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Dental Topographic Analysis Of Maxillary And Mandibular Phyllostomid Bat Dentitions: Implications For Dietary Prediction In The Fossil Record, Colin Pellegrom Apr 2019

Dental Topographic Analysis Of Maxillary And Mandibular Phyllostomid Bat Dentitions: Implications For Dietary Prediction In The Fossil Record, Colin Pellegrom

Masters Theses

Mammalian dental anatomy has evolved in accordance with the physical properties of its diet, and multiple features on each tooth have specific functions related to the breakdown of food during mastication and ingestion. Tooth structure is under tight genetic control and much of the anatomical variation in dentition across species is related to adaptation to a specific dietary regime. This diet-dentition relationship can be exploited to reconstruct mammalian diets from fossil specimens through calculation of dental topographic metrics. To date, most studies of dietary reconstruction using dental topography have focused on mandibular molars; thus, this study seeks to test whether ...


Mechanisms And Mitigation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Single Fibers From Older Adults, Aurora Foster Jan 2019

Mechanisms And Mitigation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue In Single Fibers From Older Adults, Aurora Foster

Masters Theses

Skeletal muscle fatigue is the contraction-induced decline in whole muscle force or power, and can be greater in older versus young adults. Fatigue primarily results from increased metabolism elevating phosphate (Pi) and hydrogen (H+), which alters myosin-actin interactions; however, which steps of the myosin-actin cross-bridge cycle are changed and their reversibility are unclear. PURPOSE: This study sought to: 1) Examine the effects of elevated Pi and H+ on molecular and cellular function, and 2) Test the ability of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP), an alternative energy to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to reverse the contractile changes induced with high Pi ...


The Effects Of Acidosis On Calcium Dependent Binding Of A Single Crossbridge, Matthew Unger Jan 2019

The Effects Of Acidosis On Calcium Dependent Binding Of A Single Crossbridge, Matthew Unger

Masters Theses

Intracellular acidosis is a putative agent of skeletal muscle fatigue, in part, because acidosis depresses the calcium (Ca2+) sensitivity and force production of muscle (18, 50). However, the molecular mechanisms behind this depression in Ca2+ sensitivity and force production are unknown. This gap in knowledge poses a significant challenge in generating a complete understanding of the fatigue process. To close this gap, the ability of myosin to bind to a single actin filament was measured under acidic conditions, in a laser trap assay, with and without regulatory proteins. Decreasing pH from 7.4 to 6.5 reduced the ...


The Effects Of Two Different Sports Drinks On Rpe And Finishing Speed Of An Endurance Run In Highly Trained Distance Runners, Matthew J. Feldhake Jan 2018

The Effects Of Two Different Sports Drinks On Rpe And Finishing Speed Of An Endurance Run In Highly Trained Distance Runners, Matthew J. Feldhake

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a protein-containing sport drink with a traditional non-protein sport drink has on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and finishing speed of an half marathon. Of the possible factors that would support including protein in a sport drink the primary one was its inhibitory effect on serotonin release in the brain. This could help attenuate perceived exertion, thus allowing individuals to compete at a higher level for longer durations (Davis, Alderson, & Welsh, 2000).

This study was conducted using nine members of the Eastern Illinois University Men's Cross Country team ...


The Effects Of Coffee Ingestion On The Acute Testosterone Response To Exercise, Taylor Landry May 2017

The Effects Of Coffee Ingestion On The Acute Testosterone Response To Exercise, Taylor Landry

Masters Theses

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of coffee ingestion (COF) on serum testosterone responses to exercise in recreationally weight-trained males. Subjects ingested either 12 ounces of 6mg/kg caffeinated coffee (COF), decaffeinated coffee (DEC), or water (PLA) one hour prior to exercise in a randomized, within-subject, crossover design. The exercise session consisted of 21 minutes of high intensity interval cycling (alternating intensities corresponding to two minutes at power outputs associated with 2.0 mmol/L lactate and 4.0 mmol/L lactate) followed by resistance exercise (7 exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, 65% 1RM, 1-minute rest periods). Subjects also ...


