-Species Forest Of Southwestern Utah, Usa, Matthew Bishop, Tucker J. Furniss, Karen E. Mock, Jim A. Lutz Apr 2019

Genetic And Spatial Structuring Of Populus Tremuloides In A Mixed-Species Forest Of Southwestern Utah, Usa, Matthew Bishop, Tucker J. Furniss, Karen E. Mock, Jim A. Lutz

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Populus tremuloides Michx. (aspen) is an iconic species of the southwestern United States, where it is known for its extensive clonality. The size of clones and pattern of clonal distribution within and among stands can provide important clues to the species' evolution and ecology, but there are very few studies that have conducted the type of sampling necessary to define these features. We examined the genetic composition and habitat associations of aspen in a mixed-species forest in Cedar Breaks National Monument on the Markagunt Plateau, southwestern Utah. Genetic analysis of 94 stems ≥1 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) selected ...


Injury Scores And Spatial Responses Of Wolves Following Capture: Cable Restraints Versus Foothold Traps, Eric M. Gese, Patricia A. Terletzky, John D. Erb, Kevin C. Fuller, Jeffery P. Grabarkewitz, John P. Hart, Carolin Humpal, Barry A. Sampson, Julie K. Young Feb 2019

Injury Scores And Spatial Responses Of Wolves Following Capture: Cable Restraints Versus Foothold Traps, Eric M. Gese, Patricia A. Terletzky, John D. Erb, Kevin C. Fuller, Jeffery P. Grabarkewitz, John P. Hart, Carolin Humpal, Barry A. Sampson, Julie K. Young

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Wolves (Canis lupus) have been captured with foothold traps for several decades to equip them with radiocollars for population monitoring. However, trapping in most areas is limited to spring, summer, and autumn as cold winter temperatures can lead to frozen appendages in trapped animals. In addition, conflicts arise when domestic dogs encounter these traps in nonwinter seasons. An alternative capture method is the use of cable restraint devices (modified neck snares) in the winter. We evaluated injury scores, movement patterns, and space use of wolves captured in cable restraint devices and foothold traps in north‐central Minnesota, USA, during 2012 ...


The Intrepid Urban Coyote: A Comparison Of Bold And Exploratory Behavior In Coyotes From Urban And Rural Environments, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, Peter Mahoney, Julie Young Feb 2019

The Intrepid Urban Coyote: A Comparison Of Bold And Exploratory Behavior In Coyotes From Urban And Rural Environments, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, Peter Mahoney, Julie Young

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Coyotes (Canis latrans) are highly adaptable, medium-sized carnivores that now inhabit nearly every large city in the United States and Canada. To help understand how coyotes have adapted to living in urban environments, we compared two ecologically and evolutionarily important behavioral traits (i.e., bold-shy and exploration-avoidance behavior) in two contrasting environments (i.e., rural and urban). Boldness is an individual’s reaction to a risky situation and exploration is an individual’s willingness to explore novel situations. Our results from both tests indicate that urban coyotes are bolder and more exploratory than rural coyotes and that within both populations ...


A Pilot Study Of The Effects Of Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae Exposure On Domestic Lamb Growth And Performance, Thomas E. Besser, Jessica Levy, Melissa Ackerman, Danielle Nelson, Kezia Manlove, Kathleen A. Potter, Jan Busboom, Margaret Benson Feb 2019

A Pilot Study Of The Effects Of Mycoplasma Ovipneumoniae Exposure On Domestic Lamb Growth And Performance, Thomas E. Besser, Jessica Levy, Melissa Ackerman, Danielle Nelson, Kezia Manlove, Kathleen A. Potter, Jan Busboom, Margaret Benson

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is a globally distributed pathogen that has been associated with pneumonia in both domestic and wild Caprinae. It is closely related to M. hyopneumoniae, a respiratory pathogen of swine that is associated with decreased growth rates of pigs as well as clinical respiratory disease. In order to assess the effects of M. ovipneumoniae on lamb performance, we generated a cohort of lambs free of M. ovipneumoniae by segregation of test negative ewes after lambing, then compared the growth and carcass quality traits of M. ovipneumoniae-free and -colonized lambs from weaning to harvest. Some signs of respiratory disease ...


Ecological Consequences Of Anomalies In Atmospheric Moisture And Snowpack, Aaron N. Johnston, Jason E. Bruggeman, Aidan T. Beers, Erik A. Beever, Roger G. Christophersen, Jason I. Ransom Feb 2019

Ecological Consequences Of Anomalies In Atmospheric Moisture And Snowpack, Aaron N. Johnston, Jason E. Bruggeman, Aidan T. Beers, Erik A. Beever, Roger G. Christophersen, Jason I. Ransom

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Although increased frequency of extreme‐weather events is one of the most secure predictions associated with contemporary climate change, effects of such events on distribution and abundance of climate‐sensitive species remain poorly understood. Montane ecosystems may be especially sensitive to extreme weather because of complex abiotic and biotic interactions that propagate from climate‐driven reductions in snowpack. Snowpack not only protects subnivean biotas from extreme cold, but also influences forage availability through timing of melt‐off and water availability. We related relative abundances of an alpine mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps), to measures of weather and snowpack dynamics ...


