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Integrated Crop Management News

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Managing Wet And Cold Soils, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Feb 2019

Managing Wet And Cold Soils, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Integrated Crop Management News

The amount of snow we received and potential spring rain events can be challenging to an early start to the growing season. Approaching field operations for N applications, tillage, weed control, etc. need to be weighed against potential soil compaction and successful seed germination. Two of the greatest concerns during spring is excess soil moisture and cold soil temperature and their impacts on seed germination, especially in areas with poorly drained soils as in northern and central Iowa. Areas with poorly drained soils can be managed with less tillage to ensure suitable soil conditions for plant growth. Tillage systems that ...


Toxin Levels In 2018 Corn, Charles R. Hurburgh, Erin Bowers, Alison Robertson, Jason Ross Feb 2019

Toxin Levels In 2018 Corn, Charles R. Hurburgh, Erin Bowers, Alison Robertson, Jason Ross

Integrated Crop Management News

The two bu/acre Iowa corn yield reduction (from the previous 2018 report) shown in the February 9 crop report demonstrated the impact of late-season wet weather. Corn quality and potential food safety issues are also determined late in the growing season. According to data recently completed by the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship (IDALS), levels of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (also known as vomitoxin) and zearalenone are elevated in this year’s Iowa corn crop. Vomitoxin primarily affects digestion in swine, while zearalenone has negative effects on reproduction in most monogastric animals. Dogs, cats, and gilts are most ...


Will The Insects Survive This Winter?, Erin W. Hodgson Feb 2019

Will The Insects Survive This Winter?, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

It is not easy for insects to survive Iowa winters. Some literally can’t - they freeze to death (corn earworm, black cutworm) or migrate to warmer climates (potato leafhopper). Insects are unlike mammals and birds because they must generate their own heat (called ectotherms). Insects die when they are exposed to temperatures below the melting point of their body fluids, termed the lower lethal temperature. Over time, insects have developed several strategies to survive cold temperatures and none of them involve wearing fleece. Many insects have adapted to cold temperatures by entering diapause, which is like hibernation. Diapause is a ...


Evaluation Of Foliar Fungicides On Soybeans In 2018, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Stith Wiggs Feb 2019

Evaluation Of Foliar Fungicides On Soybeans In 2018, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Stith Wiggs

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean foliar fungicides were evaluated for foliar disease management and yield response across seven Iowa State University research and demonstration farms in 2018. These included the Northwest Research and Demonstration Farm(Sutherland), Northern Research and Demonstration Farm (Kanawha), Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm(Nashua), Central Iowa Research Farms (Ames), Armstrong Memorial Research and Demonstration Farm (Lewis), McNay Memorial Research and Demonstration Farm (Chariton), and Southeast Research and Demonstration Farm(Crawfordsville).


Summary Of Foliar Fungicide Applications On Corn In Iowa In 2018, Alison E. Robertson Feb 2019

Summary Of Foliar Fungicide Applications On Corn In Iowa In 2018, Alison E. Robertson

Integrated Crop Management News

In 2018, we tested various foliar fungicides on corn at six locations in Iowa: ISU Northwest Research and Demonstration Farm (NWRF), Sutherland; Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm (NERF), Nashua; Northern Research and Demonstration Farm (NRF), Kanawha; Southwest Research and Demonstration Farm (SWRF), Lewis; Southeast Research and Demonstration Farm (SERF), Crawfordsville; and the Ag engineering and Agronomy Farm near Boone.


Achieving Full-Season Waterhemp Control In Soybean, Robert G. Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson Feb 2019

Achieving Full-Season Waterhemp Control In Soybean, Robert G. Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson

Integrated Crop Management News

Although there are many ways weeds escape control in crop fields, one of the leading causes of waterhemp control failures is emergence of plants following postemergence herbicide (POST) treatments. Waterhemp requires more than twice as many growing degree days to reach 50% emergence as giant foxtail or velvetleaf (Figure 1), resulting in much of the population emerging after mid-June.


2018 Insecticide Evaluation For Soybean Aphid, Erin W. Hodgson Jan 2019

2018 Insecticide Evaluation For Soybean Aphid, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Plots were established at two locations in 2018 (ISU Northwest Research Farm and ISU Northeast Research Farm). Syngenta NK S24-K2 brand soybean was used at both locations. Seven insecticidal groups/subgroups were evaluated in 2018. Seed did not have a pesticidal seed treatment unless specifically stated. At both locations, soybean aphid peaked in August (four perplant at Northeast Research Farm and 22 perplant at Northwest Research Farm). The economic threshold was not reached at either location in 2018; however, all plots were sprayed mid-August.


