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Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Predicting Loads On Ground Engaging Tillage Tools Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Mark Eugene Barker Jan 2008

Predicting Loads On Ground Engaging Tillage Tools Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Mark Eugene Barker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A new method of evaluating tillage tools using computational fluid dynamics is proposed. Steady-state CFD only and transient two-way fluid-structure interaction simulations were run to predict draft and vertical forces on a spring-reset field cultivator standard. Using CFD the soil was treated as a visco-plastic fluid using the Bingham-plastic material model. Lab tests were run using a rigid flat steel bar and a production field cultivator standard with 178 and 254 mm sweeps for comparison. The results indicate that the method can be used to reasonably predict the draft force to within three standard deviations of the average measured draft ...


Analysis Of A Ddgs Air-Drying System With Heat Recovery, Christopher Brady Hoeck Jan 2008

Analysis Of A Ddgs Air-Drying System With Heat Recovery, Christopher Brady Hoeck

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Dry Distiller Grains with Soluble (DDGS) are a co-product of the conversion from corn into Ethanol fuel. Several applications depend on the ability of a drying process to remove moisture from a product, such as DDGS, in an effective and economical manner. Common drying methods use air to facilitate product drying as it proficiently absorbs the unwanted moisture, creating a moist-air mixture that captures both the latent and sensible heat released from the product. The most economical approach to an Air Drying System integrates a heat recovery system that transfers the heat removed by the moist-air mixture during drying back ...


Effect Of Genetic And Proteomic Variation In Field Isolates Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae On Virulence, Diagnosis And Prevention Of Disease In The Pig, Erin Linn Strait Jan 2008

Effect Of Genetic And Proteomic Variation In Field Isolates Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae On Virulence, Diagnosis And Prevention Of Disease In The Pig, Erin Linn Strait

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of these studies was to investigate the implications of variability in virulence, genetics and antigenic profiles among field isolates of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Increased virulence was compared with in vitro and in vivo growth characteristics of the organism and with immune parameters in the pig, although none was found to be significantly correlated. The impact of proteomic and genetic variation among field isolates on diagnostic assays was examined by both in vivo and in vitro studies. Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) used in the United States were compared and shown to not detect all isolates of M. hyopneumoniae equally ...


Hypothesis Building Using The Animal Trait Ontology, Laron Maurice Hughes Jan 2008

Hypothesis Building Using The Animal Trait Ontology, Laron Maurice Hughes

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

With the advent of sequencing projects in model organisms, humans, and domesticated livestock species, the need for storage, retrieval, and analysis of genomics information for these animals has become important. The Animal Trait Ontology (ATO) is an ontology that has been created to store the relationships between farm animal traits for several domesticated farm animals. The Collaborative Ontology Building (COB) editor was used to create and edit the ATO. An online ontology browser has been developed to search and browse the ontology and to view the relationships between the terms. Some of the traits in the ontology are linked to ...


Purification And Characterization Of Recombinant Collagens/Gelatins From Transgenic Corn Seeds, Cheng Zhang Jan 2008

Purification And Characterization Of Recombinant Collagens/Gelatins From Transgenic Corn Seeds, Cheng Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Corn offers a number of advantages as production host for low- and intermediate-value protein-based products that could be produced in large volume as co-products of corn based biorefining. We selected one such potential product, a recombinant human 100 kDa type I collagen alpha 1 (CIalpha1) and a 44 kDa single chain fragment (a gelatin). The equivalency to the intended product was established by characterizing the immunorecognition, molecular weight, amino acid composition and sequence, and post-translational modifications.;Purification for characterization of the recombinant proteins from transgenic corn grain began with protein extraction in 0.1M phosphoric acid buffer. The use of ...


Identification, Evaluation And Quantification Of Vocs As Biosecure Markers Of Swine Carcass Degradation, Neslihan Akdeniz Jan 2008

Identification, Evaluation And Quantification Of Vocs As Biosecure Markers Of Swine Carcass Degradation, Neslihan Akdeniz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Swine carcasses were composted using passively-aerated composting system designed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency during the 2004 Avian influenza outbreak in British Columbia. In this system, swine carcasses were fully covered by plastic sheets due to biosecurity concerns and visual inspection of the swine carcasses was impossible. Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from carcasses was a promising approach to assess progress and completion of the carcass degradation. In this study, VOCs were sampled using solid phase microextraction (SPME). Samples were analyzed using multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MDGC-MS) (a) to develop a comprehensive chemical library of volatile organic compounds ...