The Effects Of Caffeine Ingestion On The Hemostatic Response To Simulated Firefighting Activities, Sierra D. Wassell May 2017

The Effects Of Caffeine Ingestion On The Hemostatic Response To Simulated Firefighting Activities, Sierra D. Wassell

Masters Theses

Sudden cardiac events are the leading cause of death among firefighters, and it is acknowledged that most ischemic events are due to an occlusive thrombus formation. In addition, due to the demanding job requirements and shift work, firefighters commonly overuse caffeine. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effects of caffeine on the hemostatic response to simulated firefighting activity. Twelve healthy male firefighters (age, 31.3 ± 5.4 yrs; weight, 94.2 ± 13.1 kg; BMI, 28.7 ± 2.9 kg·m-2) participated in this study, wearing full personal protective equipment (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus ...


The Effect Of Ambient Temperature On Recovery Of Surgical Stress In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Romie D. Powell May 2017

The Effect Of Ambient Temperature On Recovery Of Surgical Stress In Sprague-Dawley Rats, Romie D. Powell

Masters Theses

Laboratory animals are housed at ambient temperatures ranging from 20°C – 26°C per recommended guidelines. Rats in particular typically prefer ambient temperatures (Tamb) of ~27°C (Brown et al, 2011). When rats undergo surgical instrumentation for experimental use, they often recover at normal room temperature (~21°C). While this is comfortable to those maintaining them, it may lead to a cold thermal stress for the rats. It is hypothesized that housing rats at ambient temperatures away from their preferred Tamb could lead to a thermal stress, which adversely affects surgical recovery. To address this, rats (220g-350g) were surgically instrumented ...


Metabolic And Morphologic Shifts In Neuro2a Cells Cultured In Galactose Medium, Leah Welker Jan 2017

Metabolic And Morphologic Shifts In Neuro2a Cells Cultured In Galactose Medium, Leah Welker

Masters Theses

It has been observed that highly-proliferating cells, such as cancer cells, rely mainly on glycolysis for ATP production, regardless of presence of oxygen. This effect, however, can be reversed by changing the main energy substrate in the medium from glucose to galactose. The oxidation of galactose in glycolysis yields less net ATP, presumably forcing the cell into OXPHOS. This has been established in many cell lines, including HeLA, HepG2, and skeletal muscle cells. As of yet, this has not been reproduced in neuronal cells. Using Neuro2a, a murine neuroblastoma cell line, this study exposes neuronal cells to galactose medium, and ...


Botswana’S Elephant-Back Safari Industry – Stress-Response In Working African Elephants And Analysis Of Their Post-Release Movements, Tanya Lama Jan 2017

Botswana’S Elephant-Back Safari Industry – Stress-Response In Working African Elephants And Analysis Of Their Post-Release Movements, Tanya Lama

Masters Theses

Understanding how African elephants (Loxodonta africana) respond to human interactions in ecotourism operations is critical to safeguarding animal and human welfare and sustaining wildlife ecotourism activities. We investigated the stress response of elephants to a variety of tourist activities over a 15-month period at Abu Camp in northern Botswana. We compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations across three elephant groups, including: eight elephants in an elephant-tourism operation (Abu herd), three elephants previously reintroduced back into the wild from the Abu herd, and wild elephants. There were no differences in FGM concentrations between the three groups of elephants. The highest observed ...


The Effects Of Limb Dominance On Cross-Education In A Four Week Resistance Training Program, Caitlin Wend Jan 2017

The Effects Of Limb Dominance On Cross-Education In A Four Week Resistance Training Program, Caitlin Wend

Masters Theses

Cross-education is known as the phenomenon of strength transfer from the trained side of the body to the untrained side of the body by unilateral resistance training. Research has shown that limb dominance has an effect on the amount of strength that is gained on the untrained side. Studies have found that there is a greater cross over effect in strength from the dominant side of the body to the non-dominant side of the body than vice versa. The present study examined this effect by taking 12 college females and splitting them into three groups: dominant training, non-dominant training, and ...


