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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

1999

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Neutrophil-Mediated Damage In Acute Mannheimia (Pasteurella) Haemolytica Pneumonia , Zaher Ahmad Khalil Radi Jan 1999

The Effects Of Neutrophil-Mediated Damage In Acute Mannheimia (Pasteurella) Haemolytica Pneumonia , Zaher Ahmad Khalil Radi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

ICAM-1 expression in cattle with Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD) vs. cattle without BLAD in Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) pneumonia at 2 or 4 hours PI was assessed using in situ hybridization. There was a significant increase in ICAM-1 in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium and endothelium of arteries and veins in both BLAD and non-BLAD MH-inoculated cattle compared to controls. Highest intensity of ICAM-1 was present in bronchioles while bronchi had the lowest. Most alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in infected lungs expressed ICAM-1. ICAM-1 expression was generally increased in infected BLAD cattle at 2 hours PI compared to non-BLAD but not ...


The Farm Crisis Of The 1980s In Iowa: Its Roots And Its Inner Workings, Sue Ann Atkinson Jan 1999

The Farm Crisis Of The 1980s In Iowa: Its Roots And Its Inner Workings, Sue Ann Atkinson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the farm crisis of the 1980s, by beginning with the ideology underlying the farm policy. At the time of the American Revolution, there was considerable discussion about the nature of governments and the relationship to people. Enlightenment philosophy was influential in this discussion, as well as philosophies from previous ages. As the new American Republic was emerging from the British mercantile system and taking its place in the world capitalist system, there was a difference of opinion as to which policy to adopt for the best development of the resources. For the first 100 years of the ...


Molecular And Genetic Analysis Of Jil-1, A Chromatin Associated Protein Kinase Implicated In Transcriptional Regulation In Drosophila , Ye Jin Jan 1999

Molecular And Genetic Analysis Of Jil-1, A Chromatin Associated Protein Kinase Implicated In Transcriptional Regulation In Drosophila , Ye Jin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Chromatin remodeling is an essential step for many chromatin-related fundamental cellular processes, such as gene replication, transcription, recombination and gene silencing. Two classes of protein complexes contribute to chromatin remodeling: protein complexes with ATPase activity and protein complexes capable of enzymatic modifications of chromosomal proteins, especially histones. Compared to well-studied histone acetylation which has been directly linked to gene transcription, the role of histone phosphorylation in chromatin remodeling for gene transcription is still poorly understood although there is some correlation between histone phosphorylation and gene transcription;A novel nuclear tandem protein kinase JIL-1 was cloned and identified in Kristen Johansen ...


A Probabilistic Neural Network Computer Vision System For Corn Kernel Damage Evaluation , Loren W. Steenhoek Jan 1999

A Probabilistic Neural Network Computer Vision System For Corn Kernel Damage Evaluation , Loren W. Steenhoek

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

An investigation was conducted to determine whether image processing and machine vision technology could be used for identification of the damage factor in corn kernels. Prominent types of corn kernel damage were found to be germ damage and blue-eye mold damage. A sample set containing 720 kernels with approximately equal numbers of blue-eye mold-damaged, germ-damaged, and sound kernels was obtained and evaluated by human inspectors and the computer vision system. While the computer vision system developed was slightly less consistent in classification than trained human inspectors, it did prove to be a promising step toward inspection automation;Two probabilistic neural ...


Primary Photoprocesses Of Light-Activated Antiviral And Antitumor Agents, Hypericin And Hypocrellin , Alexandre V. Smirnov Jan 1999

Primary Photoprocesses Of Light-Activated Antiviral And Antitumor Agents, Hypericin And Hypocrellin , Alexandre V. Smirnov

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation focuses on the ultrafast primary photoprocesses of the title anti-viral and anti-cancer agents, whose activity depends on light which is also accompanied by photoacidification in vesicles and living cells;By complementing the techniques of time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with those of fluorescence upconversion and applying them to hypericin, hypocrellin A and B, and their methylated analogs that are unable to execute proton transfer, it was demonstrated that intramolecular excited-state hydrogen atom transfer is a dominant primary nonradiative process;For hypocrellin A in viscous solvents such as octanol and ethylene glycol, an absorption transient of ∼10-ps duration, similar to the ...


