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Masters Theses

2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 91

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Understanding Marine Ecosystem Services In Malta: A Focus On Climate Regulation, Nursery Habitat And Recreational Services, Erin Marie Reilly Dec 2012

Understanding Marine Ecosystem Services In Malta: A Focus On Climate Regulation, Nursery Habitat And Recreational Services, Erin Marie Reilly

Masters Theses

The research explored the relationship that people have with marine environments around Malta through the framework of ecosystem services with the idea that the results of this research could be used as a starting point for the development of a management plan for the marine environment around Malta. Surveys were conducted targeting residents, tourists, and divers to gain an understanding of stakeholder perception of the threats facing climate regulation, provision of nursery habitat and recreation. These data were used to develop a GIS where essential areas and impacts were compared and areas of potential conflict were identified. There were significant ...


Analyzing Land-Cover Change Within North West Rural Landscapes, Chantal Cassar Dec 2012

Analyzing Land-Cover Change Within North West Rural Landscapes, Chantal Cassar

Masters Theses

Landscape change is an issue of concern within the Maltese Islands; records of landscape change go back at least 450 years, and the rate of change has been particularly accelerated in recent decades. Notwithstanding the importance of this phenomenon, there have been few attempts to trace out patterns of landscape change over time. This study seeks to develop an understanding of landscape change within rural landscapes, over a period of 400 years. A qualitative analytical approach was used with a focus on five case study rural settlements in the North West of Malta. Land surveys and historic documentary sources together ...


Lipophilic And Hydrophilic Quantitative Analysis Of Antioxidant Activity In Tomatoes And Tomato Products, Anna Tran Dinh Dec 2012

Lipophilic And Hydrophilic Quantitative Analysis Of Antioxidant Activity In Tomatoes And Tomato Products, Anna Tran Dinh

Masters Theses

The amount of antioxidants present in food varies depending on environmental conditions in which produce was grown and how products were processed prior to consumption. It would, therefore, be useful to quantify antioxidant activities in these foods. This study focused on quantitative analysis of antioxidant activities in commercially produced whole tomatoes and processed tomato products. For commercially processed tomatoes, diced tomatoes had total antioxidant activities (TAA) ranging from 1.243 to 2.243 μmol TE/g fresh weight (fw), juice 1.573 to 6.86 μmol TE/g fw, paste 6.3 to 13.248 μmol TE/g fw, sauce ...


Investigating The Compatibility Between Natura 2000 Site Protection And Geomorphological Landscapes, Faye Zammit Dec 2012

Investigating The Compatibility Between Natura 2000 Site Protection And Geomorphological Landscapes, Faye Zammit

Masters Theses

Natura 2000 was established under the 1992 Habitats Directive as a EU wide network of nature protection areas by ensuring long-term survival of Europe’s most valuable and threatened species and habitats. Under the Natura 2000 scheme, there are a total of 32 protection areas in both Malta and Gozo. The different structural properties of the various rock layers results in various characteristic formations which are of ecological importance providing important refuge for many Maltese flora and fauna. In Malta, the different geomorphologic features are mainly a result of tectonic movement in which some are still dynamic and over the ...


Economic Analysis Of The Upper South River Special Regulation Area In Augusta County, Virginia, Brian Rapp Dec 2012

Economic Analysis Of The Upper South River Special Regulation Area In Augusta County, Virginia, Brian Rapp

Masters Theses

The Upper South River Special Regulation Area (SRA) is a fishery in Augusta County, Virginia that opened as a trout fishery in January 2011. There is a need to estimate the economic impact of the fishery on the local community in order to find the value of the fishery. The economic value of the fishery is important because of its implications in the management practices as well as funding for future restoration and conservation projects. In this study, the economic impact was estimated to be $78,181 from January 2011 through June 2012. This was calculated based on prior surveys ...


