Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Papers in Plant Pathology

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 30 of 582

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley Sep 2019

Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments Of Soybean Provide Negligible Benefits To Us Farmers, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Christian H. Krupke, Paul D. Esker, Adam J. Varenhorst, Nicholas J. Arneson, Carl A. Bradley, Adam M. Byrne, Martin I. Chilvers, Loren Giesler, Ames Herbert, Yuba R. Kandel, Maciej J. Kazula, Catherine Hunt, Laura E. Lindsey, Sean Malone, Daren S. Mueller, Seth Naeve, Emerson Nafziger, Dominic D. Reisig, William J. Ross, Devon R. Rossman, Sally Taylor, Shawn P. Conley

Papers in Plant Pathology

Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides worldwide and are typically deployed as seed treatments (hereafter NST) in many grain and oilseed crops, including soybeans. However, there is a surprising dearth of information regarding NST effectiveness in increasing soybean seed yield, and most published data suggest weak, or inconsistent yield benefit. The US is the key soybean-producing nation worldwide and this work includes soybean yield data from 194 randomized and replicated field studies conducted specifically to evaluate the effect of NSTs on soybean seed yield at sites within 14 states from 2006 through 2017. Here we show that across the ...


Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta Jun 2019

Meta-Analysis Of Yield Response Of Foliar Fungicide-Treated Hybrid Corn In The United States And Ontario, Canada, Kiersten A. Wise, Damon Smith, Anna Freije, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Tom Allen, Carl A. Bradley, Emmanuel Byamukama, Martin Chilvers, Travis Faske, Andrew Friskop, Clayton Hollier, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Heather Kelly, Bob Kemerait, Paul Price Iii, Alison Robertson, Albert Tenuta

Papers in Plant Pathology

Foliar fungicide applications to corn (Zea mays L.) occur at one or more application timings ranging from early vegetative growth stages to mid-reproductive stages. Previous studies indicated that fungicide applications are profitable under high disease pressure when applied during the tasseling to silking growth stages. Few comprehensive studies in corn have examined the impact of fungicide applications at an early vegetative growth stage (V6) compared to late application timings (VT) for yield response and return on fungicide investment (ROI) across multiple locations.


Mitotic Recombination And Rapid Genome Evolution In The Invasive Forest Pathogen Phytophthora Ramorum, Angela L. Dale, Nicolas Feau, Sydney E. Everhart, Braham Dhillon, Barbara Wong, Julie Sheppard, Guillaume J. Bilodeau, Avneet Brar, Javier F. Tabima, Danyu Shen, Clive M. Brasier, Brett M. Tyler, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Richard C. Hamelin Mar 2019

Mitotic Recombination And Rapid Genome Evolution In The Invasive Forest Pathogen Phytophthora Ramorum, Angela L. Dale, Nicolas Feau, Sydney E. Everhart, Braham Dhillon, Barbara Wong, Julie Sheppard, Guillaume J. Bilodeau, Avneet Brar, Javier F. Tabima, Danyu Shen, Clive M. Brasier, Brett M. Tyler, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Richard C. Hamelin

Papers in Plant Pathology

Invasive alien species often have reduced genetic diversity and must adapt to new environments. Given the success of many invasions, this is sometimes called the genetic paradox of invasion. Phytophthora ramorum is invasive, limited to asexual reproduction within four lineages, and presumed clonal. It is responsible for sudden oak death in the United States, sudden larch death in Europe, and ramorum blight in North America and Europe. We sequenced the genomes of 107 isolates to determine how this pathogen can overcome the invasion paradox. Mitotic recombination (MR) associated with transposons and low gene density has generated runs of homozygosity (ROH ...


When Viruses Infect Plants, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz Jan 2019

When Viruses Infect Plants, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Just as human beings can catch a cold, plants can also get viral infections. Understanding the mechanisms regulating the interactions between plants and viruses is the first step towards developing better management strategies and using biotechnology methods to immunise plants and engineer genetic resistance to viruses in plants. This is the focus of research by Dr Hernan Garcia-Ruiz and his team based at the University of Nebraska, USA.

Viral diseases in plants can cause important economic losses as a result of poor-quality products and lower yield. This impact can particularly seriously affect developing countries which are more likely to be ...