Cover Crops Reduce Weeds And Maintain Soil Quality For Sustainable Strawberry, Jillene Rae Summers Jan 1999

Cover Crops Reduce Weeds And Maintain Soil Quality For Sustainable Strawberry, Jillene Rae Summers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Plots of F. xananassa had greater macroaggregate mass than the cultivated-bare soil plots in 1997, but there were no differences among treatments in 1998. The fastest water infiltration rates occurred in plots of S. sudanense (2.1 [Mu]M/s) and T. erecta (2.4 [Mu]M/s) and in cultivated-bare soil (2.0 [Mu]M/s). When data are grouped by type of vegetation, trends show that perennial strawberry and native perennial vegetation provide good conditions for the maintenance of soil quality. Cover crops of native perennial vegetation have the potential to be used in rotation with strawberry and ...


Phenotypic And Genetic Evaluation Of Stillbirths In United States Holsteins, Christy Lee Meyer Jan 1999

Phenotypic And Genetic Evaluation Of Stillbirths In United States Holsteins, Christy Lee Meyer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Stillbirths, death of a calf within 48 h of parturition, create great economic losses to the dairy industry. The objectives of this research project were to determine: 1) if there have been changes in the rate of stillbirths in United States Holsteins, 2) the genetic and environmental factors that influence the occurrence of stillbirths, and 3) whether stillbirths are the same trait in primaparous and multiparous cows. Chi-squared Automated Interaction Detection algorithm was used to determine the most significant factors that affect the rate of stillbirths. Parity of the dam was the most significant factor; 11.0% in primaparous and ...


Educational And Occupational Aspirations Of Rural High School Seniors In The Private And Public Schools In Northwest Iowa , Duane Harold Bajema Jan 1999

Educational And Occupational Aspirations Of Rural High School Seniors In The Private And Public Schools In Northwest Iowa , Duane Harold Bajema

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has suggested that rural youth have lower educational and occupational aspirations than their nonrural counterparts, and they may experience barriers to educational and occupational attainment. Discrepancies and barriers that may exist have implications for educational policy and educational planning;Seventeen rural high schools in northwest Iowa were examined; thirteen public and four private schools. Rural high school students were studied to examine their perceptions concerning potential educational and occupational barriers. Student characteristics and qualities were examined based on where the student lived and the type of school they attended. Students who had been involved in the agricultural curricula in ...


Changes In Physiology, Molecular Biology, And Biochemistry Associated With Maize Seedlings Germinated From Freeze-Damaged Seed , Jack Alan Hartwigsen Jan 1999

Changes In Physiology, Molecular Biology, And Biochemistry Associated With Maize Seedlings Germinated From Freeze-Damaged Seed , Jack Alan Hartwigsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Injury to immature maize seed caused by early season frost is of great economic concern to seed producers. Surprisingly, there has been very little research investigating the adverse effects of freezing on immature seed and the resulting biochemical changes in seedlings germinated from freeze damaged seed. In this three part study, we investigated the effects of freezing injury, first as they pertained to the overall viability of the seed, then to how exposure of immature seed to freezing induces biochemical changes in seedlings germinated from these seed. We found that the extent of freezing injury as determined by reduced viability ...


