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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Habitat Use And Avoidance By Foraging Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers In East Texas, John N. Macey, Brent Burt, Daniel Saenz, Richard N. Conner Jan 2016

Habitat Use And Avoidance By Foraging Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers In East Texas, John N. Macey, Brent Burt, Daniel Saenz, Richard N. Conner

Faculty Publications

Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is an endangered bird endemic to the Pinus (pine) ecosystems of the southeastern US. Mature pine savannahs with a minimal midstory and lush herbaceous groundcover represent high-quality habitat. This study examines the foraging-habitat patterns of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in East Texas. We present a logistic regression model that best differentiates between foraged and non-foraged habitat. Increases in hardwood-midstory basal area have the greatest negative impact on the probability of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers selecting a habitat patch for foraging. Five additional variables negatively impact foraging probability: shrub height, diameter at breast height (DBH) of pine midstory, canopy closure, density ...


Cooperative Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Translocation Strategy Throughout The Southeast, Robert J. Warren, C. Joseph Nairn Jun 2011

Cooperative Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Translocation Strategy Throughout The Southeast, Robert J. Warren, C. Joseph Nairn

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Current Bibliographic Resource For The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker, Federal Wildlife Service Apr 2011

A Current Bibliographic Resource For The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker, Federal Wildlife Service

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Foraging Behavior, D. Craig Rudolph, Richard N. Conner, Richard R. Schaefer, Nancy E. Koerth Jan 2007

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Foraging Behavior, D. Craig Rudolph, Richard N. Conner, Richard R. Schaefer, Nancy E. Koerth

Faculty Publications

We studied Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to examine the effect of status and gender on foraging behavior. Foraging behavior of breeding pairs extended beyond separation by foraging height to include zones (bole, trunk in crown, primary limb, secondary limb) of the tree used and foraging methods (scaling, probing, excavating). Helper males and juvenile females maintained partial spatial separation from breeding adults. Helper males maintained spatial separation from breeding adults by exploiting limbs within tree crowns in both longleaf (Pinus palustris) and loblolly-shortleaf (P. taeda, P. echinata) pine forests, but also increased use of boles in loblolly-shortleaf pine in concert with ...


Population Trends Of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers In Texas, Richard N. Conner, Daniel Saenz, D. Craig Rudolph Jan 2006

Population Trends Of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers In Texas, Richard N. Conner, Daniel Saenz, D. Craig Rudolph

Faculty Publications

We tracked population trends of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas from 1983 through 2004. After declining precipitously during the 1980s, woodpecker population trends on federal lands (National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, but excluding the Big Thicket National Preserve) increased between 1990 and 2000, and have been stable to slightly decreasing over the past four years. Litigation against the U.S. Forest Service in the mid 1980s reversed a severe population decline, whereas litigation during the past 8 years hampered recovery efforts for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations on private and State of Texas lands have steadily ...


Influence Of Habitat And Number Of Nestlings On Partial Brood Loss In Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers, James R. Mccormick, Richard N. Conner, D. Brent Burt, Daniel Saenz Jan 2004

Influence Of Habitat And Number Of Nestlings On Partial Brood Loss In Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers, James R. Mccormick, Richard N. Conner, D. Brent Burt, Daniel Saenz

Faculty Publications

Partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) was studied during 2 breeding seasons in eastern Texas. The timing of partial brood loss, group size, number of initial nestlings, number of birds fledged, and habitat characteristics of the group's cavity-tree cluster were examined for 37 woodpecker groups in loblolly- (Pinus taeda) shortleaf (P. echinata) pine habitat and 14 groups in longleaf (P palustris) pine habitat. Partial brood loss occurred slightly more in the loblolly-shortleaf pine habitat than in the longleaf pine habitat, largely because nests in loblolly-shortleaf habitat initially contained more nestlings. There was a trend for more young ...


Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Recovery: An Integrated Strategy, D. Craig Rudolph, Richard N. Conner, Jeffrey R. Walters Jan 2004

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Recovery: An Integrated Strategy, D. Craig Rudolph, Richard N. Conner, Jeffrey R. Walters

Faculty Publications

Populations of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) have experienced massive declines since European colonization of North America. This is due to extensive habitat loss and alteration. Logging of old-growth pine forests and alteration of the fire regime throughout the historic range of the species were the primary causes of population decline. Listing of the red-cockaded woodpecker under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, and increased emphasis on management of non-game species have resulted in efforts to recover remnant populations of the red-cockaded woodpecker in many parts of its historic range. Due to extensive research and adaptive management initiatives ...


Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Nestling Provisioning And Reproduction In Two Different Pine Habitats, Richard R. Schaefer, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz Jan 2004

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Nestling Provisioning And Reproduction In Two Different Pine Habitats, Richard R. Schaefer, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz

Faculty Publications

We obtained nestling provisioning and reproductive data from 24 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) groups occupying two different pine habitats-longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and a mixture of loblolly (P. taeda) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata)--in eastern Texas during 1990 and 1901. Habitat data were collected within 800 m of each group's cavity-tree cluster. Feeding trips per nest and prey biomass per feeding trip were significantly greater in lohlolly-shortleaf pine habitat. There were few significant correlations between reproductive/provisioning and habitat variables in either pine habitat. Pines dying from infestation by southern pine beetles (Dendroctonus frontalis) were more common in ...


The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavity Tree: A Very Special Pine, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz, Robert H. Johnson Jan 2004

The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavity Tree: A Very Special Pine, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz, Robert H. Johnson

Faculty Publications

The adaptation of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to fire-maintained southern pine ecosystems has included the development of behaviors that permit the species to use living pines for their cavity trees. Their adaptation to pine ecosystems has also involved a major adjustment in the species' breeding system to cooperative breeding, probably in response to the extended time period required to excavate a completed cavity in a living pine and the relative rarity of completed cavities for nesting. The characteristics of live pines make them variable in their suitability as cavity trees, leading to the evolution of selection behavior among woodpeckers. Red-cockaded ...


Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Status And Management: West Gulf Coastal Plain And Interior Highlands, D. Craig Rudolph, Richard N. Conner, Richard R. Schaefer, Daniel Saenz, Dawn K. Carrie, N. Ross Carrie, Ricky W. Maxey, Warren G. Montague, Joe Neal, Kenneth Moore, John Skeen, Jeffrey A. Reid Jan 2004

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Status And Management: West Gulf Coastal Plain And Interior Highlands, D. Craig Rudolph, Richard N. Conner, Richard R. Schaefer, Daniel Saenz, Dawn K. Carrie, N. Ross Carrie, Ricky W. Maxey, Warren G. Montague, Joe Neal, Kenneth Moore, John Skeen, Jeffrey A. Reid

Faculty Publications

Red-cockaded woodpecker populations declined precipitously following European settlement and expansion and cutting of the original pine forests across the southeastern United States. By 1990 most residual populations lacked demographic viability, existed in degraded habitat, and were isolated from other populations. The primary causes of this situation were harvest of the original pine forests of the southeastern United States, conversion of forested lands to other uses, short-rotation silvicultural practices, and alteration of the fire regime in the regenerated forests. As social and legal mandates changed, management of red-cockaded woodpeckers became a higher priority. Intensive management for red-cockaded woodpeckers is currently practiced ...


Red-Cockaded Woodpecker, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Ralph Costa Oct 2002

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Ralph Costa

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Foraging Behavior In Relation To Midstory Vegetation, D. Craig Rudolph, Richard N. Conner, Richard R. Schaefer Jan 2002

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Foraging Behavior In Relation To Midstory Vegetation, D. Craig Rudolph, Richard N. Conner, Richard R. Schaefer

Faculty Publications

Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) nest and forage in pine-dominated forests. Research indicates that substantial hardwood midstory encroachment is detrimental to Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations, although the exact mechanisms are unknown. We examined foraging behavior in relation to midstory between August 1989 and February 1990. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers foraged at greater heights in areas of taller and denser midstory in the loblolly-shortleaf pine (Pinus taeda and P. echinata, respectively) habitat, but not in longleaf pine (P. palustris) habitat with less-developed midstory vegetation than typical of loblolly-shortleaf pine habitat. In addition, Red-cockaded Woodpeckers concentrated foraging activities in or adjacent to forest stands or openings ...