Host Factors Against Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2019

Host Factors Against Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant virus genome replication and movement is dependent on host resources and factors. However, plants respond to virus infection through several mechanisms, such as autophagy, ubiquitination, mRNA decay and gene silencing, that target viral components. Viral factors work in synchrony with pro-viral host factors during the infection cycle and are targeted by antiviral responses. Accordingly, establishment of virus infection is genetically determined by the availability of the pro-viral factors necessary for genome replication and movement, and by the balance between plant defence and viral suppression of defence responses. Sequential requirement of pro-viral factors and the antagonistic activity of antiviral factors ...


Cryopreservation Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 During An Active Infection Cycle Of Its Host, Samantha R. Coy, Alyssa N. Alsante, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm Jan 2019

Cryopreservation Of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 During An Active Infection Cycle Of Its Host, Samantha R. Coy, Alyssa N. Alsante, James L. Van Etten, Steven W. Wilhelm

Papers in Plant Pathology

Best practices in laboratory culture management often include cryopreservation of microbiota, but this can be challenging with some virus particles. By preserving viral isolates researchers can mitigate genetic drift and laboratory-induced selection, thereby maintaining genetically consistent strains between experiments. To this end, we developed a method to cryopreserve the model, green-alga infecting virus, Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). We explored cryotolerance of the infectivity of this virus particle, whereby freezing without cryoprotectants was found to maintain the highest infectivity (~2.5%). We then assessed the cryopreservation potential of PBCV-1 during an active infection cycle in its Chlorella variabilis NC64A ...


A Small Viral Potassium Ion Channel With An Inherent Inward Rectification, Denise Eckert, Tobias Schulze, Julian Stahl, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel Jan 2019

A Small Viral Potassium Ion Channel With An Inherent Inward Rectification, Denise Eckert, Tobias Schulze, Julian Stahl, Oliver Rauh, James L. Van Etten, Brigitte Hertel, Indra Schroeder, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel

Papers in Plant Pathology

Some algal viruses have coding sequences for proteins with structural and functional characteristics of pore modules of complex K+ channels. Here we exploit the structural diversity among these channel orthologs to discover new basic principles of structure/function correlates in K+ channels. The analysis of three similar K+ channels with ≤ 86 amino acids (AA) shows that one channel (Kmpv1) generates an ohmic conductance in HEK293 cells while the other two (KmpvSP1, KmpvPL1) exhibit typical features of canonical Kir channels. Like Kir channels, the rectification of the viral channels is a function of the K+ driving force. Reconstitution ...


Dna Barcoding Evidence For The North American Presence Of Alfalfa Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Medicaginis, Tom Powers, Andrea Skantar, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Saad Hafez, Zafar Handoo, Tim Todd, Kirsten S. Powers Aug 2018

Dna Barcoding Evidence For The North American Presence Of Alfalfa Cyst Nematode, Heterodera Medicaginis, Tom Powers, Andrea Skantar, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Saad Hafez, Zafar Handoo, Tim Todd, Kirsten S. Powers

Papers in Plant Pathology

Specimens of Heterodera have been collected from alfalfa fields in Kearny County, Kansas and Carbon County, Montana. DNA barcoding with the COI mitochondrial gene indicate that the species is not Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode, H. schachtii, sugar beet cyst nematode, or H. trifolii, clover cyst nematode. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees show that the alfalfa specimens form a sister clade most closely related to H. glycines, with a 4.7% mean pairwise sequence divergence across the 862 nucleotides of the COI marker. Morphological analyses of juveniles and cysts conform to the measurements of H. medicaginis, the alfalfa cyst nematode originally ...


Clarireedia: A New Fungal Genus Comprising Four Pathogenic Species Responsible For Dollar Spot Disease Of Turfgrass, Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Lisa A. Beirn, Adnan Ismaiel, Michael J. Boehm, Ignazio Carbone, Alexander I. Putman, Lane P. Tredway, Bruce B. Clarke, Jo Anne Crouch Apr 2018

Clarireedia: A New Fungal Genus Comprising Four Pathogenic Species Responsible For Dollar Spot Disease Of Turfgrass, Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Lisa A. Beirn, Adnan Ismaiel, Michael J. Boehm, Ignazio Carbone, Alexander I. Putman, Lane P. Tredway, Bruce B. Clarke, Jo Anne Crouch

Papers in Plant Pathology

Dollar spot is one of the most destructive and economically important fungal diseases of amenity turfgrasses. The causal agent was first described in 1937 as the ascomycete Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. However, the genus-level taxonomic placement of this fungus has been the subject of an ongoing debate for over 75 y. Existing morphological and rDNA sequence evidence indicates that this organism is more appropriately placed in the family Rutstroemiaceae rather than the Sclerotiniaceae. Here we use DNA sequence data from samples of the dollar spot fungus and other members of the Rutstroemiaceae (e.g. Rutstroemia, Lanzia, Lambertella) collected throughout the world to ...


Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Nss Protein Supports Infection And Systemic Movement Of A Potyvirus And Is A Symptom Determinant, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta, Patricia A. Harte-Maxwell Jan 2018

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Nss Protein Supports Infection And Systemic Movement Of A Potyvirus And Is A Symptom Determinant, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta, Patricia A. Harte-Maxwell

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant viruses are inducers and targets of antiviral RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressor proteins that interfere with antiviral RNA silencing. The NSs protein is an RNA silencing suppressor in orthotospoviruses, such as the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The mechanism of RNA silencing suppression by NSs and its role in virus infection and movement are poorly understood. Here, we cloned and tagged TSWV NSs and expressed it from a GFP-tagged turnip mosaic virus (TuMV-GFP) carrying either a wild-type or suppressor-deficient (AS9) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro). When expressed in cis, NSs restored pathogenicity and promoted ...


The Tomato U-Box Type E3 Ligase Pub13 Acts With Group Iii Ubiquitin E2 Enzymes To Modulate Fls2-Mediated Immune Signaling, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng Jan 2018

The Tomato U-Box Type E3 Ligase Pub13 Acts With Group Iii Ubiquitin E2 Enzymes To Modulate Fls2-Mediated Immune Signaling, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng

Papers in Plant Pathology

In Arabidopsis and rice, the ubiquitin ligase PUB13-mediated protein degradation plays a significant role in plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and flowering time control. The Arabidopsis PUB13 has been shown to attenuate the pattern recognition receptor FLS2-mediated immune signaling by ubiquitinating FLS2 and consequently promoting its degradation by the 26S proteasome. Nevertheless, the cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) with which PUB13 acts to modulate FLS2-mediated PTI are unknown. To address this question, we investigate here the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) homolog of PUB13, SlPUB13 by utilizing the recently characterized complete set of tomato E2s. Of the 13 groups of tomato E2s, only members ...


Susceptibility Genes To Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2018

Susceptibility Genes To Plant Viruses, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant viruses use cellular factors and resources to replicate and move. Plants respond to viral infection by several mechanisms, including innate immunity, autophagy, and gene silencing, that viruses must evade or suppress. Thus, the establishment of infection is genetically determined by the availability of host factors necessary for virus replication and movement and by the balance between plant defense and viral suppression of defense responses. Host factors may have antiviral or proviral activities. Proviral factors condition susceptibility to viruses by participating in processes essential to the virus. Here, we review current advances in the identification and characterization of host factors ...


Elucidating The Role Of Highly Homologous Nicotiana Benthamiana Ubiquitin E2 Gene Family Members In Plant Immunity Through An Improved Virus‑Induced Gene Silencing Approach, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng Jan 2018

Elucidating The Role Of Highly Homologous Nicotiana Benthamiana Ubiquitin E2 Gene Family Members In Plant Immunity Through An Improved Virus‑Induced Gene Silencing Approach, Bangjun Zhou, Lirong Zeng

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been used in many plant species as an attractive post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) method for studying gene function either individually or at large-scale in a high-throughput manner. However, the specificity and efficiency for knocking down members of a highly homologous gene family have remained to date a significant challenge in VIGS due to silencing of off-targets. Results: Here we present an improved method for the selection and evaluation of gene fragments used for VIGS to specifically and efficiently knock down members of a highly homologous gene family. Using this method, we knocked down ...


Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, Lauren M. Segal, Richard A. Wilson Jan 2018

Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, Lauren M. Segal, Richard A. Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Fungal interactions with plants can involve specific morphogenetic developments to access host cells, the suppression of plant defenses, and the establishment of a feeding lifestyle that nourishes the colonizer often—but not always—at the expense of the host. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is central to the infection process, and the stage-specific production and/or neutralization of ROS is critical to the success of the colonization process. ROS metabolism during infection is dynamic—sometimes seemingly contradictory—and involves endogenous and exogenous sources. Yet, intriguingly, molecular decision-making involved in the spatio-temporal control of ROS metabolism is largely unknown. When also ...


Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, Amauri Bogo, Carla C. Comparin, Rosa M. Valdebenito Sanhueza, Patricia Ritschel, Ricardo T. Casa, Fábio N. Silva, Sydney E. Everhart Jan 2018

Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, Amauri Bogo, Carla C. Comparin, Rosa M. Valdebenito Sanhueza, Patricia Ritschel, Ricardo T. Casa, Fábio N. Silva, Sydney E. Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

The causal agents of apple bull’s-eye rot in southern Brazil have recently been described as Neofabraea actinidiae and N. brasiliensis. Isolates of both species were evaluated for response of mycelial growth index (MGI) to different temperatures, enzyme production, mycelial growth inhibition and effective concentrations (EC50 and EC100) of the fungicides triflumizole, pyrimethanil and thiophanate methyl, as well as aggressiveness on fruits of ‘Fuji’ hybrid and ‘Pink Lady’. There was significantly lower mycelium growth in N. brasiliensis compared with N. actinidiae at all temperatures tested. Neither species grew at 3 and 32°C. There were minor differences in ...


Metagenomic Analysis Of Viruses Associated With Maize Lethal Necrosis In Kenya, Mwathi Jane Wamaitha, Deepti Nigam, Solomon Maina, Francesca Stomeo, Anne Wangai, Joyce Njoki Njuguna, Timothy A. Holton, Bramwel W. Wanjala, Mark Wamalwa, Tanui Lucas, Appolinaire Djikeng, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2018

Metagenomic Analysis Of Viruses Associated With Maize Lethal Necrosis In Kenya, Mwathi Jane Wamaitha, Deepti Nigam, Solomon Maina, Francesca Stomeo, Anne Wangai, Joyce Njoki Njuguna, Timothy A. Holton, Bramwel W. Wanjala, Mark Wamalwa, Tanui Lucas, Appolinaire Djikeng, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Maize lethal necrosis is caused by a synergistic co-infection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a specific member of the Potyviridae, such as Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) or Johnson grass mosaic virus (JGMV). Typical maize lethal necrosis symptoms include severe yellowing and leaf drying from the edges. In Kenya, we detected plants showing typical and atypical symptoms. Both groups of plants often tested negative for SCMV by ELISA. Methods: We used next-generation sequencing to identify viruses associated to maize lethal necrosis in Kenya through a metagenomics analysis. Symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf samples were ...


Profile Of Genetically Modified Plants Authorized In Mexico, Mayra Teresa Garcia Ruiz, Aaron N. Knapp, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2018

Profile Of Genetically Modified Plants Authorized In Mexico, Mayra Teresa Garcia Ruiz, Aaron N. Knapp, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Mexico is a center of origin for several economically important plants including maize, cotton, and cocoa. Maize represents more than a food crop, has been declared a biological, cultural, agricultural and economic patrimony, and is linked to the national identity of Mexicans. In this review, we describe the historic and current use of genetically modified plants in Mexico and factors that contributed to the development of the biosafety regulation. We developed a database containing all permit applications received by the government to release genetically modified plants. A temporal and geographical analysis identified the plant species that have been authorized for ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Of Genes Encoding Core Components Of The Ubiquitin System In Soybean (Glycine Max) Reveals A Potential Role For Ubiquitination In Host Immunity Against Soybean Cyst Nematode, Chunyu Zhang, Li Song, Mani Kant Choudhary, Bangjun Zhou, Guangchao Sun, Kyle C. Broderick, Loren Giesler, Lirong Zeng Jan 2018

Genome-Wide Analysis Of Genes Encoding Core Components Of The Ubiquitin System In Soybean (Glycine Max) Reveals A Potential Role For Ubiquitination In Host Immunity Against Soybean Cyst Nematode, Chunyu Zhang, Li Song, Mani Kant Choudhary, Bangjun Zhou, Guangchao Sun, Kyle C. Broderick, Loren Giesler, Lirong Zeng

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Ubiquitination is a major post-translational protein modification that regulates essentially all cellular and physiological pathways in eukaryotes. The ubiquitination process typically involves three distinct classes of enzymes, ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3). To date, a comprehensive identification and analysis of core components comprising of the whole soybean (Glycine max) ubiquitin system (UBS) has not been reported.