Novel G-Dna Binding Proteins From The Ciliate Tetrahymena Thermophila: Purification, Characterization, Cloning And Functional Analyses , Quan Lu Jan 1999

Novel G-Dna Binding Proteins From The Ciliate Tetrahymena Thermophila: Purification, Characterization, Cloning And Functional Analyses , Quan Lu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

G-DNA is a family of novel four-stranded DNA structures characterized by motifs called G-quartets. Evidence is growing to suggest that G-DNA exists and plays biological roles in vivo. In order to further elucidate the functions of G-DNA, we have studied proteins that specifically bind to the DNA structure;Two G-DNA binding activities, TGPI and TGP3, were purified from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on the peptide sequences obtained from direct internal peptide sequencing, the cDNAs coding for the genes were cloned. Deduced protein sequences showed that TGP1 and TGP3 are novel proteins but share significant homology with each other. Furthermore ...


Fatty Acid Modification Of Cells In Culture By Overexpression Of Exogenous Desaturases , Travis Jay Knight Jan 1999

Fatty Acid Modification Of Cells In Culture By Overexpression Of Exogenous Desaturases , Travis Jay Knight

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

COS-1 cells were transfected transiently with expression vectors encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SACPD) from castor bean, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) from mice, and a control vector containing SACPD cDNA in reverse orientation. The hypothesis was that both exogenous desaturases would be active in COS-1 cells, thereby increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids produced by the cells. Messenger RNA and anti-myc immunoreactive proteins were detected at 12 and 24 hours post-transfection respectively and increased through 48 hours post-transfection. When acetate was used as the fatty acid precursor in cultures for a 24-hour period starting 24 hours post-transfection, the ratio of monounsaturated to ...


Statistical Methods For Count Data From Designs With Nested Structure , Ling-Ling Claire Tsao Jan 1999

Statistical Methods For Count Data From Designs With Nested Structure , Ling-Ling Claire Tsao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Count data from nested designs, split-plot experiments, and repeated measures studies are commonly encountered in agricultural and ecological research. Such data are often analyzed using analysis of variance methods based on distributional assumptions that may not be valid for count data, especially when expected counts are small. Furthermore, inferences for generalized linear models, such as log-linear and logistic regression models, are generally based on an assumption of independent Poisson or binomial counts that does not adequately account for correlations and heterogeneity arising in count data from nested designs. Recent developments for generalized linear mixed models, quasi-likelihood estimation and robust covariance ...


Genome Reorganization And Non-Linear Transposition In Maize , Jianbo Zhang Jan 1999

Genome Reorganization And Non-Linear Transposition In Maize , Jianbo Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Transposable elements have long been considered as potential agents of large-scale genome reorganization by virtue of their ability to induce chromosomal rearrangements such as deletions, duplications, inversions, and reciprocal translocations. Previous researchers have shown that particular configurations of transposon termini can induce chromosome rearrangements at high frequencies. By analyzing two derivatives of an unstable allele of the maize P1 (pericarp color) gene carrying both a full-length Ac (Activator) transposable element and a Ac terminal fragment termed fAc (fractured Ac) that were recovered from a classical maize ear twinned sector, it were found that the twinned alleles are a large inverted ...


Evidence For And Effects Of A Factor Derived From Adult Rat And Cow Small Intestine Capable Of Reducing Cryptosporidium Parvum Infection In Infant Rats , Dhuha Akili Jan 1999

Evidence For And Effects Of A Factor Derived From Adult Rat And Cow Small Intestine Capable Of Reducing Cryptosporidium Parvum Infection In Infant Rats , Dhuha Akili

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Cryptosporidium parvum is an intracellular protozoan parasite of the mammalian intestine. In rats, C. parvum infection is age related; infants are susceptible while adults are resistant. The transition from susceptibility to resistance usually takes place as the infant rats approach the age of weaning. In the present study, infant rats were orally inoculated with a preparation of intestinal scrapings taken from adult rats or cows. The infant rats received the scrapings from days 3 to 14 of age, and were inoculated with C. parvum oocysts at 9 days of age and killed at 15 days of age. Both ileal tissue ...