The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker's Role In The Southern Pine Ecosystem, Population Trends And Relationships With Southern Pine Beetles, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz, Robert N. Coulson Jan 1997

The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker's Role In The Southern Pine Ecosystem, Population Trends And Relationships With Southern Pine Beetles, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz, Robert N. Coulson

Faculty Publications

This study reviews the overall ecological role of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis)in the southern pine ecosystem. It is the only North American woodpecker species to become well adapted to a landscape that was relatively devoid of the substrate typically used by woodpeckers for cavity excavation (i.e. snags and decayed, living hardwoods). Its adaptation to use living pines for cavity excavation has expanded the use of this fire-disclimax ecosystem for numerous other cavity-using species. As such, the Red-cockaded Woodpecker represents an important keystone species of fire-disclimax pine ecosystems of the South. Historically, populations of this woodpecker and other ...


Species Using Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavities In Eastern Texas, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz, Richard R. Schaefer Jan 1997

Species Using Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavities In Eastern Texas, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz, Richard R. Schaefer

Faculty Publications

Because of its ability to excavate cavities in living pines, the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a keystone species in the fire-disclimax, pine ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Many species representing multiple taxonomic classes are dependent on this woodpecker species for the cavities it creates. We examined the occupants of Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavities during spring, late summer, and winter. Cavities enlarged by other species of woodpeckers and unenlarged cavities were examined in two habitat conditions: loblolly (Pinus taeda) -shortleaf (P. echinata) pine and longleaf pine (P. palustris) habitats. Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavities provided cavity habitat for seven species of birds ...


Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Nesting Success, Forest Structure, And Southern Flying Squirrels In Texas, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz, Richard R. Schaefer Jan 1996

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Nesting Success, Forest Structure, And Southern Flying Squirrels In Texas, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph, Daniel Saenz, Richard R. Schaefer

Faculty Publications

For several decades general opinion has suggested that southern flying squirrels (Gluucomys volans) have a negative effect on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) through competition for cavities and egg/nestling predation. Complete removal of hardwood trees from Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity tree clusters has occurred on some forests because southern flying squirrel abundance was presumed to be associated with the presence and abundance of hardwood vegetation. In some locations, southern flying squirrels have been captured and either moved or killed in the name of Red-cockaded Woodpecker management. We determined southern flying squirrel occupancy of Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavities in loblolly (Pinus taeda)-shortleaf ...


Evaluating Susceptibility Of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavity Trees To Southern Pine Beetle In Texas, William G. Ross, David Kulhavy, Richard N. Conner Jan 1993

Evaluating Susceptibility Of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavity Trees To Southern Pine Beetle In Texas, William G. Ross, David Kulhavy, Richard N. Conner

Faculty Publications

Characteristics of loblolly (Pinus fuedu L.) and shortleaf (Pinus echinutu Mill.) pine trees favored by the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, Picuides borealis (Vieillot) for nesting and roosting cavities over much of eastern Texas, tend to make these trees highly vulnerable to mortality from bark beetle attack. Resin flow and xylem moisture potential, often used as indicators of pine susceptibility to bark beetle mortality, were measured in several red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree clusters in the Angelina and Davy Crockett National Forests. No differences in xylem moisture potential were found, while resin flow varied by site, tree species, and cavity tree type. With ...