2018 Scn-Resistant Variety Trial Results Show Yield Effects And Scn Buildup, Greg Tylka Jan 2019

2018 Scn-Resistant Variety Trial Results Show Yield Effects And Scn Buildup, Greg Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University annually evaluates the agronomic performance and nematode control of hundreds of soybean varieties that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). A limited number of SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are included in the research to serve as a reference point for comparison. The work is supported by the soybean checkoff through the Iowa Soybean Association. The experiments are conducted in each of Iowa’s nine crop reporting districts.


Should You Use A Fungicidal Seed Treatment On Low-Quality Soybean Seed?, Ethan Stoetzer, Daren S. Mueller Dec 2018

Should You Use A Fungicidal Seed Treatment On Low-Quality Soybean Seed?, Ethan Stoetzer, Daren S. Mueller

Integrated Crop Management News

With this year’s harvest of soybeans delayed beyond what is considered an ideal window of time, the opportunity for diseases to infect seed pods and in some instances, to the seed itself, was greatly increased. Across the state and the north central region, seed suppliers have reported that this year’s crops of seed soybean are frequently testing positive for the Diaporthe fungus (Phomopsis seed decay), which is resulting in lower than normal germination rates of seed. Seed decay is characterized by cracked, shriveled seed with white chalk-colored mold on the seed surface.


Moving Forward With Dicamba, Bob Hartzler Nov 2018

Moving Forward With Dicamba, Bob Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

On October 31, 2018, the EPA made the long-awaited announcement regarding dicamba registration for use on dicamba-resistant soybean. I suspect opinions regarding the EPA actions are as varied as people’s views of the technology.


Time To Assess And Take Stock Of Your Soil Health, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Nov 2018

Time To Assess And Take Stock Of Your Soil Health, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Integrated Crop Management News

As the season approaches its conclusion and harvest conditions are most challenging, there are few things worth remembering to protect and sustain soil health. At this time, soil is susceptible to compaction due to rain and saturated soil conditions. Soils remain saturated longer at this time of the year since water use by crops is negligible and there is low water evaporation due to cool temperatures. Conventional tilled soil remain saturated longer than fields under conservation tillage since intense tillage destroys soil aggregates, resulting in reduction in water movement through the soil profile. A no-till system provides better, stronger and ...


Fewer But More Diverse Choices Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties For Iowa In 2019, Greg Tylka Nov 2018

Fewer But More Diverse Choices Of Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties For Iowa In 2019, Greg Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean varieties that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) have been a critically important tool for managing this pest. These SCN-resistant soybean varieties have allowed farmers to keep SCN numbers in check while producing profitable soybean yields.


Let's Talk No-Till, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Oct 2018

Let's Talk No-Till, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Integrated Crop Management News

As of October 14, 2018, Iowa soybean harvest was only about 20% complete, making it the latest soybean harvest on record. This was caused by the prolonged heavy rains in September and early October. As a result, field losses, abnormally high harvest moisture content and moldy/weathered soybeans are all issues this year.


Managing Wet Soybeans In A Late Harvest, Charles R. Hurburgh, Meaghan J. B. Anderson Oct 2018

Managing Wet Soybeans In A Late Harvest, Charles R. Hurburgh, Meaghan J. B. Anderson

Integrated Crop Management News

As of October 14, 2018, Iowa soybean harvest was only about 20% complete, making it the latest soybean harvest on record. This was caused by the prolonged heavy rains in September and early October. As a result, field losses, abnormally high harvest moisture content and moldy/weathered soybeans are all issues this year.


Mycotoxins And Deterioration In The 2018 Corn Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson Oct 2018

Mycotoxins And Deterioration In The 2018 Corn Crop, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson

Integrated Crop Management News

Above normal rains in September have slowed field crop dry-down. Coupled with early season drought in South Central and Southeast Iowa and above-average rainfall in the Northwest, there is high risk of reduced grain quality. Corn and soybeans remaining in the field are currently exposed to excessive moisture that encourages the growth of ear molds. Moldy kernels are counted in total damage, thereby affecting the overall grade of the corn. Additionally, if the fungus is capable of producing mycotoxins, affected grain may be subject to marketing restrictions.