Evaluation Of Mycobacterial Esat-6 As A Type-I Immune Enhancing Adjuvant , Sreekumar Ambalakkat Menon Jan 1999

Evaluation Of Mycobacterial Esat-6 As A Type-I Immune Enhancing Adjuvant , Sreekumar Ambalakkat Menon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The need for improved adjuvants has continued in spite of new vaccination strategies using recombinant proteins and genetic (DNA vectored) vaccines. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein ESAT-6 has been shown in mice to be involved in the recall of long-lived immunity and protection in mice against tuberculosis. Thus, this protein could potentially act as a molecular adjuvant enhancing antigen-specific Type I immune responses. This study examined the hypothesis that Es could enhance Type I responses against a second antigen in mice when presented as a fusion with that antigen. This was tested using ESAT-6 fusions with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae surface antigens ...


Descriptive Modeling Of Historic Vegetation Patterns In Hamilton County, Iowa, Mohd Said Musli Jan 1999

Descriptive Modeling Of Historic Vegetation Patterns In Hamilton County, Iowa, Mohd Said Musli

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

http://0-www.worldcat.org.library.simmons.edu/oclc/41441315


Evaluation Of Year-Round Forage Management Systems For Beef Production, Matthew John Hersom Jan 1999

Evaluation Of Year-Round Forage Management Systems For Beef Production, Matthew John Hersom

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

http://0-www.worldcat.org.library.simmons.edu/oclc/43049860


Microbial Community Structure And Malodorous Compounds Within Anaerobic Swine Waste Storage Systems, Lori S. Merrill Jan 1999

Microbial Community Structure And Malodorous Compounds Within Anaerobic Swine Waste Storage Systems, Lori S. Merrill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

http://0-www.worldcat.org.library.simmons.edu/oclc/41462118


Characterization And Autoproteolytic Activity Of N[Superscript Pro] Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Jason Frederick Huntley Jan 1999

Characterization And Autoproteolytic Activity Of N[Superscript Pro] Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Jason Frederick Huntley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

http://0-www.worldcat.org.library.simmons.edu/oclc/41556846


Corn Gluten Meal And Corn Gluten Hydrolysate For Weed Control, Melissa Caroline Mcdade Jan 1999

Corn Gluten Meal And Corn Gluten Hydrolysate For Weed Control, Melissa Caroline Mcdade

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Concern over the long-term ecological effects of synthetic agricultural chemicals has led to increased efforts in the search for natural products (Cardellina, 1988). Allelopathic chemicals found in natural products may be used directly as herbicides and to develop new classes of synthetic herbicides based on natural chemicals (Narwal, 1996). Corn gluten meal (CGM) has been identified as an effective natural preemergence herbicide for use in turfgrass and other crops (Bingaman and Christians, 1995; Christians, 1993; Nonnecke and Christians, 1993).


Biological Control Of Sclerotinia Stem Rot Of Soybean With Sporidesmium Sclerotivorum , Luis Enrique Del Rió Mendoza Jan 1999

Biological Control Of Sclerotinia Stem Rot Of Soybean With Sporidesmium Sclerotivorum , Luis Enrique Del Rió Mendoza