Laboratory And Field Performance Of The Biosand Point Of Use Water Filtration System In The Artibonite Valley, Haiti, Andrew John Sisson Dec 2012

Laboratory And Field Performance Of The Biosand Point Of Use Water Filtration System In The Artibonite Valley, Haiti, Andrew John Sisson

Masters Theses

The research presented here is summary two years of studying the Biosand filter (BSF) both in Haiti during March 2011 and in the laboratory. In Chapter 2, we examined the long term use and sustainability 55 BSF systems near Deschapelles, Haiti and 47% were found to be no longer in use. Interviews with BSF owners revealed problems related to intermittent filter use. A review of 17 BSF field studies also was included to compare and substantiate observations made in Haiti. Together, previous field studies and our observations point toward the importance of providing culturally appropriate technologies and education materials explaining ...


Compatibility Of Essential Oils With The Biocontrol Fungus, Beauveria Bassiana, Wanjing Liu Dec 2012

Compatibility Of Essential Oils With The Biocontrol Fungus, Beauveria Bassiana, Wanjing Liu

Masters Theses

The tomato seedling damping-off pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium have the potential to cause severe loss in the greenhouse and field. Both seed application of Beauveria bassiana and soil amendment with bioactive monarda herbages are sustainable approaches that can play a role in suppressing damping-off of tomato seedlings. The objectives of this research were to determine the compatibility of essential oils and B. bassiana, and to determine the impact of the two when used together as a seed treatment in greenhouse experiments.

Different concentrations of five essential oils that were active against damping-off pathogens (cymene, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, and geraniol) were ...


The Impacts Of Surface Mining Restoration Efforts On Soil Dwelling Nematode Communities In The Appalachian Region, Haley Shae Smith Dec 2012

The Impacts Of Surface Mining Restoration Efforts On Soil Dwelling Nematode Communities In The Appalachian Region, Haley Shae Smith

Masters Theses

Traditional restoration of post mining sites in the southeastern U.S. utilizes methods that discourage above and below-ground succession of native floral and faunal communities. Recent advances in mining restoration techniques proposed by the Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) have improved above-ground plant succession and growth rates in reclaimed sites by developing the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), a process that discourages substrate compaction and encourages native plant succession. The below-ground component of these reclaimed areas remains undescribed, however. Below-ground invertebrate communities in mining restoration sites have been largely ignored, despite their potential importance to the long-term recovery of these profoundly ...


The Effects Of Leucine On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Cell Cycle In A-375 Melanoma Cells, Tia Marie Filhiol Dec 2012

The Effects Of Leucine On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Cell Cycle In A-375 Melanoma Cells, Tia Marie Filhiol

Masters Theses

Most cancer cells undergo the Warburg effect, a shift from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism accompanied by suppression of p53. We have demonstrated leucine stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and p53 expression in both muscle and fat cells. Accordingly, we now sought to determine if leucine stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and exit from cell cycle in A-375 melanoma cells. Because these cells use glucose as their primary substrate, cells were grown under both standard (11.1 mM) and reduced (5.5 mM) glucose conditions. Increasing glucose reduced mitochondrial mass 50-60%, and accelerated cell proliferation by ~20%. Leucine (0.25, 0 ...


Impact Of Rearing Conditions On The Microbiological Quality Of Retail Poultry Meat, Bridgshe Hardy Dec 2012

Impact Of Rearing Conditions On The Microbiological Quality Of Retail Poultry Meat, Bridgshe Hardy

Masters Theses

Poultry and poultry products are a leading source of foodborne pathogens and illnesses. The rearing conditions of poultry can be an influential factor on the presence of foodborne pathogens including Campylobacter and Salmonella because some types of rearing practices have increased risks in terms of biosecurity. However, there is a gap in knowledge of food safety in raw chicken products and no studies have reported the microbiological quality of turkeys produced under different rearing environments. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare conventionally and organically-reared whole chicken and turkey carcasses purchased from three retail outlets in Knoxville, TN ...