Results: We performed a systematic, genome-wide analysis of genes that encode core members of the soybean UBS in this study. A total of 1431 genes were identified with high confidence to encode putative soybean UBS components, including 4 ...


Field Evaluation Of Commercially Available Small Unmanned Aircraft Crop Spray Systems, Wayne Woldt, D. Martin, M. Latheef, Greg Kruger, Robert J. Wright, Justin Mcmechan, Christopher A. Proctor, Tamra Jackson-Ziems Jan 2018

Field Evaluation Of Commercially Available Small Unmanned Aircraft Crop Spray Systems, Wayne Woldt, D. Martin, M. Latheef, Greg Kruger, Robert J. Wright, Justin Mcmechan, Christopher A. Proctor, Tamra Jackson-Ziems

Papers in Plant Pathology

Agricultural research and development on small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) has been directed toward UAS enabled sensing to detect features of interest. While compelling, there is an immediate need to increase the breadth and depth of UAS-based research, to move beyond sensing, and explore active intervention in agricultural production systems. This paper is focused on the concept of crop protection through ultra-precise, unmanned aerial application systems, and seeks to initiate research discussion in this important area of opportunity. Toward this end, two different, commercially available, small Unmanned Aerial Application Systems (sUAAS - defined as less than 55 lbs. maximum take-off weight ...


Proteomic Analysis Of Ubiquitinated Proteins In Rice (Oryza Sativa) After Treatment With Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (Pamp) Elicitors, Xiao-Lin Chen, Xin Xie, Liye Wu, Caiyun Liu, Lirong Zeng, Xueping Zhou, Feng Luo, Guo-Liang Wang, Wende Liu Jan 2018

Proteomic Analysis Of Ubiquitinated Proteins In Rice (Oryza Sativa) After Treatment With Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (Pamp) Elicitors, Xiao-Lin Chen, Xin Xie, Liye Wu, Caiyun Liu, Lirong Zeng, Xueping Zhou, Feng Luo, Guo-Liang Wang, Wende Liu

Papers in Plant Pathology

Reversible protein ubiquitination plays essential roles in regulating cellular processes. Although many reports have described the functions of ubiquitination in plant defense responses, few have focused on global changes in the ubiquitome. To better understand the regulatory roles of ubiquitination in rice pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), we investigated the ubiquitome of rice seedlings after treatment with two pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the fungal-derived chitin or the bacterialderived flg22, using label-free quantitative proteomics. In chitin-treated samples, 144 and 167 lysine-ubiquitination sites in 121 and 162 proteins showed increased and decreased ubiquitination, respectively. In flg22-treated samples, 151 and 179 lysine-ubiquitination sites in 118 and ...


Tor-Autophagy Branch Signaling Via Imp1 Dictates Plant-Microbe Biotrophic Interface Longevity, Guangchao Sun, Christian Elowsky, Gang Li, Richard Wilson Jan 2018

Tor-Autophagy Branch Signaling Via Imp1 Dictates Plant-Microbe Biotrophic Interface Longevity, Guangchao Sun, Christian Elowsky, Gang Li, Richard Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Like other intracellular eukaryotic phytopathogens, the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe (Pyricularia) oryzae first infects living host cells by elaborating invasive hyphae (IH) surrounded by a plant-derived membrane. This forms an extended biotrophic interface enclosing an apoplastic compartment into which fungal effectors can be deployed to evade host detection. M. oryzae also forms a focal, plant membrane-rich structure, the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC), that accumulates cytoplasmic effectors for translocation into host cells. Molecular decision-making processes integrating fungal growth and metabolism in host cells with interface function and dynamics are unknown. Here, we report unanticipated roles for the M. oryzae Target-of-Rapamycin ...


Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth Promotion And Predictability Of Efficacy By In Vitro Physiological Traits, Rufus J. Akinrinlola, Gary Y. Yuen, Rhae A. Drijber, Anthony O. Adesemoye Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth Promotion And Predictability Of Efficacy By In Vitro Physiological Traits, Rufus J. Akinrinlola, Gary Y. Yuen, Rhae A. Drijber, Anthony O. Adesemoye

Papers in Plant Pathology

Bacilli are commonly used as plant growth-promoting agents but can be limited in effectiveness to certain crop and soil environments. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify Bacillus strains that can be consistent in promoting the growth of corn, wheat, and soybean and (2) determine whether physiological traits expressed in vitro can be predictive of growth promotion efficacy/consistency and be used for selecting effective strains. Twelve Bacillus strains isolated from wheat rhizospheres were evaluated in greenhouse pot tests with nonsterile soil for their effects on the growth of corn, soybean, and wheat. The strains also were assessed ...


