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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Microplastics In Full View: Birds As Bioindicators Of Malta's Coastal Ecosystem Health, Dalton Brauer Dec 2018

Microplastics In Full View: Birds As Bioindicators Of Malta's Coastal Ecosystem Health, Dalton Brauer

Masters Theses

Plastic pollution has recently become a widely studied topic, yet research on microplastics has remained lacking for specific geographic regions. Microplastics are small plastics resulting from degradation or the dumping of raw material and can lead to deleterious impacts on the coastal marine environment and its organisms. To assess Malta’s coastal environmental health, water birds (inshore, offshore and pelagic species) were used as bioindicators by assessing the presence and abundance of plastic within their stomach contents. The project hoped to fill some of the current gaps in knowledge on microplastics within Malta by creating a working baseline, as well ...


Impact Of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus X Giganteus) Cultivation On Midwestern Farmland Birds, Matthew Craffey Jan 2018

Impact Of Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus X Giganteus) Cultivation On Midwestern Farmland Birds, Matthew Craffey

Masters Theses

Giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) is a promising bioenergy feedstock, newly introduced to North America. However, the qualities that make Giant Miscanthus an attractive bioenergy feedstock may pose challenges to local wildlife. To assess the impacts of Giant Miscanthus on Midwestern farmland birds, I conducted point count and vegetation surveys at three sites in east-central Illinois where Giant Miscanthus was being cultivated. I used occupancy modeling to assess the relative influence of Giant Miscanthus on five species relative to other habitat and landscape characteristics. Dickcissel (Spiza Americana), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), and Red-Winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) occupancy was positively associated ...


Modelling Bird Migration With Motus Data And Bayesian State-Space Models, Justin Baldwin Jan 2017

Modelling Bird Migration With Motus Data And Bayesian State-Space Models, Justin Baldwin

Masters Theses

Bird migration is a poorly-known yet important phenomenon, as understanding movement patterns of birds can inform conservation strategies and public health policy for animal-borne diseases. Recent advances in wildlife tracking technology, in particular the Motus system, have allowed researchers to track even small flying birds and insects with radio transmitters that weigh fractions of a gram. This system relies on a community-based distributed sensor network that detects tagged animals as they move through the detection nodes on journeys that range from small local movements to intercontinental migrations. The quantity of data generated by the Motus system is unprecedented, is on ...


Morphology And Variation In The Gargle Call In A Chickadee Hybrid Zone In Central Illinois, Shannon Marie Regan Jan 2017

Morphology And Variation In The Gargle Call In A Chickadee Hybrid Zone In Central Illinois, Shannon Marie Regan

Masters Theses

Black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina Chickadees (P. carolinensis) have distributions that span the northern and eastern portions of the United States. The areas where these distributions meet are called contact zones and extend from Kansas to New Jersey. Contact zones often have a narrow range of hybridization and usually within these zones of hybridization we will see a mixture of genetic, morphological, and cultural traits. One focus of this project was to compare morphology and genetics of chickadees within and near the largest Illinois contact zone, which has not been done previously. This contact zone was delineated by Enstrom and ...


Dna Markers Identify Genetic Heritage Between Chickadees Near A Contact Zone In Illinois, Fahad M. Alshammari Jan 2017

Dna Markers Identify Genetic Heritage Between Chickadees Near A Contact Zone In Illinois, Fahad M. Alshammari

Masters Theses

I studied the genetic interactions of Black-capped (Poecile atricapilus) (BCCH) and Carolina (P. carolinensis) (CACH) Chickadees in and near the largest hybrid contact zone in Illinois. Biologists have assumed Carolina and Black-capped Chickadees hybridize in their large contact zone in Bond and Fayette Counties, based on intermediate morphological measurements, plumage characteristics and the production of aberrant vocalizations. In determining hybridization, however, diagnostic genetics may be more useful than any other criterion. The genetic and environmental factors that have contributed to the survival of this chickadees hybrid zone have underscored the genetic integrity of both species. We collected tissues from chickadees ...