The Influence Of Different Pre-Exercise Routines On Sprint Performance, Rok Mravljak Jan 2017

The Influence Of Different Pre-Exercise Routines On Sprint Performance, Rok Mravljak

Masters Theses

Sprint performance can be enhanced by interventions for short-term (acute) purposes and/or long-term purposes. Acute neuromuscular responses are usually achieved by using different pre-exercise routines at the end of the warm-up period. Recently, there have been several studies examining the effects of various pre-exercise routines on sprint performance, yet there has not been a research study designed that compared the three most commonly used pre-exercise routines in professional and recreational sports (static stretching, dynamic stretching and foam-rolling). Therefore, this study investigated and compared the results of static stretching, dynamic stretching, self-myofascial release and the control group, in order to ...


Effects Of 17Β Estradiol In The Metabolism And Morphology Of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Neeta Parajulee Karki Jan 2017

Effects Of 17Β Estradiol In The Metabolism And Morphology Of Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), Neeta Parajulee Karki

Masters Theses

Fish natural habitats are increasingly contaminated with various estrogenic compounds, including 17β estradiol (E2). This compound causes adverse effects on the reproductive system of male fish; however, the effects of E2 on other aspects of fish metabolism, morphology and histopathological changes in internal organs are not well known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of E2 exposure on the basal and stressed metabolic rate, morphological changes in body shapes, and histological changes in the liver tissues of sunfish species. Fish were held individually in ten gallon tanks under two treatments of 40 and 80 ng/L ...


The Role Of Creg1 As A Master Regulator Of Liver Function, Abdulrahman Siran Aldaghmi Jan 2017

The Role Of Creg1 As A Master Regulator Of Liver Function, Abdulrahman Siran Aldaghmi

Masters Theses

The liver is known as the chemical factory of the body because it performs a wide range of biochemical functions required for life. Since the liver has such an important role in regulation of normal physiological processes, liver diseases cause a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of liver development will shed light on the causes of liver disease. In this study, a cell line model that utilizes rat hepatoma cells (Fg14) and hepatoma variant cells (H11) was used to identify master regulators of liver gene expression. Whole genome expression studies identified the gene CREG1 (Cellular ...


Follicular Dynamics In Insulin Resistant Mares, Julio Cesar Prado Dec 2016

Follicular Dynamics In Insulin Resistant Mares, Julio Cesar Prado

Masters Theses

Obesity and insulin resistance have been linked to prolonged interovulatory period, aberrations in the estrous cycle, and continuous reproductive activity during the non-breeding season. EMS has been determined to influence the intrafollicular environment of mare ovaries. In humans, insulin resistance has been linked to polycystic ovaries as part of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). A study was conducted to determine 1) the impact of insulin resistance on follicle growth and size at ovulation, and 2) whether predicted ovulatory follicles respond to hCG administration in Insulin-resistant (IR) mares. Mares were selected for the study based on insulin sensitivity and separated into an ...


The Effects Of Actigraph Bandpass Filtering On Activity Counts During Continuous And Intermittent Lifestyle Activity, Samuel Robert Lamunion Aug 2016

The Effects Of Actigraph Bandpass Filtering On Activity Counts During Continuous And Intermittent Lifestyle Activity, Samuel Robert Lamunion

Masters Theses

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore how increasing the upper limit of the bandpass filter frequency range affected accelerometer counts collected during treadmill walking and running, car driving and intermittent lifestyle activities METHODS: Part A included treadmill walking, running, and car driving (N=20) (mean ± [plus or minus] SD; age, 24.4±3.4 years; body mass index (BMI, 26.4±3.3 kg/m2 [kilograms per meter squared]). Part B included ten lifestyle activities ranging from sedentary behaviors to vigorous intensities (N=30) (mean±SD; age, 23.0±2.3 years; BMI, 25.1±3 ...