Adipose Tissue's Potential Role As A Reproductive Or Lactation Endocrine Gland, Megan Gray Macdougal Dec 2012

Adipose Tissue's Potential Role As A Reproductive Or Lactation Endocrine Gland, Megan Gray Macdougal

Masters Theses

While adipose tissue secretes hormones related to nutrition and metabolism, a few studies have provided evidence suggesting a direct reproductive role from adipose-derived products. The goal of this study was to determine if adipose tissue serves as a reproductive or lactation endocrine gland. Adipose tissue was associated with the reproductive tract of mature female cows in two locations, mesosalpinx and mesometrium (tissues supporting the oviduct and uterus, respectively), in varying amounts. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction on a non-descript pool of cows, LHβ, CGA, PRL, FST, and LEP transcripts were demonstrated to be present in mesosalpinx, subcutaneous, visceral, and peri-renal ...


Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation: Evaluation Of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (Asd) For Warm-Season Vegetable Production In Tennessee, David Grant Mccarty Dec 2012

Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation: Evaluation Of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (Asd) For Warm-Season Vegetable Production In Tennessee, David Grant Mccarty

Masters Theses

Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a non-chemical, pre-plant soil treatment recently developed for control of pests such as soilborne plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes, and weeds in specialty crop systems. Soil treatment by ASD includes incorporating a labile carbon (C) source, tarping with plastic, and irrigation of the topsoil to saturation to facilitate the development of strongly anaerobic soil conditions driven by soil microbes. Processes occurring during the anaerobic decomposition of the added C source have been reported control plant pests. The goal of this project was to evaluate and adapt the ASD procedure to environmental conditions and production systems in ...


Role Of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (Hmb) In Leucine Stimulation Of Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Fatty Acid Oxidation, Renee Ashley Stancliffe Dec 2012

Role Of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (Hmb) In Leucine Stimulation Of Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Fatty Acid Oxidation, Renee Ashley Stancliffe

Masters Theses

Mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting oxidative stress is widely recognized as a contributing factor to the development of numerous pathophysiologies including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, sarcopenia, liver disease, dementia, amongst others. Mitochondrial dysfunction results in a reduced mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity, causing an increase in free radical production and consequently oxidative stress. As such, the characterization of compounds that can upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function could provide the foundation for the development of therapeutic nutraceuticals that promote mitochondrial health, and consequently reduce oxidative stress. Leucine is well recognized to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and we have recently demonstrated that ...


Geographic Variation In The Lower Temperature Tolerance In The Invasive Brown Anole, Anolis Sagrei And The Native Green Anole, Anolis Carolinensis (Sauria: Polychrotidae), Laura Carolina Maria Rubio Dec 2012

Geographic Variation In The Lower Temperature Tolerance In The Invasive Brown Anole, Anolis Sagrei And The Native Green Anole, Anolis Carolinensis (Sauria: Polychrotidae), Laura Carolina Maria Rubio

Masters Theses

Invasive species are considered to be the second greatest threat to native biodiversity and several factors have been identified as contributing to the success of introduced species, including their initial genetic variation and the ability of populations to adapt to a new environment. Temperature has a significant impact on reptilian ecology and distribution since they ordinarily rely on external heat sources for the maintenance of body temperatures suitable for normal activity. Body temperature affects performance in these organisms given its importance for all aspects of behavior, locomotion, courtship and rates of feeding and growth. Critical thermal tolerances can, therefore, give ...


Fatty Acid Synthase 1 In Candida Albicans Virulence And The In Vitro Effects Of Fluconazole, Tetracycline In Combinatorial Therapy, Marissa Mandy Rodrigues Dec 2012

Fatty Acid Synthase 1 In Candida Albicans Virulence And The In Vitro Effects Of Fluconazole, Tetracycline In Combinatorial Therapy, Marissa Mandy Rodrigues

Masters Theses

Candida albicans, the causative agent of superficial and invasive mycoses, is a significant fungal pathogen associated with high mortality rates and considerable health-related costs. The most effective class of antifungals used for the treatment of candidiasis includes polyenes, echinocandins and azoles. However with the emergence of resistant strains, new antifungals are warranted for the effective treatment of candidiasis. Genes involved in biosynthetic enzymatic pathways that regulate metabolic processes are important for the survival of pathogenic fungi and can thus be exploited for the development of better antifungals. Fatty acid synthase 1, which is involved in the de novo biosynthesis of ...


