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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena Jan 2019

Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena

Masters Theses

Bacteria have developed various means of secreting proteins that can enter the host cell membrane. In this work I focus on two systems: cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and Type III Secretion.

Cholesterol is a molecule that is critical for physiological processes and cell membrane function. Not only can improper regulation lead to disease, but also the role cholesterol plays in cell function indicates it is an important molecule to understand. In response to this need, probes have been developed that detect cholesterol molecules in membranes. However, it has been recently shown that there is a need for probes that only respond to ...


The Effects Of Acidosis On Calcium Dependent Binding Of A Single Crossbridge, Matthew Unger Jan 2019

The Effects Of Acidosis On Calcium Dependent Binding Of A Single Crossbridge, Matthew Unger

Masters Theses

Intracellular acidosis is a putative agent of skeletal muscle fatigue, in part, because acidosis depresses the calcium (Ca2+) sensitivity and force production of muscle (18, 50). However, the molecular mechanisms behind this depression in Ca2+ sensitivity and force production are unknown. This gap in knowledge poses a significant challenge in generating a complete understanding of the fatigue process. To close this gap, the ability of myosin to bind to a single actin filament was measured under acidic conditions, in a laser trap assay, with and without regulatory proteins. Decreasing pH from 7.4 to 6.5 reduced the ...


Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey Jan 2019

Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey

Masters Theses

The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) are pressing public health problems worldwide. A key factor contributing to the spread of ARGs is lateral gene transfer. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are measured hot spots of microbial diversity and resistance because they receive polluted wastewater from diverse sources and contain a variety of different environments with dense bacterial loads. Due to the overuse of antibiotics the genetic capacities of microbes have profited. This helps every source of resistance gene and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop the multiple mechanism of resistance to each antibiotic used clinically, agriculturally, or ...


Comparative Toxicology Of Nio And Ni(Oh)₂ Nanoparticles, Melissa Hope Cambre Jan 2018

Comparative Toxicology Of Nio And Ni(Oh)₂ Nanoparticles, Melissa Hope Cambre

Masters Theses

“Understanding the potential toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is important to ensure that these new products do not impose harmful effects to human and environmental health. Paper I is a literature review in which we discuss characteristics of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on transition metal oxide nanoparticles that influence cytotoxicity. Identification of those properties may lead to the design of more efficient and safer nanosized products for various industrial purposes and provide guidance for assessment of human and environmental health risk. We then investigate biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity that include oxidative stress-induced cellular events and alteration of the pathways ...


Exploring The Influence Of Pkc-Theta Phosphorylation On Notch1 Activation And T Helper Cell Differentiation, Grace Trombley Jan 2018

Exploring The Influence Of Pkc-Theta Phosphorylation On Notch1 Activation And T Helper Cell Differentiation, Grace Trombley

Masters Theses

The T cell-specific kinase, Protein Kinase C theta (PKCq) is essential to T cell activation and differentiation. PKCq integrates T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 signaling, and ultimately activates transcription factors necessary for full T cell activation, proliferation, survival, and differentiation into T helper (Th) subsets. Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells compose the four major lineages of T helper cells, differentiated from CD4 T cells, and each have different requirements for PKCq.

PKCq, itself, is regulated through phosphorylation of specific resides, including tyrosine (Y)90 and threonine (T)538. Following T cell stimulation, PKCq is phosphorylated on Y90 by ...


In Vitro S-Glutathionylation Of S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Phenotype Determination Of Sensitive To Formaldehyde 1 Knockout Strains Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Ian Truebridge Jan 2018

In Vitro S-Glutathionylation Of S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase From Arabidopsis Thaliana And Phenotype Determination Of Sensitive To Formaldehyde 1 Knockout Strains Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Ian Truebridge

Masters Theses

Cells are constantly exposed to different stresses – one being redox stress, which is induced by metal, reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) helps modulate redox stress by two different mechanisms – either by reducing S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) or by oxidizing hydroxymethyl glutathione (HMGSH), a biproduct of glutathione and formaldehyde, to formic acid. GSNO has the potential to posttranslational modify proteins in two different manners, either by S-nitrosation or by S-glutathionylation. Interestingly, GSNOR can be modified by its substrate GSNO, either by S-nitrosation, which has previously been reported, or, as discussed in this thesis, by ...