Stopover Ecology Of Neotropical Migratory Songbirds In The Northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, Lauren E. Solomon Jan 2016

Stopover Ecology Of Neotropical Migratory Songbirds In The Northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, Lauren E. Solomon

Masters Theses

Chapter I. Full-service hotels, convenience stores or fire escapes? Evaluating function of stopover sites for Neotropical migrants in the northern Yucatan Peninsula

Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbirds incur the highest mortality rates during their annual migrations. Migratory songbirds use a network of stopover sites to rest, refuel, or seek refuge during times of poor weather conditions; and the time and energy expended at these sites exceeds that of migratory flight. In order to conserve stopover sites with the highest value to Neotropical migrants, a conceptual framework was developed to classify stop over sites into three functional categories based on their function for ...


Factors Affecting Habitat Quality For Wintering Wood Thrushes In A Coffee Growing Region In Honduras, Brett A. Bailey Jan 2016

Factors Affecting Habitat Quality For Wintering Wood Thrushes In A Coffee Growing Region In Honduras, Brett A. Bailey

Masters Theses

Amongst the diversity of taxa that occur in the Neotropics, 200 migratory bird species that breed in temperate North America can be found. Many of these populations have seen significant declines since the 1960s. The Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina, is one such species. Shade coffee and other agroforestry practices show potential for benefiting migratory species, but the quality of coffee habitat and optimal habitat characteristics for Wood Thrushes remain unknown.

I surveyed a spatially complex, agricultural landscape in Honduras outside the recognized winter range of the Wood Thrush and radio-tagged 46 individuals within rustic coffee farms during the winters of ...


Adaptive Significance Of Aberrant Chickadee Song In Illinois, Evan Andrew Glynn Jan 2015

Adaptive Significance Of Aberrant Chickadee Song In Illinois, Evan Andrew Glynn

Masters Theses

I studied the behavioral responses of Black-capped (Poecile atricapilus) and Carolina (P. carolinensis) chickadees to playback of Black-capped, Carolina, and aberrant chickadee songs throughout the state of Illinois. These two species are parapatrically distributed throughout the eastern United States, including Illinois. Some areas exist where the ranges of the two species overlap. Individuals in these contact zones often sing aberrant vocalizations. This study focused on the two parental vocalizations (i.e., Black-capped and Carolina song), and two of the most common aberrant vocalizations (the 'Greenville' and 'Vandalia' aberrant dialects), in an attempt to understand the adaptive significance of these aberrant ...


Daily Activity Patterns In Three Migratory Bird Species At A Stopover Site On The Northern Coast Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Lynn Schofield Jan 2015

Daily Activity Patterns In Three Migratory Bird Species At A Stopover Site On The Northern Coast Of The Gulf Of Mexico, Lynn Schofield

Masters Theses

CHAPTER I: A Comparison of Diel Movement Patterns in Three Bird Species at a Stopover Site on the Northern Coast of the Gulf of Mexico

During migration, birds require stopover habitats where they stop en route to rest, refuel, and prepare for the next stage of their migration. For songbirds, many short movements made within a stopover habitat are known to be costlier than a single long migratory flight, as it takes a considerable amount of energy to initiate flight. This indicates that migrating birds should strive to balance the energy expenditure made in movement during stopover and energy gains ...


The Effects Of Suburbanization On Nest Ectoparasites And Nest Defense Behavior In The Wood Thrush, Evan N. Dalton Jan 2014

The Effects Of Suburbanization On Nest Ectoparasites And Nest Defense Behavior In The Wood Thrush, Evan N. Dalton

Masters Theses

The Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) is declining throughout its range, yet is capable of persisting in both contiguous forests and small forest patches surrounded by human suburban development. Thus, it is an ideal species for gaining insight into the effects of suburbanization on migrant songbirds. I investigated two aspects of Wood Thrush nesting ecology: nest ectoparasites and nest defense behavior in order to determine if suburbanization influences either aspect. Nests from suburban forests had fewer haematophagous mites, though the abundance of haematophagous blowfly larvae did not differ between suburban and contiguous forests. There was no relationship between the abundance of ...