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A single soil infestation with 2 and 20 macroconidia/cm 2 of soil of the mycoparasite Sporidesmium sclerotivorum was conducted in the fall of 1995 or the spring of 1996 at three Iowa locations. Soil infestation with the mycoparasite resulted in 50 to 60% reductions (P < 0.05) of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) of soybean in one location in 1996, and two locations in 1998. SSR was completely suppressed at a third location in 1998. In some instances the 2 spores/cm2 infestation rate provided disease control equal to the higher rate. S. sclerotivorum was retrieved from all infested plots using sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum as bait, two years after infestation, and from all control plots in the location where SSR was suppressed. Infestation of S. sclerotivorum into 100 m2 macroplots in commercial fields provided from 50 to 100% control of SSR two years later. Optimum conditions for germination of S. sclerotivorum macroconidia in the presence of sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum are pH 5.0 to 6.5, temperatures from 20 to 30°C, CO2 concentrations of 1% (v/v) or lower and O2 concentrations 1% and above. Almost no germination occurred when spores were incubated at 10 or 35°C. CO2 concentrations of 3 to 6% (v/v) reduced germination by half (P < 0.05). Baiting of 810 soil samples from 55 Iowa counties with sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resulted in Sporidesmium sclerotivorum isolates from soil samples from ten counties. This is the first report on the presence of this mycoparasite in Iowa. Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii, T. longibrachiatum, T. polysporum, T. pseudokoningii, and T. viride were also isolated from the sclerotial baits. Pathogenicity tests confirmed the parasitic activity of T. polysporum on the sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report on this association. Gliocladium roseum and G. virens were also retrieved from sclerotial baits. Coniothyrium minitans was isolated from soil samples from 12 counties, most of them located in northern Iowa.


Phenological, Physiological, And Ecological Influences Of Transgenic Bt Corn On European Corn Borer Management , Clinton Drake Pilcher Jan 1999

Phenological, Physiological, And Ecological Influences Of Transgenic Bt Corn On European Corn Borer Management , Clinton Drake Pilcher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the use of altered planting dates as a means for integrating transgenic Bt corn into a pest management system for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Transgenic Bt and non-Bt corn were planted at the same time on 3 separate planting dates (minimum of 10 day separation). Phenological corn development, O. nubilalis egg mass densities, Guthrie ratings, stalk tunneling, natural enemy populations, and yield data were recorded. No differences occurred in egg density between Bt and non-Bt corn for either the first or second generation; however, differences among planting dates did occur. Between ...


Experimental Investigation Of The Removal Of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds From Two Iowa Soils Using Food Grade Surfactants And Recovery Of Used Surfactants , Dal-Heui Lee Jan 1999

Experimental Investigation Of The Removal Of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds From Two Iowa Soils Using Food Grade Surfactants And Recovery Of Used Surfactants , Dal-Heui Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The ability of food grade aqueous surfactant solutions to remove toluene or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene entrapped in sand and two Iowa soils was evaluated in batch and column experiments. Also, the effects that environmental conditions have on contaminant solubilization and mobilization by surfactants and the technical viability of recovering the surfactants for possible reuse were studied;Synergism between the anionic Dowfax 8390 and the nonionic T-Maz 60 was not observed. A mixture of the two was less effective than Dowfax 8390 by itself. 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene removal enhancements via microemulsifiers were less effective than that by Dowfax 8390 for a ...


The Use Of Anuran Larvae To Determine Chronic And Acute Toxicological Effects From Exposure To Atrazine And Metolachlor , Linda Suzanne Gucciardo Jan 1999

The Use Of Anuran Larvae To Determine Chronic And Acute Toxicological Effects From Exposure To Atrazine And Metolachlor , Linda Suzanne Gucciardo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated the effects of chronic exposure of amphibian tadpoles and acute exposure of embryos to the agricultural chemical atrazine;Tadpoles were chronically exposed from the first feeding stage through metamorphosis to three levels of atrazine. Concentrations of 30, 300 and 600 mug/L reflect exposures likely to occur in streams, wetlands and temporary waters near croplands. Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans), wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and northern leopard frogs (R. pipiens ) were evaluated on rate of growth, days to metamorphosis, metamorphic success, and juvenile weight and length. A repeated measures ANOVA evaluated the rate of growth (increase in SVL ...


Soil Testing And Plant Analysis To Optimize Nitrogen Management In Manured Cornfields , David Jay Hansen Jan 1999

Soil Testing And Plant Analysis To Optimize Nitrogen Management In Manured Cornfields , David Jay Hansen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Land application of animal manure is widely accepted as a method of recycling plant available nitrogen (N) within agricultural systems, but there is great need to improve the efficiency of this recycling. Soil testing and plant analysis are widely accepted as important tools for managing plant nutrients, but guidelines for manure management seldom employ these tools. The objective of this study was to develop guidelines for use of soil testing and plant analysis to optimize N management on manured cornfields. Data were collected in 205 on-farm trials where commercially prepared fertilizer N was applied at various rates to replicated and ...