Elucidation Of Anti-Inflammatory Constituents In Hypericum Perforatum Extracts And Delineation Of Mechanisms Of Anti-Inflammatory Activity In Raw 264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Kimberly Dawn Petry Hammer Jan 2008

Elucidation Of Anti-Inflammatory Constituents In Hypericum Perforatum Extracts And Delineation Of Mechanisms Of Anti-Inflammatory Activity In Raw 264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Kimberly Dawn Petry Hammer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Hypericum perforatum (Hp) is commonly known for its anti-viral, anti-depressant, and anti-proliferative properties, but traditionally Hp was also used to treat inflammation. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of Hp are far less advanced than studies on other bioactivities. In fact until recently, there was still debate as to which constituents present in Hp may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties.;In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity of different Hp extractions and accessions and constituents present within Hp extracts were characterized in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. In contrast to the light-dependent anti-viral activity of Hp, the anti-inflammatory ...


The Effects Of Abnormal Prion Protein Accumulation On Retinal Morphology And Function In Sheep And Cattle, Jodi D. Smith Jan 2008

The Effects Of Abnormal Prion Protein Accumulation On Retinal Morphology And Function In Sheep And Cattle, Jodi D. Smith

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) encompass a group of unique, invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases, which affect humans and animals. Accumulation of an abnormal form of the prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system serves as their pathologic underpinning. The pathogenesis of TSE remains unclear, and the specific effects of PrPSc on cells of the nervous system have yet to be completely resolved. Previous studies have identified the accumulation of PrP Sc within the retina, the thin, highly organized piece of neural tissue lining the posterior aspect of the eye. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the effects of ...


Genetic Regulation Of The Healthfulness Of Beef Fatty Acid Composition, Shu Zhang Jan 2008

Genetic Regulation Of The Healthfulness Of Beef Fatty Acid Composition, Shu Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of genetic factors, such as breed and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), on beef fatty acid composition were investigated in the current study. The first objective was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the thioesterase (TE) domain of bovine fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene and evaluate the extent to which they were associated with beef fatty acid composition. The four exons in FASN that encode for TE were sequenced, and three SNPs, AF285607:g.17924A>G, g.18663T>C, and g.18727C>T, were identified. Purebred Angus bulls (n = 331) were classified into three genotype groups, AA (n ...


Understanding Protein Motions By Computational Modeling And Statistical Approaches, Lei Yang Jan 2008

Understanding Protein Motions By Computational Modeling And Statistical Approaches, Lei Yang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Because of its appealing simplicity, the elastic network model (ENM) has been widely accepted and applied to study many molecular motion problems, such as the molecular mechanisms of chaperonin GroEL-GroES function, allosteric changes in hemoglobin, ribosome motions, motor-protein motions, and conformational changes in general. In this dissertation, the ENM is employed to study various protein dynamics problems, and its validity is also examined by comparing with experimental data. First, we apply principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the essential protein motions from multiple structures (X-ray, NMR and MD) of the HIV-1 protease. We find significant similarities between the first few ...


A Genomic Study Of Soybean Iron Deficiency Chlorosis, Jamie Aileen O'Rourke Jan 2008

A Genomic Study Of Soybean Iron Deficiency Chlorosis, Jamie Aileen O'Rourke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soybeans grown in the farmlands of the upper Midwest of the United States often suffer from iron deficiency chlorosis which results in end of season yield loss. Previous studies in soybean have identified 19 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) regions with an association to iron deficiency chlorosis. However, specific genes involved in the process of iron reduction, uptake and transport have not been identified in soybean. Through the use of near isogenic soybean lines (NILs), Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) microarrays, and Affymetrix RTM GeneChipsRTM, I have identified a suite of candidate genes putatively involved in the soybean iron deficiency response. Single ...


Analysis On Protein Structures Using Statistical And Bioinformatical Methods, Aimin Yan Jan 2008

Analysis On Protein Structures Using Statistical And Bioinformatical Methods, Aimin Yan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This PhD dissertation mainly focuses on the statistical analysis for the protein structure data. The first research project focuses on data mining and prediction for side chain orientation in protein structure. Through this study, we find that the general side chain orientation can be viewed as a manifestation of hydrophobic force. Along with this study, we also developed the software for visualizing the general side chain vector and applied statistical machine learning methods to fit several models for predicting general side chain orientation. In the second project, we studied the motion of partially assembled ribosome 30S subunit using the coarse-grained ...