Investigating The Role Of Rna-Binding Protein 5 In The Life Cycle Differentiation Of Trypanosoma Brucei, David Anaguano Pillajo Jan 2018

Investigating The Role Of Rna-Binding Protein 5 In The Life Cycle Differentiation Of Trypanosoma Brucei, David Anaguano Pillajo

Masters Theses

Trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei have unusual mechanisms of gene expression including polycistronic transcription, mitochondrial RNA editing and trans-splicing. Additionally, these protists rely mainly on post-transcriptional regulation where RNA-binding proteins (RBP) have shown to play a major role. RBP6 and RBP10 are two examples of RBPs that play crucial roles in procyclic and bloodstream form parasites differentiation respectively, by post-transcriptional regulation. Over-expression of RBP6 is enough to promote differentiation into metacyclic trypomastigotes that are infective to mice. However, continuous expression is required, and this pattern does not reflect the natural expression in the tsetse fly or the influence of ...


Identification Of Deletions In The Hdc Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster Generated Through Transposon-Excision Mutagenesis, Gregory A. Wesseling Aug 2017

Identification Of Deletions In The Hdc Gene Of Drosophila Melanogaster Generated Through Transposon-Excision Mutagenesis, Gregory A. Wesseling

Masters Theses

Histamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter in a number of vertebrate and invertebrate systems and is synthesized from its precursor histidine by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC). In Drosophila, histamine has been shown to have function in photoreceptors, mechanoreceptor cells, as well as centrally located neurons. Mutations of the Hdc gene, such as HdcJK910, exhibit defects in histamine synthesis and display altered behaviors such as blindness, inability to groom, impaired thermal tolerance, and altered sleep rhythms. However, all Hdc mutants obtained thus far demonstrate some transcriptional activity.

In order to remove Hdc expression completely, part ...


Comparative Chemical Characterization Of Lunasin-Enriched Preparations And Modifications Of The Inflammasomes In Vitro, Samuel James Price May 2017

Comparative Chemical Characterization Of Lunasin-Enriched Preparations And Modifications Of The Inflammasomes In Vitro, Samuel James Price

Masters Theses

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most cultivated crops in the world providing the population with large amounts of protein and oil. In addition to its nutritional composition, soybean also contains biologically active compounds with potential health-promoting properties. The presence of these bioactives may be responsible for the lower incidence of chronic diseases in populations that consume a significant portion of soybeans in their diet. One group of soybeanderived bioactives are bioactive peptides and proteins including lunasin, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) and Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (KTI). The overall objective of this research was to develop a method of preparing lunasin-enriched ...


Expression, Purification, And Characterization Of An Intrinsically Disordered Late Embryogenesis Abundant (Lea) Protein From Artemia Franciscana Utilizing Escherichia Coli And Nicotiana Tabacum, Md Fazlul Karim Jan 2017

Expression, Purification, And Characterization Of An Intrinsically Disordered Late Embryogenesis Abundant (Lea) Protein From Artemia Franciscana Utilizing Escherichia Coli And Nicotiana Tabacum, Md Fazlul Karim

Masters Theses

Anhydrobiosis is an astounding strategy that allows certain species (both animals and plants) to survive severe environmental conditions such as desiccation, extreme cold, or heat in the habitat. Despite the occurrence of several different molecular strategies, expression of highly hydrophilic polypeptides termed LEA proteins has been most conclusive identified as a requirement for the survival of plants and animals during periods of water stress such as freezing and drying. Several classification schemes for LEA proteins have been proposed and the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, is the only known animal that naturally expresses LEA proteins from three different classification groups (groups ...