The Effects Of Electric Power Lines On The Breeding Ecology Of Greater Sage-Grouse, Michel T. Kohl, Terry A. Messmer, Benjamin A. Crabb, Michael R. Guttery, David K. Dahlgren, Randy T. Larsen, Shandra Nicole Frey, Sherry Liguori, Rick J. Baxter Jan 2019

The Effects Of Electric Power Lines On The Breeding Ecology Of Greater Sage-Grouse, Michel T. Kohl, Terry A. Messmer, Benjamin A. Crabb, Michael R. Guttery, David K. Dahlgren, Randy T. Larsen, Shandra Nicole Frey, Sherry Liguori, Rick J. Baxter

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic infrastructure can negatively affect wildlife through direct mortality and/or displacement behaviors. Some tetranoids (grouse spp.) species are particularly vulnerable to tall anthropogenic structures because they evolved in ecosystems void of vertical structures. In western North America, electric power transmission and distribution lines (power lines) occur in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes within the range of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recommended using buffer zones near leks to mitigate the potential impacts of power lines on sage-grouse. However, recommended buffer distances are inconsistent across state and federal agencies because data are lacking ...


Recoupling Fire And Grazing Reduces Wildland Fuel Loads On Rangelands, Heath D. Starns, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, R. Dwayne Elmore, Dirac Twidwell, Eric T. Thacker, Torre J. Hovick, Barney Luttbeg Jan 2019

Recoupling Fire And Grazing Reduces Wildland Fuel Loads On Rangelands, Heath D. Starns, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, R. Dwayne Elmore, Dirac Twidwell, Eric T. Thacker, Torre J. Hovick, Barney Luttbeg

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Fire suppression and exclusion, the historically dominant paradigm of fire management, has resulted in major modifications of fire-dependent ecosystems worldwide. These changes are partially credited with a recent increase in wildfire number and extent, as well as more extreme fire behavior. Fire and herbivory historically interacted, and research has shown that the interaction creates a unique mosaic of vegetation heterogeneity that each disturbance alone does not create. Because fire and grazing have largely been decoupled in modern times, the degree to which the interaction affects fuels and fire regimes has not yet been quantified. We evaluated effects of fire-only and ...


Group Effects Of A Non-Native Plant Invasion On Rodent Abundance, Bryan M. Kluever, Trinity N. Smith, Eric M. Gese Jan 2019

Group Effects Of A Non-Native Plant Invasion On Rodent Abundance, Bryan M. Kluever, Trinity N. Smith, Eric M. Gese

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) is the most prolific invading plant in western North America. Investigations determining the impact of this invasion on population state variables and community dynamics of rodents have largely occurred at the community or species level, creating a knowledge gap as to whether rodents affiliated by a shared taxonomy or other grouping are differentially affected by cheatgrass invasion. We examined rodent abundance along a gradient of cheatgrass cover using various groupings of two nocturnal rodent taxa comprising the majority of the rodent community in the Great Basin Desert. In the summers of 2010–2013, rodents were sampled and ...


Dependence Of Aspen Stands On A Subsurface Water Subsidy: Implications For Climate Change Impacts, D. M. Love, M. D. Venturas, J. S. Sperry, P. D. Brooks, Joseph L. Pettit, Y. Wang, W. R.L. Anderegg, X. Tai, D. S. Mackay Dec 2018

Dependence Of Aspen Stands On A Subsurface Water Subsidy: Implications For Climate Change Impacts, D. M. Love, M. D. Venturas, J. S. Sperry, P. D. Brooks, Joseph L. Pettit, Y. Wang, W. R.L. Anderegg, X. Tai, D. S. Mackay

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

The reliance of 10 Utah (USA) aspen forests on direct infiltration of growing season rain versus an additional subsurface water subsidy was determined from a trait‐ and process‐based model of stomatal control. The model simulated the relationship between water supply to the root zone versus canopy transpiration and assimilation over a growing season. Canopy flux thresholds were identified that distinguished nonstressed, stressed, and dying stands. We found growing season rain and local soil moisture were insufficient for the survival of 5 of 10 stands. Six stands required a substantial subsidy (31–80% of potential seasonal transpiration) to avoid water ...


