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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Multiple Environmental Stressors Induce Complex Transcriptomic Responses Indicative Of Phenotypic Outcomes In Western Fence Lizard, Kurt A. Gust, Vijender Chaitankar, Preetam Ghosh, Mitchell S. Wilbanks, Xianfeng Chen, Natalie D. Barker, Don Pham, Leona D. Scanlan, Arun Rawat, Larry G. Talent, Michael J. Quinn Jr., Christopher D. Vulpe, Mohamed O. Elasri, Mark S. Johnson, Edward J. Perkins, Craig A. Mcfarland Dec 2018

Multiple Environmental Stressors Induce Complex Transcriptomic Responses Indicative Of Phenotypic Outcomes In Western Fence Lizard, Kurt A. Gust, Vijender Chaitankar, Preetam Ghosh, Mitchell S. Wilbanks, Xianfeng Chen, Natalie D. Barker, Don Pham, Leona D. Scanlan, Arun Rawat, Larry G. Talent, Michael J. Quinn Jr., Christopher D. Vulpe, Mohamed O. Elasri, Mark S. Johnson, Edward J. Perkins, Craig A. Mcfarland

Faculty Publications

Background

The health and resilience of species in natural environments is increasingly challenged by complex anthropogenic stressor combinations including climate change, habitat encroachment, and chemical contamination. To better understand impacts of these stressors we examined the individual- and combined-stressor impacts of malaria infection, food limitation, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposures on gene expression in livers of Western fence lizards (WFL, Sceloporus occidentalis) using custom WFL transcriptome-based microarrays.

Results

Computational analysis including annotation enrichment and correlation analysis identified putative functional mechanisms linking transcript expression and toxicological phenotypes. TNT exposure increased transcript expression for genes involved in erythropoiesis, potentially in response ...


Road-Edge Effects On Herpetofauna In A Lowland Amazonian Rainforest, Ross J. Maynard, Nathalie C. Aall, Daniel Saenz, Paul S. Hamilton, Matthew Kwiatkowski Jan 2016

Road-Edge Effects On Herpetofauna In A Lowland Amazonian Rainforest, Ross J. Maynard, Nathalie C. Aall, Daniel Saenz, Paul S. Hamilton, Matthew Kwiatkowski

Faculty Publications

The impact of roads on the flora and fauna of Neotropical rainforest is perhaps the single biggest driver of habitat modification and population declines in these ecosystems. We investigated the road-edge effect of a low-use dirt road on amphibian and reptile abundance, diversity, and composition within adjacent lowland Amazonian rainforest at San José de Payamino, Ecuador. The road has been closed to vehicle traffic since its construction in 2010. Thus, effects from vehicle mortality, vehicle-related pollution, and road noise were not confounding factors. Herpetofauna were surveyed using both visual encounter surveys and drift fences with pitfall and funnel traps at ...


Assessing Multiple Endpoints Of Atrazine Ingestion On Gravid Northern Watersnakes (Nerodia Sipedon) And Their Offspring [Abstract], L. A. Neuman-Lee, K. F. Gaines, K. A. Baumgartner, J. R. Voorhees, J. M. Novak, Stephen J. Mullin Jan 2014

Assessing Multiple Endpoints Of Atrazine Ingestion On Gravid Northern Watersnakes (Nerodia Sipedon) And Their Offspring [Abstract], L. A. Neuman-Lee, K. F. Gaines, K. A. Baumgartner, J. R. Voorhees, J. M. Novak, Stephen J. Mullin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Differential Habitat Use By Common Watersnakes (Nerodia Sipedon), Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Andrew M. Durso, Nicholas M. Kiriazis, Melanie J. Olds, Stephen J. Mullin Jan 2013

Differential Habitat Use By Common Watersnakes (Nerodia Sipedon), Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Andrew M. Durso, Nicholas M. Kiriazis, Melanie J. Olds, Stephen J. Mullin

Faculty Publications

Understanding intraspecific variation in habitat use is important for the management of any species. In many studies of reptiles, habitat use by juveniles is poorly understood when compared to their adult conspecifics because of capture biases and logistical constraints. We compared habitat use between sexes and age classes of Common Watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) at a reservoir in central Illinois. Juvenile N. sipedon occurred more frequently in habitat with high canopy cover, whereas adult N. sipedon, especially reproductive females, were found exclusively in habitat with no canopy cover. Adult males used both locations equally. We emphasize the need to investigate ontogenetic ...


