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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena Jan 2019

Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena

Masters Theses

Bacteria have developed various means of secreting proteins that can enter the host cell membrane. In this work I focus on two systems: cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and Type III Secretion.

Cholesterol is a molecule that is critical for physiological processes and cell membrane function. Not only can improper regulation lead to disease, but also the role cholesterol plays in cell function indicates it is an important molecule to understand. In response to this need, probes have been developed that detect cholesterol molecules in membranes. However, it has been recently shown that there is a need for probes that only respond to ...


Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey Jan 2019

Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey

Masters Theses

The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) are pressing public health problems worldwide. A key factor contributing to the spread of ARGs is lateral gene transfer. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are measured hot spots of microbial diversity and resistance because they receive polluted wastewater from diverse sources and contain a variety of different environments with dense bacterial loads. Due to the overuse of antibiotics the genetic capacities of microbes have profited. This helps every source of resistance gene and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop the multiple mechanism of resistance to each antibiotic used clinically, agriculturally, or ...


Impacts Of Plant-Microbe Interactions On Seedling Performance In A Riparian Forest Invaded By Lonicera Maackii, Taylor E. K. Strehl Jan 2019

Impacts Of Plant-Microbe Interactions On Seedling Performance In A Riparian Forest Invaded By Lonicera Maackii, Taylor E. K. Strehl

Masters Theses

Soil microbes have profound impacts on plant growth and survival and can either promote or inhibit plant dominance. Exotic plants are often strongly invasive because they have escaped their natural enemies, potentially including antagonistic soil microbes. I examined how the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii and a common native tree, Acer negundo, responded to soil microbial communities to determine the role of soil microbes in regulating invasion success. This was done by growing both species with microbes from invaded (L. maackii) and uninvaded (A. negundo) soils collected from three locations within a riparian forest. Seedlings were grown both in isolation (Experiment ...


Exploring The Microbiome: Diversity Of The Microbial Community Of Three Foam Nesting Frogs, Genus: Polypedates, Across A Developmental Gradient, Sarah Mcgrath May 2018

Exploring The Microbiome: Diversity Of The Microbial Community Of Three Foam Nesting Frogs, Genus: Polypedates, Across A Developmental Gradient, Sarah Mcgrath

Masters Theses

Characterization of microbial biodiversity, including that of the amphibian skin-associated microbiome, is a frontier of research recently made accessible through advances in sequencing technology. Microbial interaction with a host has been determined to have profound influences on host health across a wide range of macroscopic organisms. For amphibians, the influence of the skin-associated microbiome has been found to have particular importance, as amphibians are currently one of the fastest disappearing vertebrate groups on the planet, largely in part to skin-associated diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. Therefore, it is important to characterize the amphibian skin-associated microbiome, particularly for species with no ...


Isolation, Sequencing, And Characterization Of Four Transmissible Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids Captured From Bacteria In Stream Sediments, Curtis J. Kapsak May 2018

Isolation, Sequencing, And Characterization Of Four Transmissible Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids Captured From Bacteria In Stream Sediments, Curtis J. Kapsak

Masters Theses

Self-transmissible plasmids are key vectors in the transfer of resistance, catabolic, and other genes among bacteria native to environments such as streams and wetlands. The evolution of antibiotic resistance in particular is known to be powerfully affected by conjugative plasmid transfer due to the ease in which some plasmids can be horizontally transferred into a broad range of host bacteria and their ability to exchange mobile genetic elements that often contain antibiotic resistance genes.

In this study, we captured tetracycline resistance plasmids from stream sediments impacted by agricultural runoff. We selected for resistance plasmids using tetracycline, an antibiotic commonly used ...


Clpxp-Regulated Proteins Suppress Requirement For Reca In Dam Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Amie Savakis Jan 2018

Clpxp-Regulated Proteins Suppress Requirement For Reca In Dam Mutants Of Escherichia Coli K-12, Amie Savakis

Masters Theses

Double strand breaks (DSB) are a common source of DNA damage in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. If they are not repaired or are repaired incorrectly, they can lead to cell death (bacteria) or cancer (humans). In Escherichia coli, repair of DSB are typically accomplished via homologous recombination and mediated by RecA. This repair pathway, among others, is associated with activation of the SOS response. DNA adenine methyltransferase (dam) mutants have an increased number of DSB and, therefore, are notorious for being RecA-dependent for viability. Here, we show that the synthetic lethality of Δdam/ΔrecA is suppressed when clpP is removed ...