Effects Of Malformed Or Absent Valves To Lymphatic Fluid Transport And Lymphedema In Vivo In Mice, Akshay S. Pujari Jan 2017

Effects Of Malformed Or Absent Valves To Lymphatic Fluid Transport And Lymphedema In Vivo In Mice, Akshay S. Pujari

Masters Theses

Lymph is primarily composed of fluid and proteins from the blood circulatory system that drain into the space surrounding cells, interstitial space. From the interstitial space, the fluid enters and circulates in the lymphatic system until it is delivered into the venous system. In contrast to the blood circulatory system, the lymphatic system lacks a central pumping organ dictating the predominant driving pressure and velocity of lymph. Transport of lymph via capillaries, pre-collecting and collecting lymphatic vessels relies on the synergy between pressure gradients, local tissue motion, valves and lymphatic vessel contractility. The direction of lymph transport is regulated by ...


Regulation Of Katanin Activity On Microtubules, Madison A. Tyler Jan 2017

Regulation Of Katanin Activity On Microtubules, Madison A. Tyler

Masters Theses

The cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of microtubules constantly being reorganized to meet the spatiotemporal demands of the cell. Microtubules are organized into subcellular highways to control cell processes such as cell division, cargo transport, and neuronal development and maintenance. Reorganization of this intricate network is tightly regulated by various stabilizing and destabilizing microtubule-associated proteins that decorate the network. Katanin p60 is a microtubule destabilizing enzyme from the ATPases Associated with various Activities (AAA+) family. It can both sever and depolymerize microtubules. In order to sever microtubules, katanin recognizes the tubulin carboxy-terminal tails (CTTs) and hydrolyzes ATP. Using super-resolution microscopy ...


Characterization Of Calcium Homeostasis Parameters In Trpv3 And Cav3.2 Double Null Mice, Aujan Mehregan Jan 2017

Characterization Of Calcium Homeostasis Parameters In Trpv3 And Cav3.2 Double Null Mice, Aujan Mehregan

Masters Theses

In mammals, calcium influx is required for oocyte maturation and egg activation, as it supports the persistent calcium oscillations induced by fertilization. These oscillations are required for the initiation of embryo development. The molecular identities of the plasma membrane calcium-permeant channels that underlie calcium influx are not established. Among these channels, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid, member 3 (TRPV3) allows divalent cations, namely strontium (Sr2+) and calcium (Ca2+) with high permeability, into cells, and its expression pattern seems to predict an essential role in the initiation of development. Another channel that was identified to be expressed in oocytes/eggs ...


Effects Of Asiatic Acid On Neurite Outgrowth In Neuro-2a Cells, Aishah Asiri Jan 2017

Effects Of Asiatic Acid On Neurite Outgrowth In Neuro-2a Cells, Aishah Asiri

Masters Theses

Recently, medicinal plants from ancient Ayurvedic medicine have provided clues to the discovery of novel therapeutics for various diseases. In Ayurvedic medicine, a common Indian plant, Centella asiatica is highly regarded as a "rasayana" or nerve tonic. The Centella extract is used to ward off age-related dementia and to increase memory and intelligence. The mechanism by which Centella improves memory and learning and reduces the risk of dementia is unclear.

We recently tested the effects of asiatic acid, the main active component of Centella, on neuronal growth. We hypothesized that asiatic acid will promote neuronal growth and neurite network formation ...


Characterization Of Fusarium Species And Alternaria Alternata, And Their Effects On Switchgrass Health And Chemical Components, Sara Beth Collins Dec 2016

Characterization Of Fusarium Species And Alternaria Alternata, And Their Effects On Switchgrass Health And Chemical Components, Sara Beth Collins

Masters Theses

Panicum virgatum L., readily referred to as Switchgrass, is a perennial warm-season bunch grass, used as an alternative energy source for biofuel production. There is insufficient research on switchgrass pathogens, and is expected that an increase in disease pressure will result as more land is reserved for this perennial crop. The purpose of this research was to identify and characterize pathogenic Alternaria alternata and Fusarium species on Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and to evaluate their impact on stand establishment and plant health. Molecular identifications of fungal isolates obtained from infected commercial switchgrass seed yielded eight species (A. alternata, F. acuminatum ...


