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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum Dec 2016

Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum

Masters Theses

An increased likelihood of developing obesity-related knee osteoarthritis may be associated with increased peak internal knee abduction moment. Increases in step width may act to reduce this moment. This study focused on how step width influenced the knee joint during stair ascent by healthy and obese participants. Participants ascended stairs while walking at their preferred speed and under one of two step width conditions – preferred and increased. Obese participants experienced greater mediolateral and vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs), as well as increased peak knee extensor moments and push-off peak internal knee adduction moments. The findings of this study indicate that ...


Do Increases In Fruit Intake Lead To Substitutive Eating Patterns And Decreases In Overall Energy Intake In Normal Weight Adults?, Shireen Amanda Sobhani Aug 2015

Do Increases In Fruit Intake Lead To Substitutive Eating Patterns And Decreases In Overall Energy Intake In Normal Weight Adults?, Shireen Amanda Sobhani

Masters Theses

Background: It is suggested that increasing intake of fruits and vegetables may lead to decreased energy intake via substitution of higher energy-dense foods, such as snack foods (SF; i.e. candy, chips, cookies). This study investigated the impact of increasing fruit (F; grapes) intake, via increased portion size, on SF (potato chips) intake during a meal and whether increases in F intake affected total meal energy intake, via reducing SF intake (substitutive eating), in normal-weight adults. A secondary objective investigated whether the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of SF was a moderator of the substitutive relationship between F and SF.

Methods ...


Exercise And Time Of Day: Influence On Hunger And Caloric Intake Among Overweight/Obese Adults, Molly C. Weber May 2014

Exercise And Time Of Day: Influence On Hunger And Caloric Intake Among Overweight/Obese Adults, Molly C. Weber

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the time of day at which exercise was performed, morning compared to evening, influences acute daily caloric intake and hunger in overweight/obese sedentary adults. 8 overweight/obese (Age: 40 ± 4 yrs, Height: 170 ± 4 cm, Weight: 85.7 ± 6.4 kg, BMI: 29 ± 2 kg/m2) sedentary adults completed 3 trials: control, morning, evening in a randomly counterbalanced cross over design. Caloric intake was assessed over three 4-day periods with subjects consuming ad libitum diets. Hunger was measured 15 minutes before exercise and 15 and 30 minutes following ...


Elementary School Teachers’ Perceptions Of The Role Of Physical Activity In Schools, Amanda Millwood Harrison May 2014

Elementary School Teachers’ Perceptions Of The Role Of Physical Activity In Schools, Amanda Millwood Harrison

Masters Theses

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine and describe elementary school teachers’ perceptions of physical activity among children in an urban, Title I, school in Tennessee. Twelve elementary teachers in Second and Third grade were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. The interview protocol was developed to guide participants from broader concepts regarding physical activity to more focused discussions on the use of physical activity during the school day.

Data presented examines the perceptions of teachers’ overall view of physical activity among children during school hours, the amount of physical activity children engaged in during school hours, the impact ...


Kids Can Bike! A Parks And Recreation Program To Promote Youth Cycling, Jessica Lynn Chandler Aug 2012

Kids Can Bike! A Parks And Recreation Program To Promote Youth Cycling, Jessica Lynn Chandler

Masters Theses

Physical inactivity is a major concern, and is believed to contribute to the high prevalence of childhood obesity in U.S. schoolchildren. To address this problem, the Knoxville Area Coalition on Childhood Obesity launched a ‘Kids Can BIKE!’ program in 2012. The bicycling program is seven weeks long and is designed to increase physical activity, teach safe cycling skills, and explore Knoxville parks and greenways while having fun. The program targeted children in grades 4 and 5 who were already enrolled in an afterschool or summer program. Once a week, the children were transported to a location where they could ...


Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Lipid Accumulation And Inflammation In Cultured 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wenting Xin Carroll Aug 2012

Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Lipid Accumulation And Inflammation In Cultured 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wenting Xin Carroll

Masters Theses

Obesity is characterized by metabolic complications which are related to several life-threatening diseases. Dysregulated inflammatory adipokines secretion from adipose tissue is believed as the major contributor to obesity-associated local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and other metabolic dysfunctions.

Numerous studies in our lab and others pointed to the role of local adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that adipocytes-derived angiotensinogen (Agt) played a critical role in adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis as well as adipose inflammation. To test, we established 3T3-L1 preadipocytes stably transfected with Agt-shRNA or scrambled sequence (Sc-shRNA). Transfected ...


The Effects Of Bisphenol A On Adipose Tissue Development, Metabolism, And Endocrine Function And The Role It May Play In The Development Of Obesity, Brantley Nelson Wyatt May 2011

The Effects Of Bisphenol A On Adipose Tissue Development, Metabolism, And Endocrine Function And The Role It May Play In The Development Of Obesity, Brantley Nelson Wyatt

Masters Theses

While diet and sedentary lifestyle remain important factors in the development of obesity, recent findings have shown the possible involvement of environmental obesogens, chemicals that can disrupt homeostatic energy balance and increase adiposity. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound used in the manufacturing of plastics as a hardening agent and is ubiquitous in the environment due to its widespread use. BPA has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor through its ability to mimic estrogen, which is now known to play important roles in adipose tissue growth and metabolism. In fact, a small but compelling number of studies have shown ...


Regional Differences In Adipose Tissue Of The Sinclair Minipig, Suzanne Lauren Booker Aug 2010

Regional Differences In Adipose Tissue Of The Sinclair Minipig, Suzanne Lauren Booker

Masters Theses

Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ, and its homeostatic mechanisms in normal weight, overweight and obese subjects must be elucidated. We sought to determine the basal adipose tissue biology of visceral (VIF) and subcutaneous (SQF) fat depots in 8 month old Sinclair minipigs, an animal that has been shown to be physiologically similar to humans.

Metabolic analysis showed a decrease in LDL, white blood cells (WBC), and lymphocyte percentages as the minipigs aged from 6 to 8 months (p <0.0001 and = 0.0046 and 0.0165 respectively). There were no significant changes in triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, and neutrophil percentages. There was a trend in insulin increase (P=0.0722).

Microarray analysis was performed to determine transcriptome differences between VIF and SQF. When VIF was compared to SQF, expression of a ...