A Systematic Evaluation Of Laying Hen Housing For Improved Hen Welfare, Angela Renee Green Jan 2008

A Systematic Evaluation Of Laying Hen Housing For Improved Hen Welfare, Angela Renee Green

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Husbandry practices for egg production vary throughout the world. Current production systems are typically classified as caged, cage-free, or free range in terms of housing style. The research presented supplements the existing knowledge base for laying-hen housing. Where possible, a systematic assessment approach was used in the comprehensive literature review, and combined field monitoring and controlled-environment laboratory studies. The results of this research demonstrate: differing environmental conditions and hen health under different housing schemes with varying weather; no difference in heat and moisture production for varying stocking density and group size; no clear advantage of offering additional space for coping ...


Relatedness Of Haemophilus Parasuis Strains And Their Proteins' Possible Roles As Virulence Factors, Emilie Susanna Noel Zehr Jan 2008

Relatedness Of Haemophilus Parasuis Strains And Their Proteins' Possible Roles As Virulence Factors, Emilie Susanna Noel Zehr

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glasser's disease, is considered to be a remerging pathogen of swine in high-health status herds. Several molecular typing methods have been suggested as alternatives to serotyping, which failed to identify up to 30% of field isolates. This study compared random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles and protein profiles of H. parasuis reference strains and field isolates as methods for identifying and grouping virulent and avirulent isolates. DNA and protein profiles of 15 reference strains and 31 field isolates of H. parasuis, analyzed with two computer-based similarity analyses, revealed unique and reproducible DNA ...


Accumulation Of Bel1-Like Transcripts In Solanaceous Species, Brian Anthony Campbell Jan 2008

Accumulation Of Bel1-Like Transcripts In Solanaceous Species, Brian Anthony Campbell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Although numerous RNAs have been detected in the phloem, few have been confirmed to move long distances. In potato, full-length mRNA of the BEL1-like transcription factor, StBEL5, moves from leaf veins through the phloem to stolon tips to activate tuber formation. BEL1-like transcription factors are ubiquitous in plants and interact with KNOTTED1-types to regulate numerous developmental processes. To explore the range of KNOTTED1- and BEL1-like mRNAs present in phloem, an analysis of the transcript profile of phloem sap was undertaken. Using a modified technique for the collection of phloem-enriched exudate from excised stems, numerous RNAs encoding these transcription factors were ...


Irradiance, Total Nitrogen, And Nitrate-N: Ammonium-N Ratio Requirements For Optimal Edible Biomass Production Of Basil, Angela Renee Beaman Jan 2008

Irradiance, Total Nitrogen, And Nitrate-N: Ammonium-N Ratio Requirements For Optimal Edible Biomass Production Of Basil, Angela Renee Beaman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Our objective was to determine the optimal irradiance, total N concentration, and NO3--N:NH4+-N ratio for greatest edible biomass production of three cultivars of basil (Basilicum ocimum L.) in a controlled-environment production system. Preliminary experiments showed basil required a dark period, but the duration of the dark period was not resolved. Based on our results, canopy-level irradiance should not exceed 500 mumol/m2/s to conserve energy while enabling the greatest edible biomass production of basil in a controlled-environment production system. Optimal edible biomass production occurred at 100 to 250 mg N/L at a ratio of 50:50 ...


Ecological Processes Responsible For Species Co-Occurrence Patterns In Two Species Of Plethodon Salamanders, Jennifer Deitloff Jan 2008

Ecological Processes Responsible For Species Co-Occurrence Patterns In Two Species Of Plethodon Salamanders, Jennifer Deitloff

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The competitive interactions of closely-related and ecologically similar species have long been considered an important topic in evolutionary ecology. These species interactions can have considerable effects on community composition and species distributions. Furthermore, ecological, behavioral, and morphological traits of species can be influenced by interactions with competitors. Throughout Ohio, two closely related and ecologically similar salamander species, Plethodon cinereus and P. electromorphus, occur in similar habitats and can be found in sympatry. Interestingly, the contact zone of these two species is much broader than has been observed in other pairs of Plethodon species that competitively interact. However, when these distributions ...


Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai Jan 2008

Immunomodulatory, Anti-Inflammatory And Wound Healing Properties Of Echinacea Species, Zili Zhai

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Herbal or botanical supplements have multiple health benefits. Public interest in these supplements has increased greatly in recent years aimed at modulation of the immune system to combat immune-related diseases. Historically, Echinacea has long been used as phytotherapy for wound healing, pain relief and treatment of the common cold. Although the non-specific immunostimulating properties of Echinacea species have been widely investigated, academic knowledge of the adaptive immune-modulating activity, the anti-inflammatory activity and the mechanistic basis for these immunomodulatory properties remain elusive. In this dissertation, we focused our research interest in these less explored fields, with an emphasis on the herbal ...