Monitoring Grassland Bird Populations On Fort Campbell Military Reservation, Kentucky-Tennessee, With A Special Emphasis On Bachman’S Sparrow (Peucaea Aestivalis), Emily Vera Hockman Aug 2013

Monitoring Grassland Bird Populations On Fort Campbell Military Reservation, Kentucky-Tennessee, With A Special Emphasis On Bachman’S Sparrow (Peucaea Aestivalis), Emily Vera Hockman

Masters Theses

Grassland birds have declined more in the past four decades than any other group, primarily because of the suppression of ecological disturbance. Fort Campbell Military Reservation (FCMR) has maintained large amounts of grasslands and oak (Quercus spp.) savannas because of military training and prescribed fires, and supports many grassland bird populations. I established a survey route to investigate vegetation influencing occupancy of grassland birds with an emphasis on Bachman’s Sparrows (Peucaea aestivalis), and additionally described habitat selection of Bachman’s Sparrows on FCMR. Bachman’s Sparrow, Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Henslow’s Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), and Orchard Oriole (Icterus ...


Avian Habitat Response To Grazing, Haying, And Biofuels Production In Native Warm-Season Forages In The Mid-South, Jessie Lee Birckhead Aug 2012

Avian Habitat Response To Grazing, Haying, And Biofuels Production In Native Warm-Season Forages In The Mid-South, Jessie Lee Birckhead

Masters Theses

Declines in grassland birds have been attributed to loss of habitat, habitat degradation, and changes in land management. In the Mid-South, pasture and hayfield management has focused on maintaining dense stands of non-native forages that do not provide suitable vegetative structure for grassland birds or northern bobwhite. Native warm-season grasses have been promoted for livestock forage and biofuels feedstock. However, little information exists on how these practices affect habitat for grassland songbirds or northern bobwhite in the Mid-South. We conducted a study of two cattle grazing treatments, two hay harvest treatments and a biofuels harvest treatment on vegetative structure for ...


Renesting - Female's Success After Nesting Failure And The Renesting Of The Dickcissel (Spiza Americana) At Prairie Ridge State Natural Area, Kevin L. Wentworth Jan 2001

Renesting - Female's Success After Nesting Failure And The Renesting Of The Dickcissel (Spiza Americana) At Prairie Ridge State Natural Area, Kevin L. Wentworth

Masters Theses

Renesting - Female's success after nesting failure. Many birds are unsuccessful in their first nesting attempt, so renesting is often a very important way for birds to increase their lifetime fitness and for populations to maintain stable numbers. I examined the importance of renesting and the factors that encourage or discourage a female from renesting and also the factors that affect the success of these renests. I also looked for patterns in renesting behavior (e.g., renesting interval, renesting distance, percentage of females that attempt renests, and the success of renests) of birds by comparing different studies. I used a ...


Patterns And Implications Of Aberrant Singing Behaviors Of Black-Capped (Poecile Atricapillus) And Carolina (Poecile Carolinensis) Chickadees In Illinois, Patrick Caesar Enstrom Jan 2000

Patterns And Implications Of Aberrant Singing Behaviors Of Black-Capped (Poecile Atricapillus) And Carolina (Poecile Carolinensis) Chickadees In Illinois, Patrick Caesar Enstrom

Masters Theses

I studied the singing behavior of the closely related Black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina (Poecile carolinensis) Chickadees along their range interface in central Illinois. These sibling species are parapatrically distributed from the Appalachians through the Midwest to Kansas. Where their ranges do overlap, small hybrid zones form and chickadees in these areas frequently sing aberrant songs. The majority of the songs studied were recorded 17 April-16 July 1999 in fifteen counties throughout central Illinois. I measured 8 frequency and duration characteristics of the first two notes of songs that began with two whistled notes. The averages of these characteristics for ...