Biotransformation Of Oxo-Bile Acids Derivatives By Human Gut Bacteria, Laina Sallam Jan 2018

Biotransformation Of Oxo-Bile Acids Derivatives By Human Gut Bacteria, Laina Sallam

Masters Theses

Bile acids are one group of steroids that can be metabolically transformed by human gut anaerobes. One of these transformations is the conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids by 7α-dehydroxylating gut bacteria such as Clostridium scindens, Clostridium hylemonae, and Clostridium hiranonis. These anaerobes metabolize bile acid derivatives via 3α- and 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH). Studies to date have not reported if these organisms are capable of converting 12-oxolithocholic acid (12-oxoLCA) to deoxycholic acid (DCA). The emphasis of this study was to determine the ability of C. scindens ATCC 35704, C. hiranonis DSM 13275, and C. hylemonae DSM 15053 ...


Resolution Of The Nutritional Requirements And Metabolic Profile Of Clostridium Scindens Atcc 35704, A Major Bile Acid-Dehydroxylating Anaerobe In The Human Gut, Rachana Shrestha Jan 2018

Resolution Of The Nutritional Requirements And Metabolic Profile Of Clostridium Scindens Atcc 35704, A Major Bile Acid-Dehydroxylating Anaerobe In The Human Gut, Rachana Shrestha

Masters Theses

Bile acids (cholate and chenodeoxycholate) are synthesized from cholesterol in the human liver, and secreted in small intestine for food digestion. However, a portion of these primary bile acids is converted in the colon to toxic secondary bile acids, deoxycholate and lithocholate. Secondary bile acid formation is the result of 7α-dehydroxylating anaerobes, and one of the key players in this conversion is Clostridium scindens. Interestingly, little is known about the basic physiology and nutrition of C. scindens. Therefore, the goal of this research was to understand the nutritional requirement, and determine the 7α-dehydroxylation activity and end products from glucose fermentation ...


The Antimicrobial And Biofilm Disruption Activity Of Novel Amphiphiles, Elizabeth A. Rogers May 2017

The Antimicrobial And Biofilm Disruption Activity Of Novel Amphiphiles, Elizabeth A. Rogers

Masters Theses

Antibiotic resistant infections are responsible for approximately 23,000 deaths every year in the United States alone. The formation of bacterial biofilms makes resistant bacteria difficult to eliminate completely using chemical treatment. Therefore, novel antimicrobial compounds such as amphiphiles are essential to slow or stop the spread of resistant bacteria. Several novel series of amphiphiles were synthesized, and discrete aspects of their chemical structure were altered to investigate the relationship between structure and antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were used to measure antibacterial activity against two Gram-negative and five Gram-positive bacteria, and the most effective compounds were tested ...


Heat Inactivation Kinetics Of Tulane Virus And Aichi Virus, Sukriti Ailavadi May 2017

Heat Inactivation Kinetics Of Tulane Virus And Aichi Virus, Sukriti Ailavadi

Masters Theses

Human noroviruses (HNoVs) and Aichi virus (AiV) causes significant number of gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. Tulane virus (TV), a cultivable HNoV surrogate, is used to determine control measures against HNoV. The objectives of this study were to determine the heat inactivation kinetics of TV and AiV in cell-culture media and TV in spinach using the first-order and Weibull models. TV and AiV in cell-culture media at ~7 log PFU/ml in 2-ml glass vials were heated at 50-58°C [degree Celsius] up to 10 min in a circulating water-bath. Surviving infectious viruses were enumerated by standard plaque assays using confluent host ...


