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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Green Infrastructure Design Influences Communities Of Urban Soil Bacteria, Jessica Lee Joyner, Jordan Kerwin, Maha Deeb, George Lozefski, Bharath Prithiviraj, Anna Paitseva, John Mclaughin, Peter M. Groffman, Zhongqi Cheng, Theodore R. Muth May 2019

Green Infrastructure Design Influences Communities Of Urban Soil Bacteria, Jessica Lee Joyner, Jordan Kerwin, Maha Deeb, George Lozefski, Bharath Prithiviraj, Anna Paitseva, John Mclaughin, Peter M. Groffman, Zhongqi Cheng, Theodore R. Muth

Publications and Research

The importance of natural ecosystem processes is often overlooked in urban areas. Green Infrastructure (GI) features have been constructed in urban areas as elements to capture and treat excess urban runoff while providing a range of ancillary benefits, e.g., ecosystem processes mediated by microorganisms that improve air and water quality, in addition to the associations with plant and tree rhizospheres. The objective of this study was to characterize the bacterial community and diversity in engineered soils (Technosols) of five types of GI in New York City; vegetated swales, right of way bioswales (ROWB; including street-side infiltration systems and enhanced ...


Epigenetic Modifications In Alzheimer’S Neuropathology And Therapeutics, Michelle Esposito, Goldie Libby Sherr May 2019

Epigenetic Modifications In Alzheimer’S Neuropathology And Therapeutics, Michelle Esposito, Goldie Libby Sherr

Publications and Research

Transcriptional activation is a highly synchronized process in eukaryotes that requires a series of cis- and trans-acting elements at promoter regions. Epigenetic modifications, such as chromatin remodeling, histone acetylation/deacetylation, and methylation, have frequently been studied with regard to transcriptional regulation/dysregulation. Recently however, it has been determined that implications in epigenetic modification seem to expand into various neurodegenerative disease mechanisms. Impaired learning and memory deterioration are cognitive dysfunctions often associated with a plethora of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. Through better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions, new epigenomic therapeutic targets, such as histone deacetylases, are ...


Cultural Competence: Issues And Benefits In Healthcare Delivery, Tetiana Soloviova, Amina Shahbaz, Fahaneda Hassan, Zoya Vinokur May 2019

Cultural Competence: Issues And Benefits In Healthcare Delivery, Tetiana Soloviova, Amina Shahbaz, Fahaneda Hassan, Zoya Vinokur

Publications and Research

The extreme growth of New York State population causes to bring more challenges and opportunities for healthcare organization to provide culturally competent service to meet the need of diverse population. According to data from the US Census Bureau, minority groups are projected to make up nearly 50% of the population by the year 2050 compared with 30% in 2000. Outside of ethnicity, there are also many cultural and social groups with which people identify that may affect how they view or receive healthcare. It is very difficult to provide quality service for a diverse population due to language barriers, health ...


Modeling Changes In Cellular Micro-Environment In Mild To Moderate Head Trauma, Xiangfu Zhang, Subhendra N. Sarkar Phd, Rt May 2019

Modeling Changes In Cellular Micro-Environment In Mild To Moderate Head Trauma, Xiangfu Zhang, Subhendra N. Sarkar Phd, Rt

Publications and Research

Our work aims to connect and model multiple small, inter-related tissue injuries as a consequence of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI). It has been shown that frontal and temporal lobes are vulnerable regions for brain traumatic injury. A brain injury from a blow or high-speed impact can cause undersurface of the frontal and temporal lobes to deform against the anterior and cranial fossae. This deformation can often trigger damage to the cerebral vasculature, which is ill-understood and can result in chronic damage to larger vessels over time. These physiological injuries can be manifested psychologically; such as patients’ sleep-wake disturbances. The ...