Rapid Molecular Detection And Population Genetics Of Pityophthorus Juglandis, A Vector Of Thousand Cankers Disease In Juglans Spp., Emel Oren Dec 2016

Rapid Molecular Detection And Population Genetics Of Pityophthorus Juglandis, A Vector Of Thousand Cankers Disease In Juglans Spp., Emel Oren

Masters Theses

Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) is a disease complex involving the fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida, an insect vector Pityophthorus juglandis, and the hosts, Juglans spp. and Pterocarya spp. Signs and symptoms of TCD include crown thinning due to branch dieback, yellowing and wilting of the leaves, appearance of epicormic shoots, numerous entrance/exit holes, gallery formation by P. juglandis, and the development of small, dark brown cankers underneath the bark. TCD originally described from western U.S., has now expanded to eastern U.S. and northwestern Italy. The disease complex is often difficult to diagnose due to the absence of symptoms ...


Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman Dec 2016

Effect Of Varying Rumen Degradable And Undegradable Protein On Milk Production And Nitrogen Efficiency In Lactating Dairy Cows Under Summer Conditions, Jeffrey D. Kaufman

Masters Theses

The objective is to determine the effect of reducing nitrogen input through feeding low rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on milk production, nitrogen efficiency and metabolism in heat-stressed cows. Forty-eight mid-lactating, Holstein cows were assigned to treatments using a randomized block design in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments (n = 12/treatment). Treatments included two levels of RDP (10 and 8%) and two levels of RUP (8 and 6%). From d 1 to 21, a common diet (10% RDP-8% RUP) was fed to cows followed with their respective treatment diets fed from d 22 to ...


Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce Dec 2016

Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce

Masters Theses

Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a perennial grass native to North America, is a leading biomass feedstock candidate for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol. Switchgrass is considered a viable option for biofuel production due to its cheap production cost and ability to grow on marginal land. Biofuel derived from switchgrass has been shown to be very energy efficient, producing 540% more renewable energy versus nonrenewable energy expended. Switchgrass-derived biofuel is also estimated to have greenhouse gas emissions that are 94% lower than emissions from gasoline (Schmer et al 2008). Biofuels are created through biochemical processes that utilize various enzymes and microorganisms for ...


Lignin Maximization: Analyzing The Impact Of Different Feedstocks And Feedstock Ratios Using Organosolv Fractionation, Marc Banholzer Dec 2016

Lignin Maximization: Analyzing The Impact Of Different Feedstocks And Feedstock Ratios Using Organosolv Fractionation, Marc Banholzer

Masters Theses

Over-exploitation of fossil fuels coupled with increasing pressure to reduce carbon emissions are prompting a transition from conventional petrochemical feedstocks to sustainable and renewable sourced carbon. The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for integrated biorefining is of current high interest, as separation into its component parts affords process streams of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, each of which can serve as a starting point for the production of biobased chemicals and fuels. Given the large number of potential sources of lignocellulosic feedstocks, the biorefinery will need to adapt to the supplies available over a normal growing season. Of particular ...


The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation And Chronic Voluntary Alcohol Consumption On Δfos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder May 2016

The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation And Chronic Voluntary Alcohol Consumption On Δfos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder

Masters Theses

The present study explores the relation between sleep restriction and alcohol use and the neural substrates that result from chronic behaviors. Accumulation of the transcription factors ΔFosB is suggested as a possible outcome of chronic behaviors, such as addiction. Sleep is discussed as possible mediating factor in the relationship between ΔFosB and chronic alcohol consumption. There were four experimental groups in this study: Control (C), Sleep Deprivation only (SD), Alcohol Exposure only (AO), and both sleep deprivation and alcohol exposure (B). Levels of ΔFosB accumulation in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) revealed a significant main effect of sleep deprivation, but no ...