Modifications Of Myofilament Structure And Function During Global Myocardial Ischemia, Mike K. Woodward Jan 2016

Modifications Of Myofilament Structure And Function During Global Myocardial Ischemia, Mike K. Woodward

Masters Theses

Cardiac arrest is a prevalent condition with a poor prognosis, attributable in part to persistent myocardial dysfunction following resuscitation. The molecular basis of this dysfunction remains unclear. We induced cardiac arrest in a porcine model of acute sudden death and assessed the impact of ischemia and reperfusion on the molecular function of isolated cardiac contractile proteins. Cardiac arrest was electrically induced, left untreated for 12 min, and followed by a resuscitation protocol. With successful resuscitations, the heart was reperfused for 2 h (IR2) and the muscle harvested. In failed resuscitations, tissue samples were taken following the failed efforts (IDNR). Actin ...


The Effect Of Run Sprint Interval Training On Diabetic Metabolic Markers In Prediabetic Adults, Kathryn L. Hilovsky May 2015

The Effect Of Run Sprint Interval Training On Diabetic Metabolic Markers In Prediabetic Adults, Kathryn L. Hilovsky

Masters Theses

Abstract

Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-week run-sprint interval training (R-SIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (MIT) on fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function in sedentary, prediabetic adults. Secondary outcomes of the study included anthropometric, body composition variables, and aerobic capacity.

Methods: Sedentary, physician diagnosed prediabetic individuals were randomized into R-SIT (n=7, BMI 36.76 ± 9.79) or MIT (n=8, BMI 40.59 ± 12.49) interventions. Subjects participated in supervised exercise three times a week and attended a Diabetes Prevention Program course, once weekly. R-SIT participants performed ...


The Effects Of Ovarian Hormones And Exercise On Gene Markers Of Cardiac Dysfunction, Anisha S. Patel Jan 2015

The Effects Of Ovarian Hormones And Exercise On Gene Markers Of Cardiac Dysfunction, Anisha S. Patel

Masters Theses

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Premenopausal women appear to have better cardiac function and lower risk of heart disease compared to male postmenopausal female counterparts. Ovarian hormone loss influences blood pressure homeostasis and causes systemic inflammation, which may result in chronic stress on the heart. Two key physiological changes in cardiac dysfunction are reemergence of the fetal gene pattern and myocardial remodeling. Physical activity has been linked to improved cardiac function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ovariectomy on early markers of cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis ...


D-Galactose Decreases Mitoneet Levels In Liver Cancer Cells: Impact On Cellular Bioenergetics, Sudip Paudel Jan 2015

D-Galactose Decreases Mitoneet Levels In Liver Cancer Cells: Impact On Cellular Bioenergetics, Sudip Paudel

Masters Theses

Galactose is a simple sugar that at supraphysiological concentrations accelerates aging and age-related complications, which lead to impaired mitochondrial functions. MitoNEET is a small mitochondrial membrane protein with a molecular mass of 12.2 kDa that functions in diabetes, iron metabolism, regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. MitoNEET knockdown increases cellular respiration rates and ROS levels similar to galactose treatment. Pioglitazone, an antidiabetic drug, binds to mitoNEET and ameliorates galactose toxicity. Cellular mitoNEET levels, exposure of cells to galactose medium, and pioglitazone treatment directly influence cellular respiration. To elucidate the role of mitoNEET in galactose ...


Aminocyclopyrachlor Efficacy For Non-Cropland Weed Control, José Javier Vargas Almodóvar Aug 2014

Aminocyclopyrachlor Efficacy For Non-Cropland Weed Control, José Javier Vargas Almodóvar

Masters Theses

The production of chemicals for crop protection purposes evolved after World War II with the commercialization of the auxin herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA. Their utility and effectiveness created an interest for North American and European companies to develop and research thousands of agrochemicals available today.

Recently discovered and introduced to the market by DuPont Crop Protection, aminocyclopyrachlor is the first broad spectrum synthetic auxin herbicide in this chemical class, and is structurally similar to the auxin herbicides: aminopyralid, clopyralid and picloram. Aminocyclopyrachlor has activity on broadleaf weed species with limited activity on monocot species. Aminocyclopyrachlor is absorbed via plant ...