Effects Of Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia Esula) Infestation On Breeding Birds Of The Sheyenne National Grassland, Nd, Daniel M. Scheiman Jan 2000

Effects Of Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia Esula) Infestation On Breeding Birds Of The Sheyenne National Grassland, Nd, Daniel M. Scheiman

Masters Theses

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities and nest success of breeding birds in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), ND. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into three levels of infestation, based on the area covered by spurge patches: (a) low (0-20%), (b) medium (20-60%) and, (c) high (> 60%). We surveyed 60 100-m radius circular plots (20 in each category), and searched for nests in three 16-ha plots (one in each category). There were no statistically significant differences in mean species richness or ...


Habitat Selection, Reproductive Success, And Impaling Patterns Of A Migratory Population Of Loggerhead Shrikes, Jeffrey D. Esely Jr. Jan 1998

Habitat Selection, Reproductive Success, And Impaling Patterns Of A Migratory Population Of Loggerhead Shrikes, Jeffrey D. Esely Jr.

Masters Theses

I studied habitat selection and reproductive success of a migratory population of Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus migrans) as well as the temporal and spatial patterns of impaling exhibited by this population during the nesting season. The selection of breeding habitat was investigated at different spatial scales. Thirty-eight (67%) of 57 nests were located in osage orange (Maclura pomifera) trees. Shrike territories (area ≤ 200 m from nest site) contained significantly more pasture, fenceline, and perch sites, but less com, alfalfa, and forest than random sites. At larger spatial scales, more grassland was detected within 300 m of shrike nests than random ...


A Comparison Of Predation Rates On Real And Artificial Nests Of Grassland Birds, William B. Davison Jan 1998

A Comparison Of Predation Rates On Real And Artificial Nests Of Grassland Birds, William B. Davison

Masters Theses

I compared rates of predation between real and artificial nests of grassland birds in order to test the impact of nest type, nest position, and egg size on predation rates. I distributed wicker avicultural baskets and realistic grass nests baited with a clay egg and either northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) or house sparrow (Passer domesticus) eggs in four Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands in east-central Illinois. Nest success averaged 86.5% for 12 days of exposure for artificial nests. For real nests, nest success was markedly lower; averaging 39% over the entire nesting cycle and 59% during approximately 12 days ...


Adaptive Significance Of Re-Nesting Following Nest Abandonment In The Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila Caerulea), Melissa Nicole Helton Jan 1997

Adaptive Significance Of Re-Nesting Following Nest Abandonment In The Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila Caerulea), Melissa Nicole Helton

Masters Theses

We studied the adaptive significance of nest abandonment and re-nesting in the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) in east-central Illinois from 1995 through 1997. This Neotropical migrant is widely distributed and highly persistent in re-nesting following nest abandonment. Nest abandonment may be a response to brood parasitism, predation or other nest disturbances. We studied the nesting behavior of gnatcatchers and investigated the cues which may elicit nest abandonment. We monitored 57 pairs of gnatcatchers which built a total of 98 nests. Twenty pairs successfully fledged a total of 63 young and overall nest success was only 8.5%. Daily mortality rates ...


Reproductive Success Of Grassland Birds At East-Central Illinois Airports, Eric L. Kershner Jan 1995

Reproductive Success Of Grassland Birds At East-Central Illinois Airports, Eric L. Kershner

Masters Theses

We determined the densities and reproductive success of birds on airport grasslands in east-central Illinois. Seven airports were sampled between 10 April and 15 August 1994 in Clark, Coles, Crawford, Douglas, Edgar, Macon and Richland counties. Nineteen species were detected on the airport grasslands and 147 nests were found representing six different species. Eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) were the most abundant nesting species found; 105 out of the 147 nests (71%). Other nesting species included: grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) and horned lark (Eremophilia alpestris). Overall nest success was ...