Cellulosic Ethanol Production Via Aqueous Ammonia Soaking Pretreatment And Simultaneous Saccharification And Fermentation, Asli Isci Jan 2008

Cellulosic Ethanol Production Via Aqueous Ammonia Soaking Pretreatment And Simultaneous Saccharification And Fermentation, Asli Isci

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The most important energy challenges of the century are energy growth, energy security and climate protection. Cellulosic based fuels such as ethanol are poised to offer energy security, and economic and environmental benefits if the associated commercialization challenges are overcome. The main objective of this thesis is to evaluate a promising approach for cellulosic ethanol production and to present information to guide. This dissertation, completed in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Ph.D. degree, is prepared in the journal paper format, and includes four papers that have been published in or are prepared for submission to a journal ...


Nitrous Oxide And Methane Fluxes In Riparian Buffers And Adjacent Crop Fields, Dong-Gill Kim Jan 2008

Nitrous Oxide And Methane Fluxes In Riparian Buffers And Adjacent Crop Fields, Dong-Gill Kim

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Denitrification is recognized as the major mechanism for reducing nitrate (NO3-) in riparian buffers and thus diminishing non-point source pollution (NPS) of surface water bodies subject to high N loads. However, increasing denitrification rates in riparian buffers may be trading the problem of NPS pollution of surface waters for atmospheric deterioration and increased global warming potential because denitrification produces nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas also involved in stratospheric ozone depletion. Also N2O produced in the denitrification process can be dissolved in groundwater and is eventually emitted into the air when groundwater flows into a stream or a river. Riparian ...


Nutritional And Hormonal Modulation Of Diabetes-Perturbed Folate, Homocysteine, And Methyl Group Metabolism, Kristin M. Nieman Jan 2008

Nutritional And Hormonal Modulation Of Diabetes-Perturbed Folate, Homocysteine, And Methyl Group Metabolism, Kristin M. Nieman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Folate, homocysteine, and methyl group metabolism mutually function to provide methyl groups for numerous biosynthetic- and modification-type reactions necessary for optimal health. Methyl groups from these pathways are utilized in the production of important compounds such as nucleic acids, protein, and phospholipids. Thus it is vital to understand the factors that both disrupt and maintain their delicate balance to prevent disease. Disruption of these metabolic pathways is associated with several pathologies including carcinogenesis, birth defects, and vascular disease. Moreover, the disruption of these metabolic pathways may be a link between chronic disease and complications of that disease. Both nutritional and ...


Phylogenetic Relationships Among The Temperate Bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) With An Emphasis On Arundinaria And Allies, Jimmy K. Triplett Jan 2008

Phylogenetic Relationships Among The Temperate Bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) With An Emphasis On Arundinaria And Allies, Jimmy K. Triplett

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The temperate clade is a diverse but poorly understood major lineage of woody bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae). Ongoing work is needed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and establish nomenclatural stability for this difficult but ecologically and economically important group. We present the first robust multilocus plastid phylogeny for the temperate bamboos, assess relationships among key genera with an emphasis on Arundinaria and its allies, and discuss evolutionary phenomena potentially responsible for the taxonomic complexity of this group. Utilizing a total of twelve cp DNA regions (1 coding, 10 intergenic spacers, 1 intron), the temperate bamboos were resolved to include six major ...


Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Understanding And Managing Persistent Infection, Ramón Miguel Molina Barrios Jan 2008

Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Understanding And Managing Persistent Infection, Ramón Miguel Molina Barrios

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This experiment was designed as a longitudinal study in which pigs were followed for up to 202 days post inoculation (DPI). On day 0, 109 3-week-old pigs were intramuscularly inoculated with PRRSV strain VR-2332. Negative control pigs (n = 56) were sham inoculated with MEM by the intramuscular route. Thereafter, at approximately 2-week intervals, samples were collected from all animals and a subset of randomly selected animals was euthanized and tissues collected. The presence and amount of virus was assessed using qRT-PCR, standard virus isolation, and bioassay. Detection of PRRSV in serum by qRT-PCR showed that most pigs cleared the viremia ...