Parental Habituation To Human Disturbance Over Time Reduces Fear Of Humans In Coyote Offspring, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Rachel M. Santymire, Jill M. Mateo Dec 2018

Parental Habituation To Human Disturbance Over Time Reduces Fear Of Humans In Coyote Offspring, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Rachel M. Santymire, Jill M. Mateo

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

A fundamental tenet of maternal effects assumes that maternal variance over time should have discordant consequences for offspring traits across litters. Yet, seldom are parents observed across multiple reproductive bouts, with few studies consider‐ ing anthropogenic disturbances as an ecological driver of maternal effects. We ob‐ served captive coyote (Canis latrans) pairs over two successive litters to determine whether among‐litter differences in behavior (i.e., risk‐taking) and hormones (i.e., cortisol and testosterone) corresponded with parental plasticity in habituation. Thus, we explicitly test the hypothesis that accumulating experiences of anthropogenic disturbance reduces parental fear across reproductive bouts, which ...


Hidden Cost Of Disease In A Free-Ranging Ungulate: Brucellosis Reduces Mid-Winter Pregnancy In Elk, Gavin C. Cotterill, Paul C. Cross, Arthur D. Middleton, Jared D. Rogerson, Brandon M. Scurlock, Johan T. Du Toit Oct 2018

Hidden Cost Of Disease In A Free-Ranging Ungulate: Brucellosis Reduces Mid-Winter Pregnancy In Elk, Gavin C. Cotterill, Paul C. Cross, Arthur D. Middleton, Jared D. Rogerson, Brandon M. Scurlock, Johan T. Du Toit

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Demonstrating disease impacts on the vital rates of free‐ranging mammalian hosts typically requires intensive, long‐term study. Evidence for chronic pathogens affecting reproduction but not survival is rare, but has the potential for wide‐ranging effects. Accurately quantifying disease‐associated reductions in fecundity is important for advancing theory, generating accurate predictive models, and achieving effective management. We investigated the impacts of brucellosis (Brucella abortus) on elk (Cervus canadensis) productivity using serological data from over 6,000 captures since 1990 in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. Over 1,000 of these records included known age and pregnancy status. Using Bayesian ...


When Strange Bedfellows Go All In: A Template For Implementing Non-Lethal Strategies Aimed At Reducing Carnivore Predation Of Livestock, Julie K. Young, John Steuber, Alexandra Few, Adam Baca, Zack Strong Oct 2018

When Strange Bedfellows Go All In: A Template For Implementing Non-Lethal Strategies Aimed At Reducing Carnivore Predation Of Livestock, Julie K. Young, John Steuber, Alexandra Few, Adam Baca, Zack Strong

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

In the Rocky Mountains of the USA, abundances and distributions of grizzly bear Ursus arctos and gray wolf Canis lupus have increased (Bangs et al., 2001; Nicholson & Hendricks, 2018). This has led to increased predation of livestock in areas where livestock producers have not needed to implement conflict prevention methods in recent history. Lethal removal of carnivores that kill livestock remains a common source of carnivore mortalities (Woodroffe, 2001; Broekhuis, Cushman & Elliot, 2017). In the USA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Wildlife Services (USDA-WS) is often asked by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or a State’s wildlife management agency to lethally remove large carnivores that depredate livestock. Where possible, conservation practitioners favor increased use of non-lethal tools to replace lethal methods aimed at preventing depredation of livestock. Conservation groups often dispute management actions for large carnivores, sometimes ...


How Behavior Of Nontarget Species Affects Perceived Accuracy Of Scat Detection Dog Surveys, Karen E. Dematteo, Linsey W. Blake, Julie K. Young, Barbara Davenport Sep 2018

How Behavior Of Nontarget Species Affects Perceived Accuracy Of Scat Detection Dog Surveys, Karen E. Dematteo, Linsey W. Blake, Julie K. Young, Barbara Davenport

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Detection dogs, specially trained domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), have become a valuable, noninvasive, conservation tool because they remove the dependence of attracting species to a particular location. Further, detection dogs locate samples independent of appearance, composition, or visibility allowing researchers to collect large sets of unbiased samples that can be used in complex ecological queries. One question not fully addressed is why samples from nontarget species are inadvertently collected during detection dog surveys. While a common explanation has been incomplete handler or dog training, our study aimed to explore alternative explanations. Our trials demonstrate that a scat’s genetic profile ...


A Landscape-Level Assessment Of Whitebark Pine Regeneration In The Rocky Mountains, Usa, Sara A. Goeking, Deborah K. Izlar, Thomas C. Edwards Jr. Aug 2018

A Landscape-Level Assessment Of Whitebark Pine Regeneration In The Rocky Mountains, Usa, Sara A. Goeking, Deborah K. Izlar, Thomas C. Edwards Jr.

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) has recently experienced high mortality due to multiple stressors, and future population viability may rely on natural regeneration. We assessed whitebark pine seedling densities throughout the US Rocky Mountains and identified stand, site, and climatic variables related to seedling presence based on data from 1,217 USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. Although mean densities were highest in the whitebark pine forest type, 83% of sites with seedlings present occurred in non-whitebark pine forest types, and the highest densities occurred in the lodgepole pine forest type. To identify factors related to whitebark pine ...