The Dionysus Project: Classifying & Monitoring Vineyards With Satellite Remote Sensing & Image Analysis, Evelin Perez-Flores, Nicole Flores May 2019

The Dionysus Project: Classifying & Monitoring Vineyards With Satellite Remote Sensing & Image Analysis, Evelin Perez-Flores, Nicole Flores

Publications and Research

Climate change is expected to impact the wine industry by shifting suitable growing regions away from established regions and increasing the demand for freshwater supplies to maintain vineyard health. This creates challenges for maintaining vineyards since the grapevines need to be appropriately stressed to produce quality grapes for quality wine. This requires precision management of freshwater application and canopy management to produce a grape that has the appropriate concentration of flavors and sugars. Vineyards in the U.S. are typically monitored by vineyard managers at the large scale, lacking the resolution needed to identify grapevine growth at the subfield level ...


Neural Indices Of Vowel Discrimination In Monolingual And Bilingual Infants And Children, Yan H. Yu, Carol Tessel, Henry Han, Luca Campanelli, Nancy Vidal, Jennifer Gerometta, Karen Garrido-Nag, Hia Datta, Valerie L. Shafer Apr 2019

Neural Indices Of Vowel Discrimination In Monolingual And Bilingual Infants And Children, Yan H. Yu, Carol Tessel, Henry Han, Luca Campanelli, Nancy Vidal, Jennifer Gerometta, Karen Garrido-Nag, Hia Datta, Valerie L. Shafer

Publications and Research

Objectives: To examine maturation of neural discriminative responses to an English vowel contrast from infancy to 4 years of age and to determine how biological factors (age and sex) and an experiential factor (amount of Spanish versus English input) modulate neural discrimination of speech.

Design: Event-related potential (ERP) mismatch responses (MMRs) were used as indices of discrimination of the American English vowels [ε] versus [I] in infants and children between 3 months and 47 months of age. A total of 168 longitudinal and cross-sectional data sets were collected from 98 children (Bilingual Spanish–English: 47 male and 31 female sessions ...


Synchronicity: The Role Of Midbrain Dopamine In Whole-Brain Coordination, Jeff A. Beeler, Jakob Kiskye Dreyer Apr 2019

Synchronicity: The Role Of Midbrain Dopamine In Whole-Brain Coordination, Jeff A. Beeler, Jakob Kiskye Dreyer

Publications and Research

Midbrain dopamine seems to play an outsized role in motivated behavior and learning. Widely associated with mediating reward-related behavior, decision making, and learning, dopamine continues to generate controversies in the field. While many studies and theories focus on what dopamine cells encode, the question of how the midbrain derives the information it encodes is poorly understood and comparatively less addressed. Recent anatomical studies suggest greater diversity and complexity of afferent inputs than previously appreciated, requiring rethinking of prior models. Here, we elaborate a hypothesis that construes midbrain dopamine as implementing a Bayesian selector in which individual dopamine cells sample afferent ...


Neuromeasure: A Software Package For Quantification Of Cortical Motor Maps Using Frameless Stereotaxic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Michael B. Gerber, Alasdair C. Mclean, Samuel J. Stephen, Alex G. Chalco, Usman M. Arshad, Gary W. Thickbroom, Josh Silverstein, K. Zoe Tsagaris, Amy Kuceyeski, Kathleen Friel, Taiza E. G. Santos, Dylan J. Edwards Apr 2019

Neuromeasure: A Software Package For Quantification Of Cortical Motor Maps Using Frameless Stereotaxic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Michael B. Gerber, Alasdair C. Mclean, Samuel J. Stephen, Alex G. Chalco, Usman M. Arshad, Gary W. Thickbroom, Josh Silverstein, K. Zoe Tsagaris, Amy Kuceyeski, Kathleen Friel, Taiza E. G. Santos, Dylan J. Edwards

Publications and Research

The recent enhanced sophistication of non-invasive mapping of the human motor cortex using MRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) techniques, has not been matched by refinement of methods for generating maps from motor evoked potential (MEP) data, or in quantifying map features. This is despite continued interest in understanding cortical reorganization for natural adaptive processes such as skill learning, or in the case of motor recovery, such as after lesion affecting the corticospinal system. With the observation that TMS-MEP map calculation and quantification methods vary, and that no readily available commercial or free software exists, we sought to establish and make ...