Thermoregulation Of Male Elaphe Spiloides In An Agriculturally-Fragmented Forest In Illinois, C. Drew Foster, Sarabeth Klueh, Stephen J. Mullin Jan 2009

Thermoregulation Of Male Elaphe Spiloides In An Agriculturally-Fragmented Forest In Illinois, C. Drew Foster, Sarabeth Klueh, Stephen J. Mullin

Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic forest fragmentation increases the amount of edge habitat. Although edges are harsh environments for many native species, ratsnakes often prefer this habitat. We examined thermoregulatory effectiveness of Central Ratsnakes (Elaphe spiloides) using forest edges preferentially to determine if edge preference is driven by increased thermoregulatory efficiencies. Six male subjects were located every 1-2 days using radio-telemetry and temperature sensitive transmitters. Subjects did not thermoregulate more efficiently in edges than in forest. Snakes were thermoconformers in both habitat types suggesting edge preference might be driven by other factors.


A Survey Of Reptiles And Amphibians On Kinmen Island, Taiwan, Daniel Saenz, Heather V. Podlipny, Pei-Yu Tasi, Brent Burt, Hsiao-Wei Yuan Jan 2009

A Survey Of Reptiles And Amphibians On Kinmen Island, Taiwan, Daniel Saenz, Heather V. Podlipny, Pei-Yu Tasi, Brent Burt, Hsiao-Wei Yuan

Faculty Publications

Little is known about the reptiles and amphibians of Kinmen Island, Taiwan. Until recently, Kinmen had been off-limits to outsiders. It wasn’t until the mid 1990’s that civilian travel was allowed to and from the island. We surveyed 8 sites from 19 May through 18 July 2005, using 15 m drift fences with collapsible funnel traps on the ends. We documented encounters with animals outside the traps and observed 258 individuals of 7 species during our survey. The herpetofauna encountered consisted of two anuran, two lizard, and three snake species. The two anuran species made up over 97 ...


Updated And New Amphibian And Reptile Records From Clark County, Illinois [Abstract], C. Drew Foster, Stephen J. Mullin Jan 2007

Updated And New Amphibian And Reptile Records From Clark County, Illinois [Abstract], C. Drew Foster, Stephen J. Mullin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Population Responses Of Wood Frog (Rana Sylvatica) Tadpoles To Overwintered Bullfrog (Rana Catesbeiana) Tadpoles, Leroy J. Walston, Stephen J. Mullin Jan 2007

Population Responses Of Wood Frog (Rana Sylvatica) Tadpoles To Overwintered Bullfrog (Rana Catesbeiana) Tadpoles, Leroy J. Walston, Stephen J. Mullin

Faculty Publications

A fundamental goal in ecology is to understand how environmental variation influences the distribution of individuals within a population. In this study, we used laboratory experiments to examine the population responses of sympatric Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica) tadpoles to native overwintered Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles. For periods of up to two weeks, we measured growth, activity, and refuge use of Wood Frog tadpoles in small mesocosms with and without an overwintered Bullfrog tadpole present. Bullfrog tadpoles had a negative effect on the growth of Wood Frog tadpoles allotopic (naive) to Bullfrogs, whereas the presence of Bullfrogs had no effect on ...


Tissue Glycogen And Extracellular Buffering Limit The Survival Of Red-Eared Slider Turtles During Anoxic Submergence At 3°C, Daniel E. Warren, Scott A. Reese, Donald C. Jackson Jul 2006

Tissue Glycogen And Extracellular Buffering Limit The Survival Of Red-Eared Slider Turtles During Anoxic Submergence At 3°C, Daniel E. Warren, Scott A. Reese, Donald C. Jackson

Faculty Publications

The goal of this study was to identify the factors that limit the survival of the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta during long-term anoxic submergence at 3°C. We measured blood acid-base status and tissue lactate and glycogen contents after 13, 29, and 44 d of submergence from ventricle, liver, carapace (lactate only), and four skeletal muscles. We also measured plasma Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, inorganic phosphate (Pi), lactate, and glucose. After 44 d, one of the six remaining turtles died, while the other turtles were in poor condition and suffered from a severe acidemia (blood ...


Nest-Site Selection In The Eastern Box Turtle, Terrapene Carolina Carolina, In Illinois [Abstract], Beth A. Flitz, Stephen J. Mullin Jan 2006

Nest-Site Selection In The Eastern Box Turtle, Terrapene Carolina Carolina, In Illinois [Abstract], Beth A. Flitz, Stephen J. Mullin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Radio Telemetry And Post-Emergent Habitat Selection Of Neonate Box Turtles (Emydidae: Terrapene Carolina) In Central Illinois, Patrick Forsythe, Beth A. Flitz, Stephen J. Mullin Jan 2004

Radio Telemetry And Post-Emergent Habitat Selection Of Neonate Box Turtles (Emydidae: Terrapene Carolina) In Central Illinois, Patrick Forsythe, Beth A. Flitz, Stephen J. Mullin

Faculty Publications

Although factors influencing turtle offspring prior to nest emergence have received considerable attention by researchers (Gutzke and Crews 1988; Janzen et al. 2000; Packard and Packard 1987), the activity of neonates following their emergence from the nest is poorly understood (but see Burger 1976; Butler and Graham 1995; Keller et al. 1997). Previous field research has produced valuable information on several aspects of neonate ecology for several species (Brewster and Brewster 1991; Butler and Sowell 1996; Janzen 1993). However, a thorough understanding of life history patterns for many species is absent, and some existing information is conflicting (e.g., Congdon ...