Physiology And Pharmacology Of Flatworm Muscle, Ekaterina B. Novozhilova Jan 2008

Physiology And Pharmacology Of Flatworm Muscle, Ekaterina B. Novozhilova

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Pharmacological characterization of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOCCs), in both free-living and parasitic flatworms, has been difficult since the currents carried by these channels are small in amplitude and run down quickly. While the presence of VOCCs in the parasite Schistosoma mansoni has been evident from molecular data, they have escaped pharmacological characterization. In this study, we have been able to consistently record inward currents carried by VOCCs in isolated S. mansoni muscle fibers, using whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique in voltage-clamp mode. Inward voltage-activated current was recorded, under conditions that suppressed outward K+ conductance, by the replacement of ...


Remodeling Of Higher Order Chromatin Structure By The Jil-1 Histone H3 Kinase In Drosophila, Huai Deng Jan 2008

Remodeling Of Higher Order Chromatin Structure By The Jil-1 Histone H3 Kinase In Drosophila, Huai Deng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The higher order organization of chromatin within the cell nucleus plays an essential role in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. In Drosophila, the JIL-1 histone H3S10 kinase has been identified as a major regulator of chromatin structure. JIL-1 associates with chromosomes throughout the cell cycle, and predominantly localizes to less-condensed interband regions on the salivary gland polytene chromosome. In males, JIL-1 is upregulated on the male X chromosome and is associated with MSL dosage compensation complex. Absence of JIL-1 results in loss of interphase H3S10 phosphorylation as well as lethality and multiple defects including severely disrupted polytene chromosome morphology.;Further ...


Functional Characterization Of Arabidopsis Sorting Nexin Atsnx2b, Nguyen Phan Jan 2008

Functional Characterization Of Arabidopsis Sorting Nexin Atsnx2b, Nguyen Phan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sorting nexins are conserved proteins that function in vesicular trafficking and are defined by the presence of a phox (PX) domain. Here we present the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana sorting nexin AtSNX2b. The ubiquitously-expressed sorting nexin is a peripherally-associated membrane protein whose PX domain binds to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate in vitro. AtSNX2b localizes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), prevacuolar compartment and endosomes. Overexpression of GFP-tagged AtSNX2b produces enlarged GFP-labeled compartments that can be also labeled by the endocytic tracer FM4-64, while untagged AtSNX2b overexpression generates compartments which are not as large. Endocytic trafficking of FM4-64 is arrested in cells overexpressing AtSNX2b ...


Non-Target Effects Of Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycinces Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Management In Iowa, Wayne J. Ohnesorg Jan 2008

Non-Target Effects Of Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycinces Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Management In Iowa, Wayne J. Ohnesorg

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Substrate And Co-Culture On Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation, Erin Boote Jones Jan 2008

Effects Of Substrate And Co-Culture On Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation, Erin Boote Jones

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

For stem and progenitor cells to become clinically useful, the factors that influence their differentiation must be better understood. The interaction between progenitor cells and their environment is thought to be one of the main influences on differentiation. This thesis examines the effects of media conditioned by primary astrocytes and extracellular matrix protein surface coatings on the differentiation of neural progenitor cells.


Soybean Mosaic And Stem Canker In Iowa Soybean Fields, Xin Lu Jan 2008

Soybean Mosaic And Stem Canker In Iowa Soybean Fields, Xin Lu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A statewide soybean disease survey was carried out during the 2005 to 2007 growing seasons in Iowa to determine the relative risks for soybean diseases in Iowa. Soybean plants were collected from almost 1,000 fields in each growing season. A systematic design was used to collect 30 plants from 3-5 fields in each county at four growth stages, V2-V3, R1-R2, R4-R5, and R6-R7. The survey provided a unique opportunity to study the spatial and temporal prevalence and incidence of several soybean diseases in Iowa. This thesis will focus on soybean mosaic and stem canker.;Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is ...


Mechanisms Of Bes1-Regulated Gene Expression Downstream Of Brassinosteroid Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Xiaofei Yu Jan 2008

Mechanisms Of Bes1-Regulated Gene Expression Downstream Of Brassinosteroid Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Xiaofei Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Brassinosteroids (BRs), the plant steroid hormones, play an important role in mediating plant responses to developmental and environmental cues. BRs signal through a membrane receptor BRI1 and a GSK3 kinase BIN2 to control the activity of BES1/BZR1 family transcription factors. To understand how BES1 regulates gene expression, I looked into both trans-acting protein factors and cis-acting DNA elements that affect BES1 functions, by yeast genetic screen and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip), respectively. We identified 1609 BES1 direct target genes and discovered conserved DNA motifs in BES1 binding regions. We also showed that BES1 target genes were ...