The Serial Blocking Effect: A Testbed For The Neural Mechanisms Of Temporal-Difference Learning, Ashraf Mahmud, Petio Petrov, Guillem R. Esber, Mihaela D. Iordanova Apr 2019

The Serial Blocking Effect: A Testbed For The Neural Mechanisms Of Temporal-Difference Learning, Ashraf Mahmud, Petio Petrov, Guillem R. Esber, Mihaela D. Iordanova

Publications and Research

Temporal-difference (TD) learning models afford the neuroscientist a theory-driven roadmap in the quest for the neural mechanisms of reinforcement learning. The application of these models to understanding the role of phasic midbrain dopaminergic responses in reward prediction learning constitutes one of the greatest success stories in behavioural and cognitive neuroscience. Critically, the classic learning paradigms associated with TD are poorly suited to cast light on its neural implementation, thus hampering progress. Here, we present a serial blocking paradigm in rodents that overcomes these limitations and allows for the simultaneous investigation of two cardinal TD tenets; namely, that learning depends on ...


The Living Archive In The Anthropocene, Nora Almeida, Jen Hoyer Apr 2019

The Living Archive In The Anthropocene, Nora Almeida, Jen Hoyer

Publications and Research

This paper presents the concept of the living archive as a system which reflects how social behavior and cultural production are part of the Anthropocene. The authors explore how dominant narratives of both the Anthropocene and the archive work to consolidate power and maintain cultural and disciplinary divisions. The authors refute conceptions of the Anthropocene as a purely biophysical phenomenon that is alienated from cultural practice and of the archive as a comprehensive and nostalgic space. They then introduce the living archive as an alternative representational, creative, and reactive space and illustrate how the living archive can intervene in ecological ...


Spinal Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 Regulates Painafter Peripheral Trauma, Maral Tajerian, J. David Clark Apr 2019

Spinal Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 Regulates Painafter Peripheral Trauma, Maral Tajerian, J. David Clark

Publications and Research

It is well documented that pain chronification requires a host of plastic mechanisms at the spinal cord (SC) level, including alterations in neuronal and glial structure and function. Such cellular plasticity necessitates the existence of a plastic extracellular matrix(ECM). Here, we describe a key role for ECM remodeling in the regulation of chronic pain following peripheral injury. Three weeks following tibia fracture in mice, we show increased levels of MMP8 in the SC. Furthermore, we show that the pharmacological or genetic down regulation of MMP8 ameliorates the pain phenotype observed after injury. These results delineate an extracellular mechanism for ...


Interfacial Stress In The Development Of Biologics: Fundamental Understanding, Current Practice, And Future Perspective, Jinjiang Li, Mary E. Krause, Xiaodong Cheng, Yuan Cheng, Weiguo Dai, John J. Hill, Min Huang, Susan Jordan, Daniel Lacasse, Linda Narhi, Evgenyi Shalaev, Ian C. Shieh, Justin C. Thomas, Raymond Tu, Songyan Zheng, Lily Zhu Mar 2019

Interfacial Stress In The Development Of Biologics: Fundamental Understanding, Current Practice, And Future Perspective, Jinjiang Li, Mary E. Krause, Xiaodong Cheng, Yuan Cheng, Weiguo Dai, John J. Hill, Min Huang, Susan Jordan, Daniel Lacasse, Linda Narhi, Evgenyi Shalaev, Ian C. Shieh, Justin C. Thomas, Raymond Tu, Songyan Zheng, Lily Zhu

Publications and Research

Biologic products encounter various types of interfacial stress during development, manufacturing, and clinical administration. When proteins come in contact with vapor–liquid, solid–liquid, and liquid–liquid surfaces, these interfaces can significantly impact the protein drug product quality attributes, including formation of visible particles, subvisible particles, or soluble aggregates, or changes in target protein concentration due to adsorption of the molecule to various interfaces. Protein aggregation at interfaces is often accompanied by changes in conformation, as proteins modify their higher order structure in response to interfacial stresses such as hydrophobicity, charge, and mechanical stress. Formation of aggregates may elicit immunogenicity ...