Exploring Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination At Low Ph Environments, Yi Yang Dec 2012

Exploring Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination At Low Ph Environments, Yi Yang

Masters Theses

Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), are ubiquitously pollutants in aquifer sediments and groundwater due to their heavy usage in industry and inappropriate disposal in the last century. Among about 1300 NPL (National Priorities List) sites, PCE and TCE are the two most frequently detected hazardous contaminants.

Engineered bioremediation, including biostimulation and bioaugmentation, is a promising technology to clean those PCE and/or TCE contaminated sites. However, in many contaminated groundwater systems and hazardous waste sites, pH can be lower than 5 to 6. And release of HCl (strong acid) from anaerobic reductive dechlorination may ...


Demographics And Seasonal Abundance Of Sportfish In Three Thermal Habitats Of Coffeen Lake, Anthony Paul Porreca Dec 2012

Demographics And Seasonal Abundance Of Sportfish In Three Thermal Habitats Of Coffeen Lake, Anthony Paul Porreca

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


Origin Of Great Lakes Brown Trout, Salmo Trutta: A Phylogeographic Analysis Using Mtdna Sequence Variation, David Baisch Sep 2012

Origin Of Great Lakes Brown Trout, Salmo Trutta: A Phylogeographic Analysis Using Mtdna Sequence Variation, David Baisch

Masters Theses

The brown trout, Salmo trutta, was first introduced to the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1887 from European broodstocks to found a recreational salmonid fishery; however, the origins of these progenitor lineages remain largely unknown. Trout from these regions are very specialized to their native habitats and matching North American stocks to similar watersheds may help increase survivability by introducing the stock to a more appropriate environment. The objective of this study was to determine the European origins of brown trout found in the Great Lakes. We analyzed 144 brown trout from ten watersheds across Michigan and Wisconsin and identified their ...


Winter Habitat Selection And Genetic Relatedness Of Southern Flying Squirrels In Southwest Michigan, Sheila M. Miara Aug 2012

Winter Habitat Selection And Genetic Relatedness Of Southern Flying Squirrels In Southwest Michigan, Sheila M. Miara

Masters Theses

Few studies have examined winter habitat selection for southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) in northern latitudes where winter conditions are harsher than southern latitudes and resource availability is particularly limiting. Winter den tree characteristics and use by 19 southern flying squirrels (10 females and 9 males) were investigated from November through February in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The mean home range size using 100% minimum convex polygon for 18 individuals was 3.40 ha (±0.46 0.46 SE) and there was no significant difference between genders (P= 0.56) or ages (P=0.50). The mean 95% fixed kernel home ...


Designing Protein Expression And Purification Systems For Recombinant Z Alpha1-Antitrypsin Using The Methylotrophic Yeast, Pichia Pastoris, Monique Jenaie Lemieux Aug 2012

Designing Protein Expression And Purification Systems For Recombinant Z Alpha1-Antitrypsin Using The Methylotrophic Yeast, Pichia Pastoris, Monique Jenaie Lemieux

Masters Theses

It is well established that improper protein folding often leads to the formation of aggregates whose consequences are cellular impairment and cell death. One example of this is the aggregation of the mutant Z Alpha1-Antitrypsin protein, which results in blocking of its secretion due to inclusion body formation. This can contribute not only to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but also to hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments are principally limited to intravenous Alpha1-Antitrypsin therapy and organ transplantation. In the scientific community though, it is widely thought that more effective forms of treatments lie within the polymerization ...