A Bug’S Life: Integration Of Anaerobic Digestion And Bioelectrochemical Systems For Enhanced Energy Recovery From Wastewater Solids And Other Waste Substrates, Jeff Ryan Beegle May 2017

A Bug’S Life: Integration Of Anaerobic Digestion And Bioelectrochemical Systems For Enhanced Energy Recovery From Wastewater Solids And Other Waste Substrates, Jeff Ryan Beegle

Masters Theses

Organic waste streams, like domestic wastewater and municipal solid waste, have the potential to be used as feedstocks for biotechnology processes to produce high value products and energy. This thesis investigated the technological, economical, and environmental potential for integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and bioelectrochemical system (BES) platforms as they were theoretically and physically evaluated for energy recovery from domestic wastewater. The first chapter of this thesis compared the theoretical energy efficiencies of converting waste directly into electricity, using AD and BES alone and in various combinations. This chapter reviewed the experimentally demonstrated energy efficiencies reported in the literature with comparisons ...


Investigating The Sources And Dynamics Of Escherichia Coli In A Missouri Ozarks Watershed, Kaleb Bassett Jan 2017

Investigating The Sources And Dynamics Of Escherichia Coli In A Missouri Ozarks Watershed, Kaleb Bassett

Masters Theses

"Escherichia coli, an intestinal bacterium, can serve as an indication of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in water systems used by humans for recreation, agriculture, or drinking water. Many aquatic systems in the United States exceed the E. coli standard, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, for safe drinking water and recreational use. During 2016, a water sampling program was established in the Mill Creek watershed, a rural watershed located near the city of Newburg in Phelps County, Missouri. Water samples were collected before, during, and after storms throughout the year to examine the relationship between E. coli concentrations and ...


Media Optimization, Scale-Up And Repeated Fed-Batch Operations For The Production Of 1,3-Propanediol From Glycerol By Halanaerobium Hydrogeniformans, Shivani Kalia Jan 2017

Media Optimization, Scale-Up And Repeated Fed-Batch Operations For The Production Of 1,3-Propanediol From Glycerol By Halanaerobium Hydrogeniformans, Shivani Kalia

Masters Theses

"The development of renewable energy sources, such as biofuels, is of great interest in today's world due to depletion of fossil fuels and concerns about climate change. The production of the main by-product, crude glycerol, in biodiesel production presents an opportunity for the production of industrially relevant commodities. Crude glycerol in biodiesel waste is highly impure and possesses high salt concentrations and alkalinity, making it infeasible for direct industrial utilization. Moreover, current glycerol purification methods are highly cost-intensive, necessitating a search for cost-effective approaches that are feasible to employ. Genome data analysis of Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans, revealed the metabolic capability ...


A Novel Periplasmic Protein Involved In The Mannan Chain Elongation Step Of Lipomannan And Lipoarabinomannan Biosynthesis In Mycobacterium Smegmatis, Stephanie A. Ha Jan 2017

A Novel Periplasmic Protein Involved In The Mannan Chain Elongation Step Of Lipomannan And Lipoarabinomannan Biosynthesis In Mycobacterium Smegmatis, Stephanie A. Ha

Masters Theses

Mycobacteria are atypical bacteria possessing unusual cell envelopes comprised of an outer membrane, covalently linked to an arabinogalacatan-peptidoglycan structure via waxy mycolic acids, in addition to the conventional inner membrane. This thick and highly impermeable cell envelope is a major deterrent to antibiotic treatment of clinically relevant mycobacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which infects a third of the world’s population and kills millions each year. Thus, the regulation of mycobacterial cell envelope biosynthesis is of great interest for the development of more effective therapeutics for treating Mtb infections. Using the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis), we identified ...


Investigating Natural And Induced Biofilm Dispersion In Listeria Monocytogenes, Brett Boulden Jan 2017

Investigating Natural And Induced Biofilm Dispersion In Listeria Monocytogenes, Brett Boulden

Masters Theses

Dispersion is a natural part of a biofilm life cycle in many bacterial species. Dispersion occurs when bacteria revert from a stationary, sessile state to a free-swimming, planktonic state and are freed from a biofilm. Bacterial biofilms consist of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA that together make up the extracellular polymeric substances. Surrounded by this mucus-like substance, sessile cells can be extremely difficult to eradicate as compared to the planktonic form of Listeria monocytogenes. Biofilms are robust due to increased surface adherence, inhibition of diffusion of harmful compounds, and increased genetic diversity that exists within a biofilm. As a result ...