Proceedings Of The Cuny Games Conference 5.0, Robert O. Duncan, Joe Bisz, Julie Cassidy, Kathleen Offenholley, Carolyn Stallard, Deborah Sturm, Anders A. Wallace Mar 2019

Proceedings Of The Cuny Games Conference 5.0, Robert O. Duncan, Joe Bisz, Julie Cassidy, Kathleen Offenholley, Carolyn Stallard, Deborah Sturm, Anders A. Wallace

Publications and Research

The CUNY Games Network is an organization dedicated to encouraging research, scholarship and teaching in the developing field of games-based learning. We connect educators from every campus and discipline at CUNY and beyond who are interested in digital and non-digital games, simulations, and other forms of interactive teaching and inquiry-based learning. The CUNY Games Conference distills its best cutting-edge interactive presentations into a two-day event to promote and discuss game-based pedagogies in higher education, focusing particularly on non-digital learning activities that faculty can use in the classroom every day. The conference will include workshops lead by CUNY Games Organizers on ...


Phytoene Accumulation In The Novel Microalga Chlorococcum Sp. Using The Pigment Synthesis Inhibitor Fluridone, Kelly Laje, Mark Seger, Barry Dungan, Peter Cooke, Juergen Polle, F. Omar Holguin Mar 2019

Phytoene Accumulation In The Novel Microalga Chlorococcum Sp. Using The Pigment Synthesis Inhibitor Fluridone, Kelly Laje, Mark Seger, Barry Dungan, Peter Cooke, Juergen Polle, F. Omar Holguin

Publications and Research

Carotenoids are lipophilic pigments found in plants and algae, as well as some bacteria, archaea, and fungi that serve two functions—(1) as light harvesting molecules—primary carotenoids, and (2) as antioxidants, acting against reactive oxygen species–secondary carotenoids. Because of their strong antioxidant properties, they are also valuable for the development of anti-aging and photo-protective cosmetic applications. Of particular interest is the carotenoid phytoene, for its colorless and UV absorption characteristics. In this study, we targeted a reduction of phytoene desaturase (PDS) activity with the pigment-inhibiting herbicide 1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-[3- (trifluoromethyl)phenyl]pyridin-4-one (fluridone), which leads to the over-accumulation of ...


Abrogation Of Endogenous Glycolipid Antigen Presentation On Myelin-Laden Macrophages By D-Sphingosine Ameliorates The Pathogenesis Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Yi Ban, Wenjuan Dong, Lixing Zhang, Tian Zhou, Ahmad Sabri Altiti, Khaleel Ali, David R. Mootoo, Victoria A. Biaho, Timothy Hla, Yi Ren, Xiaojing Ma Mar 2019

Abrogation Of Endogenous Glycolipid Antigen Presentation On Myelin-Laden Macrophages By D-Sphingosine Ameliorates The Pathogenesis Of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Yi Ban, Wenjuan Dong, Lixing Zhang, Tian Zhou, Ahmad Sabri Altiti, Khaleel Ali, David R. Mootoo, Victoria A. Biaho, Timothy Hla, Yi Ren, Xiaojing Ma

Publications and Research

Background: Although myelin is composed of mostly lipids, the pathological role of myelin lipids in demyelinating diseases remains elusive. The principal lipid of the myelin sheath is b-galactosylceramide (b-Galcer). Its a-anomer (a-Galcer) has been demonstrated to be antigenically presented by macrophages via CD1d, a MHC class I-like molecule. Myelin, which is mostly composed of b-Galcer, has been long considered as an immunologically-inert neuron insulator, because the antigen-binding cleft of CD1d is highly a-form-restricted.

Results: Here, we report that CD1d-mediated antigenic presentation of myelin-derived galactosylceramide (Mye-GalCer) by macrophages contributed significantly to the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Surprisingly, this presentation ...