Rapid Method Of Processing Sperm For Nucleic Acid Extraction In Clinical Research, Matthew K. De Gannes Jan 2014

Rapid Method Of Processing Sperm For Nucleic Acid Extraction In Clinical Research, Matthew K. De Gannes

Masters Theses

Background: Sperm contain highly compact nuclei, inhibiting DNA extraction using traditional techniques. Current methods extracting sperm DNA involve lengthy lysis and no means of stabilizing DNA, hindering clinical research.

Objective: We sought to optimize an efficient method of extracting high quality human sperm DNA.

Methods: Sperm from three volunteers were isolated using PureCeption. We tested 1) proteinase K with DNA/RNA Shield, 2) DTT and TCEP as reducing agents, 3) QIAshredder homogenization, and 4) stability of sperm DNA fresh (baseline) or after 4 weeks of storage at 4OC in DNA/RNA Shield using modified Quick-gDNA MiniPrep. DNA was ...


The Effects Of Theophylline And 8-Cyclopentyltheophylline On The Respiratory Response To Carbon Dioxide In Neonatal Rats, Christine E. Albers Jan 2014

The Effects Of Theophylline And 8-Cyclopentyltheophylline On The Respiratory Response To Carbon Dioxide In Neonatal Rats, Christine E. Albers

Masters Theses

Premature infants are often plagued with respiration problems ranging from periodic breathing to apnea. These respiratory complications can be a result of underdeveloped respiratory organs, immaturity of the brainstem respiratory control center, genetic irregularities, or a combination of all three. This study sought to increase respiration with the administration of methylxanthines, which are respiratory stimulants, coupled with carbon dioxide (CO2), also a respiratory stimulant. Neonatal rats aged 4 to 7 days old were used to mimic premature infants' response to the interaction of methylxanthines and CO2. Before beginning the respiratory studies, sections of a 4- and 7-day-old rat ...


Why Is There Still So Much Confusion About Vo2 Plateau? A Re-Examination Of The Work Of A.V. Hill, Richard Vincent Castle Jun 2011

Why Is There Still So Much Confusion About Vo2 Plateau? A Re-Examination Of The Work Of A.V. Hill, Richard Vincent Castle

Masters Theses

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is regarded as the gold standard for assessing aerobic fitness. In 1923, Hill et al. proposed that VO2max represents the maximal ability of the body to take in and consume O2 during strenuous exercise. Recently, however, controversy has arisen over the issue of whether a leveling off, or "plateau" in VO2 is necessary to verify attainment of VO2max. Purpose: To compare two different VO2max protocols and determine if both protocols show direct evidence of an upper limit on VO2. Methods: Nine runners (18-35 years old) completed a continuous graded ...


Accuracy Of Physical Activity Monitors In Pregnant Women, Christopher P. Connolly May 2010

Accuracy Of Physical Activity Monitors In Pregnant Women, Christopher P. Connolly

Masters Theses

Purpose: To determine the step count accuracy of three pedometers and one accelerometer in pregnant women during treadmill walking. Methods: Subjects were 30 women in the second or third trimester (20-36 weeks) who were screened for pregnancy-related risk factors. Each subject was fitted with a belt containing three physical activity monitors: Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 (DW), New Lifestyles NL 2000 (NL), and GT3X Actigraph accelerometer (ACT). The Omron HJ-720 (HJ) was placed in the pants pocket. Subjects walked at 54, 67, 80, and 94 m•min-1 for two minutes each. Actual steps were determined by an investigator using a hand-tally counter ...


Early Vessel Evolution And The Diversification Of Wood Function: Insights From The Malagasy Canellales, Patrick Joseph Hudson May 2010

Early Vessel Evolution And The Diversification Of Wood Function: Insights From The Malagasy Canellales, Patrick Joseph Hudson

Masters Theses

Xylem vessels have long been proposed as a key innovation for the ecological diversification of angiosperms by providing a breakthrough in hydraulic efficiency to support high rates of photosynthesis and growth. However, recent studies demonstrated that angiosperm woods with structurally ‘primitive’ vessels did not have greater whole stem hydraulic capacities as compared to vesselless angiosperms. As an alternative to the hydraulic superiority hypothesis, the heteroxylly hypothesis proposes that subtle hydraulic efficiencies of primitive vessels over tracheids enabled new directions of functional specialization in the wood. However, the functional properties of early heteroxyllous wood remain unknown. We selected the two species ...