Egg Removal By Brown-Headed Cowbirds: A Field Test Of The Host Incubation Efficiency Hypothesis, Douglas R. Wood Jan 1995

Egg Removal By Brown-Headed Cowbirds: A Field Test Of The Host Incubation Efficiency Hypothesis, Douglas R. Wood

Masters Theses

Obligate brood parasites, like the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), lay their eggs in the nests of host species, usually to the detriment of the host's reproductive effort. In addition, Brown-headed Cowbirds often remove one or more host eggs near the time of parasitism. Although several hypotheses exist, the adaptive significance of egg removal has not been clearly established. Peer and Bollinger (in press) proposed the host incubation efficiency hypothesis which states that the number and size of host eggs influences the incubation efficiency of a parasitic egg. Thus, host egg removal by cowbirds should increase the parasitic egg's ...


Artificial Cavity Box Use By Eastern Screech Owl, Otus Asio, Lori A. Davis Jan 1994

Artificial Cavity Box Use By Eastern Screech Owl, Otus Asio, Lori A. Davis

Masters Theses

Screech owl use of 29 artificial cavity boxes placed in wooded habitat on a 14.6 hectare study area in east central Illinois was monitored from 1975 through 1993. A total of 28 screech owls were captured a total of 155 times. Two to 4 adults were usually present and 3 broods were reared in the boxes. The time between first and last capture of birds taken 4 or more times ranged from 270 to 2589 days (average 1740 days). Home range of 5 owls captured 8 to 17 times ranged from 0.45 to 6.0 ha. Cavity boxes ...


The Effects Of Nest-Box Visibility And Proximity On The Frequency Of Brood Parasitism In Wood Ducks, Roger W. Jansen Jan 1993

The Effects Of Nest-Box Visibility And Proximity On The Frequency Of Brood Parasitism In Wood Ducks, Roger W. Jansen

Masters Theses

I studied the effects of nest box visibility and clustering on the rate of intraspecific brood parasitism (IBP) in Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at Lake Shelbyville Fish and Wildlife Area in Moultrie County, IL from 2 March 1992 to 22 June 1992. Sixty-eight percent of the nest boxes sampled were used and 33% of the nests were destroyed by predators. Mean clutch sizes of unparasitized (x = 9.2) and parasitized (x = 15.2) nests were significantly different. The parasitism rate in Wood Duck nests was 54%. More visible boxes had a tendency to be parasitized at a higher rate than ...


An Investigation Of The Host Specificity Of The Brown-Headed Cowbird, Brian D. Peer Jan 1993

An Investigation Of The Host Specificity Of The Brown-Headed Cowbird, Brian D. Peer

Masters Theses

We attempted to determine the factors associated with the lack of parasitism of the Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). We investigated the breeding phenology of the two species, the responses of colonial- and noncolonial-nesting grackles to female cowbird models, the frequency of artificial egg rejection by grackles, incubation success of cowbird eggs transferred into grackle nests, and the survival rates of cowbirds cross-fostered into grackle nests.

By the time cowbirds began egg-laying at our study sites, 88.5 % of all grackle nests were beyond the point of successful parasitism. Grackles responded much more aggressively toward ...


Predation Risk And Feeding Site Preferences In Winter Foraging Birds, Yen-Min Kuo Jan 1992

Predation Risk And Feeding Site Preferences In Winter Foraging Birds, Yen-Min Kuo

Masters Theses

A foraging animal's choice of feeding location may represent a trade-off between maximizing its energy or nutrient intake and avoiding predation. In the present study, two hypotheses were investigated to test the influence of predation risk on feeding site preferences of birds: 1) there are differences among the preferences of feeding heights of birds, 2) the magnitude of preference increases with increasing predation risk found in different habitats. In my study site, three feeding stations (located in the woods, the woods/field edge, and an open field) each containing three feeders (0 m, 1.5 m, and 3 m ...


Factors Influencing Distribution And Abundance Of The Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius Ludovicianus Migrans) In South-Central Illinois, Eric Lantz Smith Jan 1991

Factors Influencing Distribution And Abundance Of The Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius Ludovicianus Migrans) In South-Central Illinois, Eric Lantz Smith

Masters Theses

The loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) is listed as a threatened species in Illinois as a result of population declines that have occurred since approximately 1900. Although Graber et al. (1973) reported that this species had been largely extirpated from the northern two-thirds of Illinois by 1965, there has been no research on shrike distribution or abundance in the state since that time. Consequently, a roadside survey was completed in 32 south-central Illinois counties to delineate the abundance of loggerhead shrikes in the study area and attempt to relate their abundance to land-use patterns among counties surveyed.