Clean Low-Biomass Procedures And Their Application To Ancient Ice Core Microorganisms, Zhi-Ping Zhong, Natalie E. Solonenko, Maria C. Gazitua, Donald V. Kenny, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Virginia I. Rich, James L. Van Etten, Lonnie G. Thompson, Matthew B. Sullivan Jan 2018

Clean Low-Biomass Procedures And Their Application To Ancient Ice Core Microorganisms, Zhi-Ping Zhong, Natalie E. Solonenko, Maria C. Gazitua, Donald V. Kenny, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Virginia I. Rich, James L. Van Etten, Lonnie G. Thompson, Matthew B. Sullivan

Papers in Plant Pathology

Microorganisms in glacier ice provide tens to hundreds of thousands of years archive for a changing climate and microbial responses to it. Analyzing ancient ice is impeded by technical issues, including limited ice, low biomass, and contamination. While many approaches have been evaluated and advanced to remove contaminants on ice core surfaces, few studies leverage modern sequencing to establish in silico decontamination protocols for glacier ice. Here we sought to apply such “clean” sampling techniques with in silico decontamination approaches used elsewhere to investigate microorganisms archived in ice at ~41 (D41, ~20,000 years) and ~49 m (D49, ~30,000 ...


Pushing The Resolution Limit By Correcting The Ewald Sphere Effect In Single-Particle Cryo-Em Reconstructions, Dongjie Zhu, Xiangxi Wang, Qianglin Fang, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann, Zihe Rao, Xinzheng Zhang Jan 2018

Pushing The Resolution Limit By Correcting The Ewald Sphere Effect In Single-Particle Cryo-Em Reconstructions, Dongjie Zhu, Xiangxi Wang, Qianglin Fang, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann, Zihe Rao, Xinzheng Zhang

Papers in Plant Pathology

The Ewald sphere effect is generally neglected when using the Central Projection Theorem for cryo electron microscopy single-particle reconstructions. This can reduce the resolution of a reconstruction. Here we estimate the attainable resolution and report a “block-based” reconstruction method for extending the resolution limit. We find the Ewald sphere effect limits the resolution of large objects, especially large viruses. After processing two real datasets of large viruses, we show that our procedure can extend the resolution for both datasets and can accommodate the flexibility associated with large protein complexes.


Intermolecular Rna Recombination Occurs At Different Frequencies In Alternate Forms Of Brome Mosaic Virus Rna Replication Compartments, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Arturo Diaz, Paul Ahlquist Jan 2018

Intermolecular Rna Recombination Occurs At Different Frequencies In Alternate Forms Of Brome Mosaic Virus Rna Replication Compartments, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Arturo Diaz, Paul Ahlquist

Papers in Plant Pathology

Positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in membrane-bound replication compartments. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) replicates in vesicular invaginations of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. BMV has served as a productive model system to study processes like virus-host interactions, RNA replication and recombination. Here we present multiple lines of evidence showing that the structure of the viral RNA replication compartments plays a fundamental role and that recruitment of parental RNAs to a common replication compartment is a limiting step in intermolecular RNA recombination. We show that a previously defined requirement for an RNA recruitment element on both parental RNAs is not to ...


First Report Of Xanthomonas Vasicola Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak On Corn In The United States, K. A. Korus, J. M. Lang, A. O. Adesemoye, C. C. Block, N. Pal, J. E. Leach, T. A. Jackson-Ziems Jun 2017

First Report Of Xanthomonas Vasicola Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak On Corn In The United States, K. A. Korus, J. M. Lang, A. O. Adesemoye, C. C. Block, N. Pal, J. E. Leach, T. A. Jackson-Ziems

Papers in Plant Pathology

In 2014 and 2015, Zea mays samples (field, seed, and popcorn) were submitted to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln displaying long, dark, yellow to brown, water-soaked, linear lesions confined to the interveinal spaces of the leaves. Initial symptoms appeared as small water-soaked flecks that expanded between veins to form irregular lesions. In some cases, the disease progressed to cover 40 to 50% of the leaf area. The disease was confirmed by symptom expression and bacterial streaming in 41 counties in Nebraska as well as Yuma Co., Colorado, and Phillips Co., Kansas, both contiguous ...