How To Minimize Soil Compaction During Harvest, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark A. Licht Oct 2018

How To Minimize Soil Compaction During Harvest, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Mark A. Licht

Integrated Crop Management News

Rain events during September and October have created challenging conditions not only for timely harvest of corn and soybean crops but also for the impact harvest will have on the soil. These wet conditions coupled with a drop in air temperature will slow harvest operations. Soils are too wet for traffic from heavy equipment, making them susceptible to compaction during harvest operations. When soils are near saturated conditions, heavy equipment loads weaken soil structure where water works as lubricant, leading to the collapse of soil aggregates. This will cause significant surface compaction, rutting, and deep subsoil compaction.


Crop Quality Hurt By Rains, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson Oct 2018

Crop Quality Hurt By Rains, Charles R. Hurburgh, Alison E. Robertson

Integrated Crop Management News

This year continues the chain of years with unusual harvest conditions driven by rapid weather changes in the latter part of the growing season. In mid August, crops were significantly ahead of schedule in terms of maturity. Heat and moisture in May and June accelerated the pace of development, to the point that signs of maturity were evident by the 15th of August. Rains followed by above average temperatures began over Labor Day weekend, and have been repeated nearly every weekend to date. The forecast for the weekend of October 7 is more of the same – very heavy rains ...


Management Of Flood-Submerged Grain, Charles R. Hurburgh Sep 2018

Management Of Flood-Submerged Grain, Charles R. Hurburgh

Integrated Crop Management News

There have been flooded fields with water over the grain in Southwest, Northwest and East Central Iowa this year. This was caused by intense rains over Labor Day and the following weekends. Poor stalk strength causing downed corn has increased the amount of grain covered by flood waters. Grain submerged by uncontrolled flood waters is considered adulterated under the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act. This policy dates to 2008 when grain storage in Cedar Rapids were inundated and has been applied to several situations since then. Adulterated material cannot be put in commercial facilities of any type, where there would ...


Tracking Tar Spot In Corn 2018, Alison E. Robertson, Edward Zaworski, Ethan Stoetzer Sep 2018

Tracking Tar Spot In Corn 2018, Alison E. Robertson, Edward Zaworski, Ethan Stoetzer

Integrated Crop Management News

Cases of tar spot in corn have been reported over recent weeks in 12 Iowa counties. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach plant pathologists have been able to confirm the presence of tar spot in four counties via the Iowa State University Plant and Insect Diagnostic Clinic. Agronomists and collaborators have confirmed the remaining cases throughout the state. The current counties with confirmed tar spot presence include: Jones, Jackson, Johnson, Muscatine, Fayette, Clayton, Black Hawk, Buchanan, Delaware, Dubuque, Clinton, Scott, Grundy and Chickasaw counties.


Reflecting On Scn In Iowa Through The Years, Greg Tylka Sep 2018

Reflecting On Scn In Iowa Through The Years, Greg Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

I recently moved offices for the first time since arriving at Iowa State University in February 1990. While moving, I uncovered several things that I had not seen in many years. One of those items was a faded news article that a colleague sent me written by Doug Lindner in the Algona Upper Des Moines newspaper originally published on September 2, 198.


Harvest Considerations To Reduce Weed Seed Movement, Meaghan J. B. Anderson, Robert G. Hartzler Sep 2018

Harvest Considerations To Reduce Weed Seed Movement, Meaghan J. B. Anderson, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

Harvest is just around the corner for many Iowa farmers and now is a good time to consider options to reduce movement of weed seed between fields with harvest equipment. While we may not think of it during harvest time, combines are extremely effective at transporting seed from field to field. A few precautions leading up to harvest and during harvest can help manage any escaped problem weeds.


Soybean Potassium Deficiency Symptoms During Early And Late Growing Stages, Antonio Mallarino Aug 2018

Soybean Potassium Deficiency Symptoms During Early And Late Growing Stages, Antonio Mallarino

Integrated Crop Management News

Since early August, farmers and consultants have been reporting what they believed were potassium (K) deficiency symptoms in soybean leaves located in the middle or upper canopy. This is not surprising in fields or portions of fields with soil-test values in the very low or low K interpretation categories. Moreover, K deficiency symptoms could develop at these growth stages with drought conditions, even in fields with adequate soil-test K levels. Sometimes symptoms occur in late summer with rainfall events after a dry period. Potassium deficiency symptoms are very common and well known at early growth stages, but due to poorly ...