Detection Of Antibiotic Resistance Loci In Wastewater And Fresh Water Samples, Mohammed Hamed Almalki Jan 2017

Detection Of Antibiotic Resistance Loci In Wastewater And Fresh Water Samples, Mohammed Hamed Almalki

Masters Theses

Proper treatment of municipal wastewater is important not only for prevention of eutrophication but also for public health concerns. One consideration for wastewater treatment is the presence of organisms carrying antibiotic resistance genes. If these organisms survive the wastewater treatment process and are released into the streams, they can pose significant risks to public health. In addition, their presence also raises concerns for lateral gene transfer events at the wastewater plant. The spread of antibiotic loci has a major impact in public health and clinical therapy because resistant organisms render conventional treatments of important illnesses difficult. Beta-lactam drugs are known ...


Occurrence, Antibiotic Resistance, And Survival Of Fecal Enterococci In Turkey Litter, Steven Glynn Mcbride Ii Dec 2016

Occurrence, Antibiotic Resistance, And Survival Of Fecal Enterococci In Turkey Litter, Steven Glynn Mcbride Ii

Masters Theses

The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s National Water Quality Inventory and the Commonwealth of Virginia’s 305(b)/303(d) Water Quality Assessment Integrated Report show fecal bacteria to be the most common cause of impairment for both streams and estuaries. Human and animal sources have both been identified as significant contributors of pathogenic bacteria to surface waters. In this study, turkey litter from a farm in Shenandoah County, VA was surveyed for total culturable bacteria and total culturable enterococci before and after a transition to organic rearing practices. The enterococci were identified to species phenotypically using the Biolog ...


Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce Dec 2016

Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce

Masters Theses

Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a perennial grass native to North America, is a leading biomass feedstock candidate for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol. Switchgrass is considered a viable option for biofuel production due to its cheap production cost and ability to grow on marginal land. Biofuel derived from switchgrass has been shown to be very energy efficient, producing 540% more renewable energy versus nonrenewable energy expended. Switchgrass-derived biofuel is also estimated to have greenhouse gas emissions that are 94% lower than emissions from gasoline (Schmer et al 2008). Biofuels are created through biochemical processes that utilize various enzymes and microorganisms for ...


Chemokines And Peptides That Promote And Inhibit Cmv Entry, Elisabeth Anne Pitt Aug 2016

Chemokines And Peptides That Promote And Inhibit Cmv Entry, Elisabeth Anne Pitt

Masters Theses

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes morbidity and mortality in congenitally infected newborns, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Currently, there is no approved CMV vaccine to address these issues. In an effort to develop an alternative treatment to CMV we tested our hypothesis that heparan sulfate binding D-peptides would be effective against multiple HCMV strains in vitro and it would be effective in vivo against murine CMV (MCMV) (Chapter 1). We show that the D-peptide is able to reduce CMV infection in vitro and in vivo. Another approach to combating CMV infections is to neutralize pathogenic factors that contribute to CMV spread ...


Improving Aedes Mosquito Surveillance And La Crosse Virus Screening In Eastern Tennessee, Cassandra Urquhart Aug 2016

Improving Aedes Mosquito Surveillance And La Crosse Virus Screening In Eastern Tennessee, Cassandra Urquhart

Masters Theses

La Crosse virus (LACV), transmitted by infected Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus, and Ae. japonicus mosquitoes is the leading cause of pediatric arboviral encephalitis. Severe cases of LAC encephalitis occur in individuals 16-years-old or younger and may cause permanent neurological damage or fatality. No vaccines exist making mosquito control and disease prevention crucial to public health. Effective screening and surveillance practices are key components to these goals. While a number of standard mosquito surveillance methods exist, continuous testing and improved understanding of vector biology to determine the best ways to implement these methods is important. Additionally, the current standard for screening ...