Novel Gene-Sequence Markers For Isolate Tracking Within Monilinia Fructicola Lesions, Madeline E. Dowling, Guido Schnabel, Harriet G. Boatwright, Sydney E. Everhart Feb 2017

Novel Gene-Sequence Markers For Isolate Tracking Within Monilinia Fructicola Lesions, Madeline E. Dowling, Guido Schnabel, Harriet G. Boatwright, Sydney E. Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Monilinia fructicola is a diverse pathogen of pome and stone fruits that causes severe economic losses each year. However, little is known about inoculum flow within or between orchards and pathogen establishment in an orchard, because few methods exist for detecting diversity or tracking isolates over time. SSR loci are an effective option, but may be confounded by a high degree of mutability and potential sensitivity to abiotic stress.

Results: Through transcriptome analysis, we identified novel markers mrr1, DHFR and MfCYP01 and validated stability of these markers under fungicide stress in natural infection sites. Nucleotide variation within mrr1, DHFR ...


The Morphogenesis-Related Ndr Kinase Pathway Of Colletotrichum Orbiculare Is Required For Translating Plant Surface Signals Into Infection-Related Morphogenesis And Pathogenesis, Sayo Kodama, Junya Ishizuka, Ito Miyashita, Takaaki Ishii, Takumi Nishiuchi, Hideto Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Kubo Jan 2017

The Morphogenesis-Related Ndr Kinase Pathway Of Colletotrichum Orbiculare Is Required For Translating Plant Surface Signals Into Infection-Related Morphogenesis And Pathogenesis, Sayo Kodama, Junya Ishizuka, Ito Miyashita, Takaaki Ishii, Takumi Nishiuchi, Hideto Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Kubo

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant infection by pathogenic fungi involves the differentiation of appressoria, specialized infection structures, initiated by fungal sensing and responding to plant surface signals. How plant fungal pathogens control infection-related morphogenesis in response to plant-derived signals has been unclear. Here we showed that the morphogenesis-related NDR kinase pathway (MOR) of the cucumber anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare is crucial for appressorium development following perception of plant-derived signals. By screening of random insertional mutants, we identified that the MOR element CoPag1 (Perish-in-theabsence-of-GYP1) is a key component of the plant-derived signaling pathway involved in appressorium morphogenesis. Constitutive activation of the NDR kinase CoCbk1 ...


Control Of White Mold Of Dry Bean And Residual Activity Of Fungicides Applied By Chemigation, Thomas J.J. Miorini, Carlos G. Raetano, Sydney E. Everhart Jan 2017

Control Of White Mold Of Dry Bean And Residual Activity Of Fungicides Applied By Chemigation, Thomas J.J. Miorini, Carlos G. Raetano, Sydney E. Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes white mold of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Chemigation with fungicides is used for disease control, but effectiveness of this application method and impact of irrigation level on residual fungicide activity in the plant over time under field conditions has not been well characterized. To assess the best method of application and fungicide for disease control, we conducted field studies in three field sites in São Paulo State in Brazil. Contact fungicide, fluazinam, was applied via center pivot at three irrigation levels (2.5, 5.1, 10.1 mm) at the ...


Species Delimitation And Description Of Mesocriconema Nebraskense N. Sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae), A Morphologically Cryptic, Parthenogenetic Species From North American Grasslands, Magdalena Olson, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers, Sean Olson, Thomas O. Powers Jan 2017

Species Delimitation And Description Of Mesocriconema Nebraskense N. Sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae), A Morphologically Cryptic, Parthenogenetic Species From North American Grasslands, Magdalena Olson, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers, Sean Olson, Thomas O. Powers

Papers in Plant Pathology

Nematode surveys of North American grasslands conducted from 2010 to 2015 frequently recovered a species of criconematid nematode morphologically resembling Mesocriconema curvatum. These specimens were recovered from remnant native prairies in the central tallgrass ecoregion of North America, and not from surrounding agroecosystems. Historical records indicate that M. curvatum is a cosmopolitan species feeding on a wide range of agronomic and native plants. DNA barcoding indicates North American grasslands contain at least 10 phylogenetically distinct lineages of Mesocriconema that resemble, but are not, M. curvatum. Analysis of the two most common lineages reveals two distinctly different population structures. The variation ...