Silviculture And The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: Where Do We Go From Here?, David Kulhavy, W. G. Ross, Richard N. Conner, James H. Mitchell, Gloria Maples Chrismer Jan 1991

Silviculture And The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: Where Do We Go From Here?, David Kulhavy, W. G. Ross, Richard N. Conner, James H. Mitchell, Gloria Maples Chrismer

Faculty Publications

Recent standards and guidelines for the protection and management of red-cockaded woodpecker habitat within 3/4 mi of colony sites, and also thinning within colonies to reduce basal area and midstory will have a significant effect on National Forest lands. The relation of these thinnings to forest pest management will be examined as well as the area of forest involved. Current fire regulations in relation to prescribed burns and potential fuel buildup will be examined. Plans for research, including disturbances, hazard, and risk rating for southern pine beetle and landscape changes will be presented.


Physiology Of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavity Trees: Implications For Management, William G. Ross, David Kulhavy, Richard N. Conner, Jianghua Sun Jan 1991

Physiology Of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavity Trees: Implications For Management, William G. Ross, David Kulhavy, Richard N. Conner, Jianghua Sun

Faculty Publications

Resin flow and tree moisture stress, frequently used as indicators of pine susceptibility to pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) attack, were measured in loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf (P. echinata Mill.) pines red-cockaded woodpecker [Picoides boreal& (Vieillot)] cavity trees in the Angelina and Davy Crockett National Forests in eastern Texas. No differences in moisture stress were found, whereas resin flow between different types of cavity trees and control or potential trees varied by site and species. It was concluded that effects of red-cockaded woodpecker activity on host tree susceptibility to southern pine beetle will vary by site, tree ...


Experimental Reintroduction Of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers, D. Craig Rudolph, Howard Kyle, Richard N. Conner Jan 1990

Experimental Reintroduction Of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers, D. Craig Rudolph, Howard Kyle, Richard N. Conner

Faculty Publications

The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa and Escano 1989). The species has been extirpated from significant areas of suitable or potentially suitable habitat.


Injection Of 2, 4-D To Remove Hardwood Midstory Within Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Colony Areas, Richard N. Conner Oct 1989

Injection Of 2, 4-D To Remove Hardwood Midstory Within Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Colony Areas, Richard N. Conner

Faculty Publications

Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies on the Angelina National Forest were monitored from 1984-1986,after hardwoods on the site had been injected with the herbicide 2, 4-D. The herbicide effectively reduced the hardwood midstory; however, possible toxicity to woodpeckers and cavity tree mortality are problems associated with the use of 2,4-D. Because of its lower toxicity to pines, the herbicide hexazinone is suggested as an alternative to 2,4-D. Use of any herbicide is suggested only as a one-time application to eliminate large hardwoods so that prescribed fire can later be used to control hardwoods in woodpecker colonies.


Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Colony Status And Trends On The Angelina, Davy Crockett And Sabine National Forests, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph May 1989

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Colony Status And Trends On The Angelina, Davy Crockett And Sabine National Forests, Richard N. Conner, D. Craig Rudolph

Faculty Publications

Abundant hardwood midstory, colony isolation, and habitat fragmentation are believed to be the causes for severe population declines of red-cockaded woodpeckers on three national forests in eastern Texas.


Southern Pine Beetle And Fire In Wilderness Areas: The Kisatchie Hills Wilderness, Kisatchie National Forest, David Kulhavy, William G. Ross Jan 1988

Southern Pine Beetle And Fire In Wilderness Areas: The Kisatchie Hills Wilderness, Kisatchie National Forest, David Kulhavy, William G. Ross

Faculty Publications

Southern pine beetle infestations affect wilderness areas in the southeastern United States. In the Kisatchie Hills Wilderness area in Louisiana, a southern pine 'beetle outbreak resulted in widespread destruction of longleaf pine. Nest trees of the red-cockaded woodpecker, an endangered species, also were killed. Following the epidemic, a fire fueled by beetle-killed pines went through the wilderness. Forest structure, species composition, successional processes and general ecosystem function were substantially altered as a result of these two related disturbances. Most wilderness areas containing southern pines were managed for pine timber before being designated as wilderness. Bark beetle outbreaks are a predictable ...