Area And Distance From Mainland Affect In Different Ways Richness And Phylogenetic Diversity Of Snakes In Atlantic Forest Coastal Islands, José Thales Da Motta Portillo, Lilian Sayuri Ouchi-Melo, Lucas Batista Crivellari, Thiago Alves Lopes De Oliveira, Ricardo J. Sawaya, Leonardo Da Silva Duarte Mar 2019

Area And Distance From Mainland Affect In Different Ways Richness And Phylogenetic Diversity Of Snakes In Atlantic Forest Coastal Islands, José Thales Da Motta Portillo, Lilian Sayuri Ouchi-Melo, Lucas Batista Crivellari, Thiago Alves Lopes De Oliveira, Ricardo J. Sawaya, Leonardo Da Silva Duarte

Publications and Research

Aim: The Theory of Island Biogeography posits that ecological and evolutionary processes regulate species richness of isolated areas. We assessed the influences of an island area and distance from the mainland on species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and phylogenetic composition of snakes on coastal islands.

Location: Coastal islands of the megadiverse Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

Methods: We compiled the species composition of 17 coastal islands in southeastern Brazil. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity were calculated for each island. Phylogenetic composition was measured using principal coordinates of phylogenetic structure. We then employed generalized linear models to test the influence of area ...


Serum Amyloid P Component Binds Fungal Surface Amyloid And Decreases Human Macrophage Phagocytosis And Secretion Of Inflammatory Cytokines, Nicole E. Behrens, Peter N. Lipke, Darrell Pilling, Richard H. Gomer, Stephen A. Klotz Mar 2019

Serum Amyloid P Component Binds Fungal Surface Amyloid And Decreases Human Macrophage Phagocytosis And Secretion Of Inflammatory Cytokines, Nicole E. Behrens, Peter N. Lipke, Darrell Pilling, Richard H. Gomer, Stephen A. Klotz

Publications and Research

In patients with invasive fungal diseases, there is often little cellular inflammatory response. We tested the idea that binding of the human constitutive plasma protein serum amyloid P component (SAP) (also called PTX2) to Candida albicans dampens the innate immune response to this fungus. Many pathogenic fungi have cell surface amyloid-like structures important for adhesion and biofilm formation. Human SAP bound to fungi that expressed functional cell surface amyloid, but SAP had minimal binding to fungi with reduced expression of cell surface amyloid. In the absence of SAP, phagocytosis of fungi by human macrophages was potentiated by expression of amyloid ...


Tryptophan Confers Resistance To Sds-Associated Cell Membrane Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Lea Schroeder, Amy E. Ikui Mar 2019

Tryptophan Confers Resistance To Sds-Associated Cell Membrane Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Lea Schroeder, Amy E. Ikui

Publications and Research

Sodium dodecyl sulfate is a detergent that disrupts cell membranes, activates cell wall integrity signaling and restricts cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the underlying mechanism of how sodium dodecyl sulfate inhibits cell growth is not fully understood. Previously, we have shown that deletion of the MCK1 gene leads to sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate; thus, we implemented a suppressor gene screening revealing that the overexpression of TAT2 tryptophan permease rescues cell growth in sodium dodecyl sulfatetreated Δmck1 cells. Therefore, we questioned the involvement of tryptophan in the response to sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment. In this work, we show that ...


Cryo-Em Structure Of The Human Ferritin–Transferrin Receptor 1 Complex, Linda Celeste Montemiglio, Claudia Testi, Pierpaolo Ceci, Elisabetta Falvo, Martina Pitea, Carmelinda Savino, Alessandro Arcovito, Giovanna Peruzzi, Paola Baiocco, Filippo Mancia, Alberto Boffi, Amédée Des Georges, Beatrice Vallone Mar 2019