Microbial Extracellular Enzymes In Marine Sediments: Methods Development And Potential Activities In The Baltic Sea Deep Biosphere, Jenna Marie Schmidt Aug 2016

Microbial Extracellular Enzymes In Marine Sediments: Methods Development And Potential Activities In The Baltic Sea Deep Biosphere, Jenna Marie Schmidt

Masters Theses

The deep biosphere is defined as the subsurface ecosystem in which little energy is available to microorganisms and microorganisms can live for thousands of years. Heterotrophic microbes survive in the deep biosphere even though organic matter is limited and highly recalcitrant in nature. Measuring microbial extracellular enzyme activity provides a potential means to evaluate the rate at which microorganisms are performing carbon remineralization in the energy limited sediment beneath the seafloor. Extracellular enzymes breakdown organic compounds so that the nutrients can move inside the cell and be used for energy. This study explored the role extracellular enzymes play in the ...


Next-Generation Sequencing Of A Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid Captured From Stream Sediment, Kevin G. Libuit May 2016

Next-Generation Sequencing Of A Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid Captured From Stream Sediment, Kevin G. Libuit

Masters Theses

Plasmids in agriculturally-impacted bodies of water may play a significant role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Previously, Erika Gehr, as part of her M.S. thesis work in our laboratory, captured environmental plasmids without cultivation of host bacteria from stream sediment into Escherichia coli. Individual plasmids were capable of conferring resistance to a surprising array of antibiotics including aminoglycosides and extended-spectrum β-lactams. In this study, we developed a method to sequence multi-drug resistance plasmids using both Oxford Nanopore MinION and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine sequencers. Plasmid pEG1-1 was sequenced on both platforms and a hybrid assembly utilizing data ...


Characterization Of Insertion Sequence Is605 In Halanaerobium Hydrogeniformans, Michael C. Sadler Jan 2016

Characterization Of Insertion Sequence Is605 In Halanaerobium Hydrogeniformans, Michael C. Sadler

Masters Theses

"Insertion sequences are the smallest prokaryotic transposable elements. These genes play a significant evolutionary role by promoting genome plasticity. Insertion sequences are highly diverse elements that have largely been uncharacterized. As such, the ability to accurately identify, annotate, and infer genomic impact of insertion sequences is lacking. The study of new insertion sequences contributes knowledge to their annotation and evolution. Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans is a unique organism with an abnormally high number of insertion sequences. A family of insertion sequences, IS200/605, showed several interesting distinctions from other elements in the genome, including severe open reading frame degradation, and was characterized ...


Trypanosoma Brucei Mitochondrial Dna Polib Cell Cycle Localization And Effect On Polic When Polib Is Depleted, Sylvia L. Rivera Jan 2016

Trypanosoma Brucei Mitochondrial Dna Polib Cell Cycle Localization And Effect On Polic When Polib Is Depleted, Sylvia L. Rivera

Masters Theses

Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as African sleeping sickness. T. brucei is unique in several ways that distinguish this organism from other eukaryotes. One of the unique features of T. brucei is the organism’s mitochondrial DNA, which is organized in a complex structure called kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). Since kDNA is unique to the kinetoplastids, kDNA may serve as a good drug target against T. brucei. Previews studies have shown that kDNA has 4 different family A mitochondrial DNA polymerases. Three of these mitochondrial DNA polymerases (POLIB, POLIC, and POLID) are essential ...


Distribution Of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium Perfringens Spores In U.S. Retail Spices, Chi-An Lee Jan 2016

Distribution Of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium Perfringens Spores In U.S. Retail Spices, Chi-An Lee

Masters Theses

246 samples of bulk and packaged spices from retail stores in the western, southeastern, southern, midwestern, and northeastern areas of the U.S. were examined for the presence of Clostridium -perfringens. Isolates were checked for the presence of the lecithinase gene (cpa) and enterotoxin genes (cpe) by PCR. Enterotoxin formation during sporulation was investigated using the Oxoid Toxin Detection Kit. Forty-three confirmed isolates (from 17% of total samples) were cpa-positive. Of those, 27 were cpe-positive. Together, levels of C. perfringens spores ranged from 3.6-2400/gm. The amount of enterotoxin in cell extracts ranged from 2-16 ng/ml ...