Changes In Body Composition And Physical Activity Behavior In A Group Of College Freshmen, Tracy A. Swibas Aug 2007

Changes In Body Composition And Physical Activity Behavior In A Group Of College Freshmen, Tracy A. Swibas

Masters Theses

PURPOSE: To compare: 1-the physiological profile of former athletes (Ath) and non-athletes (Non-Ath) upon college entrance, 2-PA levels in these groups, and 3-changes in physiological profile and PA level of former Ath and Non-Ath and females and males over the course of freshman year. Sixty-two college freshmen were tested during the initial weeks of the school year and again during the final weeks of the school year; the sample consisted of 32 former Ath (18 females and 14 males) and 30 Non-Ath (19 females and 11 males). METHODS: Body composition (BC) was assessed using the Bod Pod with a conversion ...


Physical Activity Levels Of College Freshman: Comparison Of Surveys With Objective Measures Of Physical Activity, Lois Amber Mcmahan May 2007

Physical Activity Levels Of College Freshman: Comparison Of Surveys With Objective Measures Of Physical Activity, Lois Amber Mcmahan

Masters Theses

PURPOSE: This study compared measures of physical activity (PA) taken from the 7- day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) with those obtained from the NL 2000 (NL) and Lifecorder (LC) accelerometers in entering, college freshmen.

METHODS: 47 males and 64 females (overall age =18.5±.3 yrs, wt. = 68.7±14.4 kg, and BMI = 23.7 ±4.9) volunteered and signed an informed consent form. All subjects wore the NL for 7 days, and half wore the LC as well. After the 7 days the subjects completed the PAR and IPAQ.

RESULTS: There ...


The Effects Of Strength Training On The Bone Mineral Density Of Aerobically Trained Perimenopausal Women, Jill Marie Kowalski Jan 2001

The Effects Of Strength Training On The Bone Mineral Density Of Aerobically Trained Perimenopausal Women, Jill Marie Kowalski

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine if a strength training program has an effect on the bone mineral density of aerobically trained perimenopausal women. The study also hoped to determine if high intensity strength training with low repetitions will result in a greater increase in bone density as compared with low intensity strength training with high repetitions. The duration of the study was six months.

The participants were twenty-five aerobically trained perimenopausal female volunteers. They were randomly selected to be in one of three groups. Group 1 was the aerobic control where the participants continued with their aerobic ...


The Effect Of Two States Of Hydration On Muscular Endurance In Men, Melissa L. Petrucci Jan 2000

The Effect Of Two States Of Hydration On Muscular Endurance In Men, Melissa L. Petrucci

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two states of hydration has an effect on muscular endurance in men. Two groups of four men randomly assigned to each group participated in both states of hydration. Both groups were tested at baseline for height, weight, intra- and extra-cellular water, total body water, and a one-repetition maximum strength test. Subjects were then tested after a 24 hour period of water deprivation, and after a 24 hour period of normal water intake (8 ten oz glasses of water). A urine specific gravity test, intra- and extra-cellular water, total body ...


A Comparison Of Nutritional Knowledge, Eating Attitudes, Training Regimens, And Body Composition Between Normal And Abnormal Menstruating Female Adolescent Cross Country Athletes, Dena Maureen Block Jan 1999

A Comparison Of Nutritional Knowledge, Eating Attitudes, Training Regimens, And Body Composition Between Normal And Abnormal Menstruating Female Adolescent Cross Country Athletes, Dena Maureen Block

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to compare factors that may influence menstrual irregularities of female adolescent high school cross-country runners, ranging from 13-18 years of age. A survey was utilized to determine the subjects age, year in school, exercise history, menstrual history, and training regimens and where the subjects sought nutritional information. The groups were separated according to their current menstrual status. One group (normal) consisted of subjects who currently had a normal menstrual cycle for at least one year (n=17), while the other group (abnormal) (n=18) experienced an irregular menstrual cycle.

A twenty item questionnaire was ...