Cryo-Em Structure Of The Human Ferritin–Transferrin Receptor 1 Complex, Linda Celeste Montemiglio, Claudia Testi, Pierpaolo Ceci, Elisabetta Falvo, Martina Pitea, Carmelinda Savino, Alessandro Arcovito, Giovanna Peruzzi, Paola Baiocco, Filippo Mancia, Alberto Boffi, Amédée Des Georges, Beatrice Vallone

Publications and Research

Human transferrin receptor 1 (CD71) guarantees iron supply by endocytosis upon binding of iron-loaded transferrin and ferritin. Arenaviruses and the malaria parasite exploit CD71 for cell invasion and epitopes on CD71 for interaction with transferrin and pathogenic hosts were identified. Here, we provide the molecular basis of the CD71 ectodomain-human ferritin interaction by determining the 3.9 Å resolution single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structure of their complex and by validating our structural findings in a cellular context. The contact surfaces between the heavy-chain ferritin and CD71 largely overlap with arenaviruses and Plasmodium vivax binding regions in the apical part of the ...


Global Biochemical And Structural Analysis Of The Type Iv Pilus From The Gram-Positive Bacterium Streptococcus Sanguinis, Jamie-Lee Berry, Ishwori Gurung, Jan Haug Anonsen, Ingrid Spielman, Elliot Harper, Alexander M. J. Hall, Vivianne J. Goosens, Claire Raynaud, Michael Koomey, Nicolas Biais, Steve Matthews, Vladimir Pelicic Mar 2019

Global Biochemical And Structural Analysis Of The Type Iv Pilus From The Gram-Positive Bacterium Streptococcus Sanguinis, Jamie-Lee Berry, Ishwori Gurung, Jan Haug Anonsen, Ingrid Spielman, Elliot Harper, Alexander M. J. Hall, Vivianne J. Goosens, Claire Raynaud, Michael Koomey, Nicolas Biais, Steve Matthews, Vladimir Pelicic

Publications and Research

Type IV pili (Tfp) are functionally versatile filaments, widespread in prokaryotes, that belong to a large class of filamentous nanomachines known as type IV filaments (Tff). Although Tfp have been extensively studied in several Gram-negative pathogens where they function as key virulence factors, many aspects of their biology remain poorly understood. Here, we performed a global biochemical and structural analysis of Tfp in a recently emerged Gram-positive model, Streptococcus sanguinis. In particular, we focused on the five pilins and pilin-like proteins involved in Tfp biology in S. sanguinis. We found that the two major pilins, PilE1 and PilE2, (i) follow ...


Use Of Plumage And Gular Pouch Color To Evaluate Condition Of Oil Spill Rehabilitated California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus Occidentalis Californicus) Post-Release, Deborah L. Jaques, Kyra L. Mills, Barton G. Selby, Richard R. Veit, Michael H. Ziccardi Feb 2019

Use Of Plumage And Gular Pouch Color To Evaluate Condition Of Oil Spill Rehabilitated California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus Occidentalis Californicus) Post-Release, Deborah L. Jaques, Kyra L. Mills, Barton G. Selby, Richard R. Veit, Michael H. Ziccardi

Publications and Research

Sublethal effects of oil spills may dampen seabird rehabilitation success due to lingering negative impacts of contamination and stress on reproduction and long-term survival. These effects can be difficult to measure while birds are in care as well as once birds are released. Expression of sexually selected traits that are sensitive to condition can provide information on physiological status of birds. We evaluated plumage molt and gular pouch skin color of California brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus) following oil contamination and rehabilitation to test for differences between previously oiled and rehabilitated (post-spill) and presumably uncontaminated pelicans. Post-spill pelicans released with ...


Influence Of Stimulus Intensity On Multimodal Integration In The Startle Escape System Of Goldfish, Camille Mcintyre, Thomas Preuss Feb 2019

Influence Of Stimulus Intensity On Multimodal Integration In The Startle Escape System Of Goldfish, Camille Mcintyre, Thomas Preuss

Publications and Research

Processing of multimodal information is essential for an organism to respond to environmental events. However, how multimodal integration in neurons translates into behavior is far from clear. Here, we investigate integration of biologically relevant visual and auditory information in the goldfish startle escape system in which paired Mauthner-cells (M-cells) initiate the behavior. Sound pips and visual looms as well as multimodal combinations of these stimuli were tested for their effectiveness of evoking the startle response. Results showed that adding a low intensity sound early during a visual loom (low visual effectiveness) produced a supralinear increase in startle responsiveness as compared ...