Examining Agricultural Investment , Chad Edward Hart Jan 1999

Examining Agricultural Investment , Chad Edward Hart

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Using two different approaches, the relationship between a firm's investment and its financial variables is examined. Imperfections in the credit market such as asymmetric information have led researchers to explore these relationships. This study incorporates the 5 Cs of lending (character, capacity, collateral, credit rating, and capital) into the farmer's investment decision and explores the impacts of these variables on a basic data set. The data set is composed of 590 Iowa farms that are members of the Iowa Farm Business Association and have reported farm level financial and production data from 1991 to 1995;The first approach ...


Local Dependency: The Independent Farmer Myth , Eric Bruce Imerman Jan 1999

Local Dependency: The Independent Farmer Myth , Eric Bruce Imerman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to achieve a higher level of understanding of the adoption and diffusion process of conservation technology on Iowa farms. The tools used in this discovery process are a qualitative analysis of farmers' perceptions of conservation technologies, an analysis of the adoption and diffusion model, and the formulation of a local dependency theory to explain the patterns of adoption on Iowa farms. Specifically, this investigation comes to the conclusion that the Iowa farmer is trapped in a dependency situation that is controlled by the government, trans-national corporations, and local capital, a triad known as the ...


Effect Of The Presence Of The Mammary Gland On Periparturient Immunosuppression In Dairy Cows , Kayoko Kimura Jan 1999

Effect Of The Presence Of The Mammary Gland On Periparturient Immunosuppression In Dairy Cows , Kayoko Kimura

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Impaired neutrophil and lymphocyte function during the periparturient period is a contributing factor to the high incidence of infectious disease observed in the periparturient cow. Using 8 multiparous Jersey cows, we demonstrated that populations of T cells, especially T helper cells and gd T cells declined during the periparturient period coincident with reported losses of immune cell function;We hypothesized that milk production may be an important immunosuppressive factor. To test this hypothesis, we used 10 mastectomized and 8 intact multiparous Jersey cows and examined phenotype of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), adhesion molecule expression and myeloperoxidase activity in neutrophils ...


Local Inquiry And Alternative Knowledge: Cognitive Dimensions Of The Sustainable Agriculture Movement , Margaret Mattu Kroma Jan 1999

Local Inquiry And Alternative Knowledge: Cognitive Dimensions Of The Sustainable Agriculture Movement , Margaret Mattu Kroma

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study analyzes the experiential and cognitive practices of a group of alternative agriculturists in the North Central region as a concrete expression of a grassroots social movement, which is critical of conventional agriculture, and seeks a new knowledge base for social change in the U.S. agricultural landscape. The study inventories inquiries that alternative agriculturists in the North Central region make to ATTRA (Appropriate Technology Transfer to Rural Areas), a USDA funded alternative agricultural information center based in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The purpose is to determine whether the ideational and value dimensions of the inquiries are congruent with the knowledge ...


Development Of An Empirical Model Of Human Sweating And A Semi-Empirical Model Of Human Thermoregulation , Jennifer Jane Walker Jan 1999

Development Of An Empirical Model Of Human Sweating And A Semi-Empirical Model Of Human Thermoregulation , Jennifer Jane Walker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The physiology of the human thermoregulatory response to changes in environment and work load has been studied from the perspective of both the physiologist and the engineer. Both fields have brought certain skills and tools to the effort. An effort to bring together the understanding gained from these two perspectives has been lacking. In this work a model for the sweat response and a model for the thermoregulatory response to changes in room temperature were developed. These models were developed using the modeling tools of engineering and the knowledge contained in past experimental data;An empirical model of the sweat ...