Effects Of A Bacteriological Filter On Vo2max Measured By A Computerized Metabolic System, Christopher William Bach Aug 2012

Effects Of A Bacteriological Filter On Vo2max Measured By A Computerized Metabolic System, Christopher William Bach

Masters Theses

Purpose: To determine the effects of a purple bacteriological filter (PF) on the measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a maximal treadmill test as well as its effect on the expiratory flow measurements during a pulmonary function test. Methods: Male (n=7) and female (n=7) runners (18-35 years old) completed two continuous graded exercise tests (GXTs) followed by pulmonary function tests (PFT); one with a purple filter (PF) and one with no filter (NF). The GXT consisted of running at a constant speed on a treadmill while gradually increasing the grade until volitional exhaustion was reached. Following each ...


Kids Can Bike! A Parks And Recreation Program To Promote Youth Cycling, Jessica Lynn Chandler Aug 2012

Kids Can Bike! A Parks And Recreation Program To Promote Youth Cycling, Jessica Lynn Chandler

Masters Theses

Physical inactivity is a major concern, and is believed to contribute to the high prevalence of childhood obesity in U.S. schoolchildren. To address this problem, the Knoxville Area Coalition on Childhood Obesity launched a ‘Kids Can BIKE!’ program in 2012. The bicycling program is seven weeks long and is designed to increase physical activity, teach safe cycling skills, and explore Knoxville parks and greenways while having fun. The program targeted children in grades 4 and 5 who were already enrolled in an afterschool or summer program. Once a week, the children were transported to a location where they could ...


Modeling Interventions In The Owned Cat Population In Knox County, Tn, Evan Pierce Lancaster Aug 2012

Modeling Interventions In The Owned Cat Population In Knox County, Tn, Evan Pierce Lancaster

Masters Theses

The rapid growth of cat populations in many communities across the United States has resulted in overpopulation and an increase in euthanasia procedures. To combat these challenges, communities have instituted spay/neuter programs as a preventative strategy. In particular, Knox County, Tennessee, has developed and implemented a program, called the Spay Shuttle, which offers free spays and neuters for owned cats throughout the county.

We develop a discrete time, age-structured model of owned female cats in Knox County to investigate the effects of implementing extra spaying intervention strategies to the population over the course of 5 years. We determine that ...


The Mother-Infant Dyad Study: A Grounded Theory Inquiry Into The Day-To-Day Experiences, Between First-Time Mothers And Their Infants, That Influence Feeding Practices, Jennifer Jean Helvey Aug 2012

The Mother-Infant Dyad Study: A Grounded Theory Inquiry Into The Day-To-Day Experiences, Between First-Time Mothers And Their Infants, That Influence Feeding Practices, Jennifer Jean Helvey

Masters Theses

Background: Inappropriate infant-feeding practices linked to excessive, rapid, early weight gain, are potentially powerful intervention points for reducing risk of later obesity. Understanding how and why these behaviors begin is currently the topic of much research. Because breastfeeding has been found to be somewhat protective against early rapid gain, and because low-income, Southeastern U.S. populations are significantly less likely to initiate and maintain breastfeeding, it is critical to focus efforts in these populations. Grounded theory methodology provides the optimal theoretical underpinnings for exploring development of these practices.

Research Objective: The objective was to explore, using grounded theory methodology, the ...


Diffuse Interactions Between Symbiotic Bacteria And Salamanders, Amanda Lee Allison Aug 2012

Diffuse Interactions Between Symbiotic Bacteria And Salamanders, Amanda Lee Allison

Masters Theses

A growing body of evidence indicates that all animals and plants have intimate associations (symbioses) with microbes. Scientific opinion has shifted from viewing microbes primarily as pathogens to the idea that healthy animals and plants carry specialized communities of coevolving microorganisms. However, the generality of this proposition is unknown because surveys rarely compare host-associated microbial assemblages with those of similar host species or free-living assemblages in relevant microhabitats. To evaluate the specificity and consistency of microbial associations in salamanders, I analyzed just over 3.6 million 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences from paired samples from host-associated bacteria on the skin ...