Advances In Geometric Techniques For Analyzing Blebbing In Chemotaxing Dictyostelium Cells, Zully Santiago, John Loustau, David Meretzky, Devarshi Rawal, Derrick Brazill Feb 2019

Advances In Geometric Techniques For Analyzing Blebbing In Chemotaxing Dictyostelium Cells, Zully Santiago, John Loustau, David Meretzky, Devarshi Rawal, Derrick Brazill

Publications and Research

We present a technical platform that allows us to monitor and measure cortex and membrane dynamics during bleb-based chemotaxis. Using D. discoideum cells expressing LifeAct-GFP and crawling under agarose containing RITC-dextran, we were able to simultaneously visualize the actin cortex and the cell membrane throughout bleb formation. Using these images, we then applied edge detect to generate points on the cell boundary with coordinates in a coordinate plane. Then we fitted these points to a curve with known x and y coordinate functions. The result was to parameterize the cell outline. With the parameterization, we demonstrate how to compute data ...


Commentary: Sugar Metabolism Regulates Flavor Preferences And Portal Glucose Sensing, Anthony Sclafani, Karen Acroff Feb 2019

Commentary: Sugar Metabolism Regulates Flavor Preferences And Portal Glucose Sensing, Anthony Sclafani, Karen Acroff

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Maternal Choline Supplementation Modulates Placental Markers Of Inflammation, Angiogenesis, And Apoptosis In A Mouse Model Of Placental Insufficiency, Julia H. King, Sze Ting (Cecilia) Kwan, Jian Yan, Xinyin Jiang, Vladislav G. Fomin, Samantha P. Levine, Emily Wei, Mark S. Roberson, Marie A. Caudill Feb 2019

Maternal Choline Supplementation Modulates Placental Markers Of Inflammation, Angiogenesis, And Apoptosis In A Mouse Model Of Placental Insufficiency, Julia H. King, Sze Ting (Cecilia) Kwan, Jian Yan, Xinyin Jiang, Vladislav G. Fomin, Samantha P. Levine, Emily Wei, Mark S. Roberson, Marie A. Caudill

Publications and Research

Dlx3 (distal-less homeobox 3) haploinsufficiency in mice has been shown to result in restricted fetal growth and placental defects. We previously showed that maternal choline supplementation (4X versus 1X choline) in the Dlx3+/􀀀 mouse increased fetal and placental growth in mid-gestation. The current study sought to test the hypothesis that prenatal choline would modulate indicators of placenta function and development. Pregnant Dlx3+/􀀀 mice consuming 1X (control), 2X, or 4X choline from conception were sacrificed at embryonic (E) days E10.5, E12.5, E15.5, and E18.5, and placentas and embryos were harvested. Data were analyzed separately for each gestational ...


Cortical And Subcortical Contributions To Neuroplasticity After Repetitive Transspinal Stimulation In Humans, Lynda M. Murray, Anamul Islam Md., Maria Knikou Feb 2019

Cortical And Subcortical Contributions To Neuroplasticity After Repetitive Transspinal Stimulation In Humans, Lynda M. Murray, Anamul Islam Md., Maria Knikou

Publications and Research

The objectives of this study were to establish cortical and subcortical contributions to neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive repetitive transspinal stimulation in human subjects free of any neurological disorder. To meet our objectives, before and after 40 minutes of transspinal stimulation we established changes in tibialis anterior (TA) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) consistent with I-wave periodicity. In order to establish to what extent similar actions are exerted at the spinal cord and motor axons, changes in soleus H-reflex and transspinal evoked potential (TEP) amplitude following transspinal and group Ia ...