Snake (Colubridae: Thamnophis) Predatory Responses To Chemical Cues From Native And Introduced Prey Species, Stephen J. Mullin, Hélène Imbert, Jennifer M. Fish, Edward L. Ervin, Robert N. Fisher Jan 2004

Snake (Colubridae: Thamnophis) Predatory Responses To Chemical Cues From Native And Introduced Prey Species, Stephen J. Mullin, Hélène Imbert, Jennifer M. Fish, Edward L. Ervin, Robert N. Fisher

Faculty Publications

Several aquatic vertebrates have been introduced into freshwater systems in California over the past 100 years. Some populations of the two-striped garter snake (Thamnophis hammondii) have lived in sympatry with these species since their introduction; other populations have never encountered them. To assess the possible adaptation to a novel prey, we tested the predatory responses of T. hammondii from different populations to different chemosensory cues from native and introduced prey species. We presented chemical extracts from potential prey types and 2 control odors to individual snakes on cotton swabs and recorded the number of tongue flicks and attacks directed at ...


Home Ranges Of Rat Snakes (Colubridae: Elaphe) In Different Habitats, Stephen J. Mullin, William H. N. Gutzke, Gary D. Zenitsky, Robert J. Cooper Jan 2000

Home Ranges Of Rat Snakes (Colubridae: Elaphe) In Different Habitats, Stephen J. Mullin, William H. N. Gutzke, Gary D. Zenitsky, Robert J. Cooper

Faculty Publications

Based on our findings, we suggest that rat snakes represent not only a major predator of kites, but also of other canopy and mid-story nesting species in the southeastern United States. For example, rat snakes are the most dominant snake nest predator of bird nests throughout the Southeast (DeGregorio et al. 2014) and are skilled tree climbers that often occupy arboreal habitats (Jackson 1976, Keller and Heske 2000, Sperry et al. 2009), particularly in bottomland forests (Mullin et al. 2000, Carfagno and Weatherhead 2009). Thus, the role of rat snakes as predators of nests above the understory is likely underappreciated ...


Caudal Distraction By Rat Snakes (Colubridae, Elaphe): A Novel Behavior Used When Capturing Mammalian Prey, Stephen J. Mullin Jan 1999

Caudal Distraction By Rat Snakes (Colubridae, Elaphe): A Novel Behavior Used When Capturing Mammalian Prey, Stephen J. Mullin

Faculty Publications

Caudal movement in snakes may serve either a predatory (e.g., caudal luring) or defensive (eg., rattling, aposematism) function. I describe a new behavioral pattern of tail movement in snakes. Gray rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta spiloides) foraging on small mammals (Mus domesticus) moved their tails in an erratic, whiplike fashion after detecting their prey in the vicinity. The thrashing movement in the horizontal plane was audibly and visually obvious, resulting in displacement of leaf litter around the tail. All subjects displayed the behavior, but not in all foraging episodes. Shorter durations of caudal distraction resulted in greater predator success during ...


The Foraging Ecology Of The Gray Rat Snake (Elaphe Obsoleta Spiloides). Iii. Searching For Different Prey Types In Structurally Varied Habitats [Abstract], Stephen J. Mullin, Robert J. Cooper, William H. N. Gutzke Jan 1998

The Foraging Ecology Of The Gray Rat Snake (Elaphe Obsoleta Spiloides). Iii. Searching For Different Prey Types In Structurally Varied Habitats [Abstract], Stephen J. Mullin, Robert J. Cooper, William H. N. Gutzke

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Responses To Prey Odors In Juveniles Of The Snake Elaphe Obsoleta Spiloides, A Predatory Generalist [Abstract], Stephen J. Mullin, William H. N. Gutzke Jan 1997

Responses To Prey Odors In Juveniles Of The Snake Elaphe Obsoleta Spiloides, A Predatory Generalist [Abstract], Stephen J. Mullin, William H. N. Gutzke

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Adaptations Facilitating Facultative Oophagy In The Gray Rat Snake, Elaphe Obsoleta Spiloides [Abstract], Stephen J. Mullin Jan 1996

Adaptations Facilitating Facultative Oophagy In The Gray Rat Snake, Elaphe Obsoleta Spiloides [Abstract], Stephen J. Mullin

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Foraging Ecology Of The Mangrove Salt Marsh Snake, Nerodia Clarkii Compressicauda: Effects Of Vegetational Density [Abstract], Stephen J. Mullin, Henry R. Mushinsky Jan 1995

Foraging Ecology Of The Mangrove Salt Marsh Snake, Nerodia Clarkii Compressicauda: Effects Of Vegetational Density [Abstract], Stephen J. Mullin, Henry R. Mushinsky

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.