Two hundred and eleven ...


Nesting Dynamics Of The Eastern Bluebird (Sialia Sialis) In Southeastern Illinois, Susan E. Nelle Jan 1989

Nesting Dynamics Of The Eastern Bluebird (Sialia Sialis) In Southeastern Illinois, Susan E. Nelle

Masters Theses

Data collected from 1981 through 1988 from an Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) nesting box trail, involving 512 nests and 2176 eggs, in Crawford County, Illinois, were analyzed and compared to similar published works. The average nesting season lasted 167.4 days, ran from 17 March through 31 August, and was divided into three breeding peaks (or phases). Most breeding pairs were observed with either one or two clutches per season; however, triple-brooded pairs were also present, the clutches of which coincided well with the three peaks. Most data showed a decrease as the season progressed. For example, mean clutch size ...


Seasonal Lekking Behavior Of The Greater Prairie-Chicken In Illinois, Scott A. Simpson Jan 1984

Seasonal Lekking Behavior Of The Greater Prairie-Chicken In Illinois, Scott A. Simpson

Masters Theses

Spring behavior of prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) has been studied extensively, however there is little information on fall-winter lekking activity. Greater prairie-chickens were observed weekly on a lek from 25 September 1982 to 23 June 1983 during morning and evening hours in Jasper County, Illinois. The peak number of prairie-chicken males on the lek occurred in February although hen attendance did not occur until 10 March 1983. All spring lekking activities were higher compared to that of the fall-winter period. Fall-winter lek activity was aggression which centered on probably brief, less intense male aggression which probably establishes or maintains territorial boundaries ...


Operant Conditioning In The Psittacine, Amazona Amazonica, Gloria J. Nadolski Jan 1984

Operant Conditioning In The Psittacine, Amazona Amazonica, Gloria J. Nadolski

Masters Theses

Two Orange-winged Amazon Parrots, (Amazona amazonica) were subjected to operant conditioning involving three tests: two-choice spatial discrimination and reversal, three-choice color discrimination and reversal, and the oddity principle. Results of the habit reversal tests were compared to those of Gossett (1968) to determine the phylogenetic ranking of the learning capabilities of psittacines. In the first two habit reversal tests, the subjects completed twenty reversals using sunflower seeds as positive reinforcements. In the oddity principle test, the parrots completed the equivalent of 20 reversals, again using sunflower seeds. Criterion was met when they completed 8 consecutive correct choices with 11 out ...


Evaluation Of Potential Wild Turkey Habitat In Eastern Illinois, Cara B. Daugherty Jan 1980

Evaluation Of Potential Wild Turkey Habitat In Eastern Illinois, Cara B. Daugherty

Masters Theses

Reestablishment of the wild turkey has been successful in the southern part of Illinois where large established tracts of woodland occur. However, turkeys are capable of surviving in areas with less forest cover, if food, nesting materials and protection are available. This project evaluated the potential turkey habitat of a 14-county area of eastern Illinois along the drainage of the Wabash River. Six potential release sites were selected and the habitat evaluated. In these areas, oak (Quercus spp.) and hickory (Carya spp.) were the dominant tree species. Disturbance from human populations was determined in each of the six areas, including ...


Coccidian Parasites Of Wild Turkeys, Meleagris Gallopavo Silvestris, In Illinois, D. Michael Watkins Jan 1979

Coccidian Parasites Of Wild Turkeys, Meleagris Gallopavo Silvestris, In Illinois, D. Michael Watkins

Masters Theses

Fecal samples from 124 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris), collected in three southern Illinois counties, were examined for coccidia. Three and two tenths percent (4) of the birds sampled were infected with Eimeria of apparently four different species. These species were tentatively designated as: E. meleagridis, E. adendeides, E. meleagrimitis and E. subrotunda.