Dicamba 2018 - The Iowa Experience, Robert G. Hartzler Aug 2018

Dicamba 2018 - The Iowa Experience, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

I have been reluctant to provide estimates of soybean acres damaged from dicamba applied to Xtend soybean due to the difficulty in developing a realistic number of affected acres. While there has been a significant number of acres damaged by dicamba, I am sure it is less than five percent of Iowa’s nearly 10 million soybean acres. Due to this relatively small number of acres affected (in relation to total soybean acres), dicamba injury will not significantly impact Iowa’s productivity in 2018. However, if you are a farmer whose crop has been damaged by dicamba, the fact that ...


When Is It Too Late To Spray For Soybean Aphid?, Erin Hodgson Aug 2018

When Is It Too Late To Spray For Soybean Aphid?, Erin Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean aphid is the most important insect pest of soybean in Iowa. Foliar insecticides, mostly pyrethroids and organophosphates, have been the primary management tactic for soybean aphid in Iowa since 2001. Regular scouting and timely treatments will protect yield. Our research and extension program at Iowa State University (ISU) is focused on evaluating insecticide efficacy for soybean aphid on a wide range of products. We are also screening soybean aphid populations for pyrethroid resistance in northern Iowa.


When Is It Too Late To Spray For Soybean Aphid?, Erin W. Hodgson Aug 2018

When Is It Too Late To Spray For Soybean Aphid?, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean aphid is the most important insect pest of soybean in Iowa. Foliar insecticides, mostly pyrethroids and organophosphates, have been the primary management tactic for soybean aphid in Iowa since 2001. Regular scouting and timely treatments will protect yield. Our research and extension program at Iowa State University (ISU) is focused on evaluating insecticide efficacy for soybean aphid on a wide range of products. We are also screening soybean aphid populations for pyrethroid resistance in northern Iowa.


Scn Development In 2018, Greg Tylka Aug 2018

Scn Development In 2018, Greg Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) reproduction can be affected greatly by soil conditions. SCN numbers are positively correlated with soil temperature and negatively correlated with soil moisture. In short - greatest SCN reproduction occurs in hot, dry growing seasons.


You “Mite” Want To Scout Drought-Stressed Crops, Erin W. Hodgson Aug 2018

You “Mite” Want To Scout Drought-Stressed Crops, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

According to the U.S. Drought Monitor, southeastern and south central Iowa are experiencing prolonged heat and moisture stress. In early August, there were twospotted spider mites detected in corn and beans. I recommend scouting corn and soybean fields for mite infestations this month, especially in these areas.


New Soybean Pest In Iowa: Soybean Gall Midge, Erin W. Hodgson Jul 2018

New Soybean Pest In Iowa: Soybean Gall Midge, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

In 2016 and 2017, there were isolated reports of soybean injury by soybean gall midge in northwest Iowa. Confirmations were reported in 2011 from Nebraska and in 2015 from South Dakota. In 2018, the distribution in Iowa has spread to twelve Iowa counties (Figure 1). This article hopes to raise awareness about a new soybean pest and confirm any additional infested Iowa counties.


Identifying, Scouting And Management Of Bacterial Leaf Streak, Ethan Stoetzer, Edward R. Zaworski Jul 2018

Identifying, Scouting And Management Of Bacterial Leaf Streak, Ethan Stoetzer, Edward R. Zaworski

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University Extension and Outreach plant pathologists have identified and confirmed several different cases of bacterial leaf streak in corn this growing season. Bacterial leaf streak is relatively new to the United States, with the first case identified in 2016, though symptoms of the disease have been present in Nebraska since 2014. To date, the disease has been reported in nine states including: Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota and Texas.


Crop Injury Associated With Growth Regulator Herbicides, Bob Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson Jul 2018

Crop Injury Associated With Growth Regulator Herbicides, Bob Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson

Integrated Crop Management News

While off-target dicamba injury to soybean has dominated the news the past year, it is important to recognize that dicamba is not the only Group 4 herbicide (HG4) capable of injuring soybean. These herbicides mimic the activity of indole acetic acid (IAA), a hormone that regulates the activity of numerous genes involved in plant growth. IAA also is referred to as auxin. HG4 products can induce plant responses at lower doses than most other herbicide groups, thus off-target injury has been a problem since their introduction in the 1940’s. This article will discuss some of the problems observed this ...