Diversity Of The Beneficial Bacterium Oxalobacter Formigenes Isolated From The Human Gut, Karen Shaw Jan 2016

Diversity Of The Beneficial Bacterium Oxalobacter Formigenes Isolated From The Human Gut, Karen Shaw

Masters Theses

Oxalobacter formigenes is an anaerobic, oxalate degrading organism that colonizes in the mammalian intestinal tract. Currently, O. formigenes is divided into two groups via PCR of the oxc gene. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a technique used to resolve large pieces of DNA. Typically, PFGE is used to identify differences between strains for pathogenic bacteria, but this study sought to use it to further understand the diversity of a probiotic organism. This study aimed to develop a methodology for utilizing PFGE to examine O. formigenes. The methodology involved lysing O. formigenes cells in plugs, first in proteinase K, followed ...


The Evolutionary Selective Pressures Exerted On A3 Actinobacteriophages, Cheyenne Weeks-Galindo Dec 2015

The Evolutionary Selective Pressures Exerted On A3 Actinobacteriophages, Cheyenne Weeks-Galindo

Masters Theses

This study identified evolutionary selective pressures within subcluster A3 actinobacteriophages. These phages are able to infect the clinically important genus Mycobacterium. Understanding the selective pressures on genes in these phage genomes is a step toward understanding the adaptations that result from short-term and long-term associations of phages and bacteria that have been co-evolving for perhaps billions of years. In this study 149 phamilies (phage protein families) of homologous gene sequences were analyzed using Datamonkey. Complete data were obtained for 57 phamilies. Of these, eleven phamilies were affected by recombination, three showed evidence of predominantly diversifying selection, and twenty-four have a ...


Rare Occurrences Of Free-Living Bacteria Belonging To Sedimenticola From Subtidal Seagrass Beds Associated With The Lucinid Clam, Stewartia Floridana, Aaron M. Goemann Dec 2015

Rare Occurrences Of Free-Living Bacteria Belonging To Sedimenticola From Subtidal Seagrass Beds Associated With The Lucinid Clam, Stewartia Floridana, Aaron M. Goemann

Masters Theses

Lucinid clams and their sulfur-oxidizing endosymbionts comprise two compartments of a three-stage, biogeochemical relationship among the clams, seagrasses, and microbial communities in marine sediments. A population of the lucinid clam, Stewartia floridana, was sampled from a subtidal seagrass bed at Bokeelia Island Seaport in Florida to test the hypotheses: (1) S. floridana, like other lucinids, are more abundant in seagrass beds than bare sediments; (2) S. floridana gill microbiomes are dominated by one bacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) at a sequence similarity threshold level of 97% (a common cutoff for species level taxonomy) from 16S rRNA genes; and (3) the ...


Identification Of Purinyl-Cobamide As A Novel Corrinoid Cofactor Of Tetrachloroethene Reductive Dehalogenases In Desulfitobacterium Spp., Meng Bi Dec 2015

Identification Of Purinyl-Cobamide As A Novel Corrinoid Cofactor Of Tetrachloroethene Reductive Dehalogenases In Desulfitobacterium Spp., Meng Bi

Masters Theses

Corrinoids (e.g. vitamin B12) [cyanocobalamin] are a group of structurally similar, cobaltcontaining tetrapyrrole compounds involved in a number of important biochemical reactions. In organohalide respiration, vitamin B12 analogues carrying different lower bases are obligate cofactors for the reductive dehalogenases (RDases) that catalyze reductive dechlorination reactions. The focus of this research was on the isolation and characterization of a novel natural corrinoid cofactor that enables the dechlorination-coupled energy conservation in organohaliderespiring Desulfitobacterium strains. Analysis of the purified corrinoid in the cyano form using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), UV-Vis [Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy] and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution ...


Geochemical Control Of Methanogenesis In Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, Richard Kevorkian Aug 2015

Geochemical Control Of Methanogenesis In Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, Richard Kevorkian

Masters Theses

Hydrogen exerts thermodynamic control over the exclusion of methanogens by sulfate reducers in Cape Lookout Bight, NC, marine sediments. This has been demonstrated by previous in situ measurements, but has never been demonstrated in a batch incubation of unamended sediments and has never been combined with identification of the microorganisms involved in this process. We made triplicate anoxic incubations of sediments from the upper 3 cm of sediment over 122 days while taking weekly samples for DNA extraction, cell counts, and measurements of methane, sulfate, and hydrogen. The headspaces of the bottles were initially gassed with nitrogen and the third ...