Dynamics Of Microtubule Networks With Antiparallel Crosslinkers, Kasimira T. Stanhope Jan 2016

Dynamics Of Microtubule Networks With Antiparallel Crosslinkers, Kasimira T. Stanhope

Masters Theses

Microtubules are the most rigid element of the cytoskeleton. They are responsible for the structure of cells and make up the tracks for intracellular cargo transport. Interactions between microtubules, motor proteins, and microtubule-associated proteins drive important mechanisms in the cell, such as cell division, cell motility, cell homeostasis, and cell signaling. I seek to understand how such complex, energy-consuming non-equilibrium biological networks self-organize by studying in vitro microtubules bundled by microtubule-associated protein 65 (MAP65), in kinesin-1 gliding assays. I found that large networks can break into smaller, cell-like networks that can mimic types of cell motility. Dynamics of these networks ...


Modifications Of Myofilament Structure And Function During Global Myocardial Ischemia, Mike K. Woodward Jan 2016

Modifications Of Myofilament Structure And Function During Global Myocardial Ischemia, Mike K. Woodward

Masters Theses

Cardiac arrest is a prevalent condition with a poor prognosis, attributable in part to persistent myocardial dysfunction following resuscitation. The molecular basis of this dysfunction remains unclear. We induced cardiac arrest in a porcine model of acute sudden death and assessed the impact of ischemia and reperfusion on the molecular function of isolated cardiac contractile proteins. Cardiac arrest was electrically induced, left untreated for 12 min, and followed by a resuscitation protocol. With successful resuscitations, the heart was reperfused for 2 h (IR2) and the muscle harvested. In failed resuscitations, tissue samples were taken following the failed efforts (IDNR). Actin ...


Characterizing The Inhibition Of Katanin Using Tubulin Carboxy-Terminal Tail Constructs, Corey E. Reed Jan 2016

Characterizing The Inhibition Of Katanin Using Tubulin Carboxy-Terminal Tail Constructs, Corey E. Reed

Masters Theses

Understanding how the cellular cytoskeleton is maintained and regulated is important to elucidate the functions of many structures such as the mitotic spindle, cilia and flagella. Katanin p60, microtubule-severing enzymes from the ATPase associated with cellular activities (AAA+) family, has previously been shown in our lab to be inhibited by free tubulin as well as α- and β-tubulin carboxy-terminal tail (CTT) constructs. Here we investigate the inhibition ability of several different tubulin CTT sequences. We quantify the effect of the addition of these constructs on the severing and binding activity of katanin. We find that some constructs inhibit katanin better ...


White-Rot Fungi As Pretreatment Agents For Wood Destined For Biofuel Applications, Ryan M. Kalinoski Jan 2016

White-Rot Fungi As Pretreatment Agents For Wood Destined For Biofuel Applications, Ryan M. Kalinoski

Masters Theses

Efficient and economical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels is often hampered by the chemical recalcitrance of the material. Inexpensive and environmentally-friendly pretreatment processes are therefore desirable in order to lower the cost of biofuel production and minimize negative environmental impacts. To that end, we have explored the use of a naturally occurring white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, as a direct pretreatment agent for hardwood destined for biofuel applications. Specifically, we examined the pretreatment effects on the hardwood mixture after treatment with the wild-type strain of T. versicolor (52J) compared with those from a cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH)-deficient strain (m4D) , to ...


Environmental Controls On The Diversity And Distribution Of Endosymbionts Associated With Phacoides Pectinatus (Bivalvia: Lucinidae) From Shallow Mangrove And Seagrass Sediments, St. Lucie County, Florida, Thomas Walters Doty Dec 2015

Environmental Controls On The Diversity And Distribution Of Endosymbionts Associated With Phacoides Pectinatus (Bivalvia: Lucinidae) From Shallow Mangrove And Seagrass Sediments, St. Lucie County, Florida, Thomas Walters Doty

Masters Theses

Lucinid bivalves are capable of colonizing traditionally inhospitable shallow marine sediments due to metabolic functions of bacterial endosymbionts located within their gills. Because lucinids can often be the dominant sediment infauna, defining their roles in sediment and pore fluid geochemical cycling is necessary to address concerns related to changes in coastal biological diversity and to understanding the sensitivity of threatened coastal ecosystems over time. However, there has been limited research done to understand the diversity and distribution of many lucinid chemosymbiotic systems. Therefore, the goals of this thesis were to evaluate the distribution of Phacoides pectinatus and its endosymbiont communities ...