Changes In Functional Connectivity Following Treatment With Emotion Regulation Therapy, Matthew A. Scult, David M. Fresco, Faith M. Gunning, Conor Liston, Saren H. Seeley, Emmanuel Garcia, Douglas S. Mennin Feb 2019

Changes In Functional Connectivity Following Treatment With Emotion Regulation Therapy, Matthew A. Scult, David M. Fresco, Faith M. Gunning, Conor Liston, Saren H. Seeley, Emmanuel Garcia, Douglas S. Mennin

Publications and Research

Emotion regulation therapy (ERT) is an efficacious treatment for distress disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety), predicated on a conceptual model wherein difficult to treat distress arises from intense emotionality (e.g., neuroticism, dispositional negativity) and is prolonged by negative self-referentiality (e.g., worry, rumination). Individuals with distress disorders exhibit disruptions in two corresponding brain networks including the salience network (SN)reflecting emotion/motivation and the default mode network (DMN) reflecting self-referentiality. Using resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses, seeded with primary regions in each of these networks, we investigated whether ERT was associated with theoretically consistent changes across nodes of ...


Standards For Distribution Models In Biodiversity Assessments, Miguel B. Araújo, Robert P. Anderson, A. Márcia Barbosa, Colin M. Beale, Carsten F. Dormann, Regan Early, Raquel A. Garcia, Antoine Guisan, Luigi Maiorano, Babak Naimi, Robert B. O'Hara, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Carsten Rahbek Jan 2019

Standards For Distribution Models In Biodiversity Assessments, Miguel B. Araújo, Robert P. Anderson, A. Márcia Barbosa, Colin M. Beale, Carsten F. Dormann, Regan Early, Raquel A. Garcia, Antoine Guisan, Luigi Maiorano, Babak Naimi, Robert B. O'Hara, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Carsten Rahbek

Publications and Research

Demand for models in biodiversity assessments is rising, but which models are adequate for the task? We propose a set of best-practice standards and detailed guidelines enabling scoring of studies based on species distribution models for use in biodiversity assessments. We reviewed and scored 400 modeling studies over the past 20 years using the proposed standards and guidelines. We detected low model adequacy overall, but with a marked tendency of improvement over time in model building and, to a lesser degree, in biological data and model evaluation. We argue that implementation of agreed-upon standards for models in biodiversity assessments would ...


Quantitative Analysis Of The Thrbcrm1-Centered Gene Regulatory Network, Benjamin Souferi, Mark M. Emerson Jan 2019

Quantitative Analysis Of The Thrbcrm1-Centered Gene Regulatory Network, Benjamin Souferi, Mark M. Emerson

Publications and Research

Enhancer activity is determined by both the activity and occupancy of transcription factors as well as the specific sequences they bind. Experimental investigation of this dynamic requires the ability to manipulate components of the system, ideally in as close to an in vivo context as possible. Here we use electroporation of plasmid reporters to define critical parameters of a specific cis-regulatory element, ThrbCRM1, during retinal development. ThrbCRM1 is associated with cone photoreceptor genesis and activated in a subset of developing retinal cells that co-express the Otx2 and Onecut1 (OC1) transcription factors. Variation of reporter plasmid concentration was used to generate ...


Social Learning Through Associative Processes: A Computational Theory, Johan Lind, Stefano Ghirlanda, Magnus Enquist Jan 2019

Social Learning Through Associative Processes: A Computational Theory, Johan Lind, Stefano Ghirlanda, Magnus Enquist

Publications and Research

Social transmission of information is a key phenomenon in the evolution of behaviour and in the establishment of traditions and culture. The diversity of social learning phenomena has engendered a diverse terminology and numerous ideas about underlying learning mechanisms, at the same time that some researchers have called for a unitary analysis of social learning in terms of associative processes. Leveraging previous attempts and a recent computational formulation of associative learning, we analyse the following learning scenarios in some generality: learning responses to social stimuli, including learning to imitate; learning responses to non-social stimuli; learning sequences of actions; learning to ...