Heritability And Genetic Gain Of Seed Protein, Oil, And Yield Among Ril Of Soybean, Benjamin T. Wiggins Aug 2012

Heritability And Genetic Gain Of Seed Protein, Oil, And Yield Among Ril Of Soybean, Benjamin T. Wiggins

Masters Theses

Soybean is a remarkable crop that is used in many aspects of our everyday lives. The seed protein is used primarily for livestock feed, though it is becoming more available as a meat substitute for human consumption. Soybean oil is used in many products such as plastics, foods, and industrial products. Seed yield is the major trait that is selected for in a breeding program. A population of 239 F4 derived RIL from the cross of USG 5601T × U99-310255 was used to calculate heritability estimates by parent offspring regression and on an entry mean basis. This population was grown ...


The Epidemiology Of Puccinia Emaculata (Rust) In Switchgrass And Evaluation Of The Mycoparasite Sphaerellopsis Filum As A Potential Biological Control Organism For Switchgrass Rust., Jonathan Allen Black Aug 2012

The Epidemiology Of Puccinia Emaculata (Rust) In Switchgrass And Evaluation Of The Mycoparasite Sphaerellopsis Filum As A Potential Biological Control Organism For Switchgrass Rust., Jonathan Allen Black

Masters Theses

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season, perennial grass, whose native range includes the entire United States and north into Canada, excluding areas along the pacific coast. Recently, symptoms and signs of rust disease (Puccinia emaculata) have been observed on agronomic switchgrass, which include chlorosis of leaf tissue, necrosis, lodging, and plant death.

To evaluate disease progress of switchgrass rust, in four fields, individual leaves of twenty-five switchgrass plants were rated once per week for fifteen weeks over two growing seasons for disease severity. Rust was first observed on Julian day 166 and 152 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Ninety-five ...


Northern Bobwhite (Colinus Virginianus) Population Ecology On Reclaimed Mined Lands, Evan Philip Tanner Aug 2012

Northern Bobwhite (Colinus Virginianus) Population Ecology On Reclaimed Mined Lands, Evan Philip Tanner

Masters Theses

The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) has experienced range-wide population declines for the past half century. The primary cause has been large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation. Through auspices of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), large tracts of early successional vegetation have been created throughout much of the bobwhite’s range that may be managed to increase usable space. Peabody WMA is a reclaimed coal mine in Western Kentucky where bobwhite have been present in the past. To better understand the dynamics of this population and how habitat on Peabody WMA influences these dynamics, my two objectives ...


Changes In Carbohydrates Of Navy Beans During Hydration And Subsequent Thermal Processing, Robert Blake Lowe Aug 2012

Changes In Carbohydrates Of Navy Beans During Hydration And Subsequent Thermal Processing, Robert Blake Lowe

Masters Theses

Navy beans were subjected to six different hydration protocols that varied in time, temperature, and methodology after which they were thermally processed in both a brine solution and a typical baked bean sauce. Beans, isolated starch, and hydration fluid were analyzed immediately after the completion of hydration protocols. Significant differences were noted between those protocols utilizing low heat (1 and 2) and those utilizing high heat methods (3-6). Bean from low heat protocols were firmer overall. Starch granules from low heat beans were smaller in overall size, experienced less surface damage retained birefringence, and could absorb more water (higher swell ...


Applicability Of Pigment Compounds For Reducing Light Stress In Bentgrass, Gregory Keith Bartley Aug 2012

Applicability Of Pigment Compounds For Reducing Light Stress In Bentgrass, Gregory Keith Bartley

Masters Theses

Chlorinated copper phthalocyanine (Signature) and pulverized cells of Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorella) were evaluated in a controlled environment for their ability to act as photoprotectants under supraoptimal levels of ultraviolet (UV) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) when applied to plant leaves. Plant pigment changes were documented using High Performance Liquid Chromatography following 1 week of exposure to supraoptimal light in two separate experiments incorporating UV (106.6 μmol m-2 s-1) and PAR (760.6 μmol m-2 s-1) over a 12h photoperiod. Supraoptimal levels of UV and PAR light were found to cause significant reductions in Agrostis palustris chlorophyll and carotenoid leaf ...