Subfunctionalization Of Ethylene Receptors And Homology Modeling Of Cytosolic Domains In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Sai Keerthana Wuppalapati Dec 2015

Subfunctionalization Of Ethylene Receptors And Homology Modeling Of Cytosolic Domains In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Sai Keerthana Wuppalapati

Masters Theses

Ethylene is a gaseous phytohormone that initiates and modulates several mechanisms related to growth and development in plants through a family of five disulphide-linked receptor dimers. Although the ethylene receptors are very similar in their structures, they have diverse functions with both overlapping and non-overlapping roles. Silver ions are able to support ethylene binding to the receptors but it is also interesting to note that ethylene responses are blocked in the presence of silver. A part of the present study identified that ETR1 receiver domain has little or no role in mediating responses to silver ions, supported by data obtained ...


Conformational Dynamics Of Cytochrome P450cam Upon Ligand Binding, Ana Virginia Bernal Gomez Aug 2015

Conformational Dynamics Of Cytochrome P450cam Upon Ligand Binding, Ana Virginia Bernal Gomez

Masters Theses

Cytochrome P450s are a superfamily of metalloenzymes that are responsible for the monooxygenation of their hydrophobic substrates. P450’s retain the same general structural scaffold, however are able to bind promiscuously to substrates with distinct physico-chemical properties. It is believed that they possess considerable flexibility in the substrate binding regions as well as their active site to accomplish the diverse binding and catalytic chemistry with high regio- and stereo-specificity. In order to investigate the conformational dynamics inherent in these enzymes, especially in context of binding different ligands, we carried out amide proton exchange studies via NMR spectroscopy on a model ...


Comparison Of Activation Enthalpies For Aminoglycoside Modification Reactions, Brittany Sterling Soto Aug 2015

Comparison Of Activation Enthalpies For Aminoglycoside Modification Reactions, Brittany Sterling Soto

Masters Theses

At highly elevated temperatures, many biological reactions can proceed spontaneously from the ground state to the transition state. However, due to the long half-life of these reactions, catalysts are required to catalyze these reactions at modern day temperatures by lowering the activation energy. Wolfenden et al. has previously shown that catalysts enhance the rate of the reaction by reducing the enthalpy of activation. Therefore, the activation energies have been determined for three aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, APH(3’)-IIIa, AAC(3)-IIIb, and AAC(3)-VIa, to determine whether these three enzymes distinguish between the two classes of aminoglycoside antibiotics by ...


The In Vivo Effect Of Osmolytes On Folate Metabolism, Timkhite-Kulu Berhane Aug 2015

The In Vivo Effect Of Osmolytes On Folate Metabolism, Timkhite-Kulu Berhane

Masters Theses

Previous studies have found that addition of osmolytes weakens the binding of dihydrofolate (DHF) to R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), chromosomal DHFR from E. coli and a pteridine reductase. These results support the preferential interaction of DHF with osmolytes compared to water. Thus, a working model where interaction of DHF with osmolytes shifts the binding away from the protein-DHF complex towards the free species was proposed. As tetrahydrofolate and other folate redox states have similar structures to DHF, we predict osmotic stress will lower the catalytic efficiencies of other folate pathway enzymes. In this thesis, we explore the in vivo effects ...


Manipulating Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Oxidation To Reduce Fatness In Broiler Chickens, Tania Emmanuelle Torchon Aug 2015

Manipulating Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Oxidation To Reduce Fatness In Broiler Chickens, Tania Emmanuelle Torchon

Masters Theses

Compared to rodents, broiler chickens, those reared for meat, are an attractive model for studies of adipose biology, and obesity development in children. The broiler chicken lacks the gene for uncoupling protein 1, the hallmark for brown adipose tissue making them a useful model to study lipid metabolism in white adipocytes. Two studies were performed to investigate if white adipose tissue had the metabolic ability for fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on abdominal fat development of young broiler chickens as a model for childhood obesity. In study one, chickens were fasted for ...