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Faculty Publications

2004

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Articles 1 - 30 of 67

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Dietary Isoflavones Alter Regulatory Behaviors, Metabolic Hormones And Neuroendocrine Function In Long-Evans Male Rats, Edwin D. Lephart, James P. Proter, Lihong H. Bu, Trent D. Lund, Kenneth Setchell, Gina Ramoz, William R. Crowley Dec 2004

Dietary Isoflavones Alter Regulatory Behaviors, Metabolic Hormones And Neuroendocrine Function In Long-Evans Male Rats, Edwin D. Lephart, James P. Proter, Lihong H. Bu, Trent D. Lund, Kenneth Setchell, Gina Ramoz, William R. Crowley

Faculty Publications

Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones) have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a) age-related diseases, b) hormone-dependent cancers and c) postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1) body weight and adipose deposition, 2) food and water intake, 3) metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels), 4) brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels, 5) heat ...


Structural Mimicry In Class A G Protein-Coupled Receptor Rotamer Toggle Switches, Sean D. Mcallister, Dow P. Hurst, Judy Barnett-Norris, Diane L. Lynch, Patricia H. Reggio, Mary E. Abood Nov 2004

Structural Mimicry In Class A G Protein-Coupled Receptor Rotamer Toggle Switches, Sean D. Mcallister, Dow P. Hurst, Judy Barnett-Norris, Diane L. Lynch, Patricia H. Reggio, Mary E. Abood

Faculty Publications

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a CB1 TMH3-4-5-6 aromatic microdomain, which includes F3.25(190), F3.36(201), W5.43(280), and W6.48(357), is centrally involved in CB1 receptor activation, with the F3.36(201)/W6.48(357) interaction key to the maintenance of the CB1-inactive state. We have shown previously that when F3.36(201), W5.43(280), and W6.48(357) are individually mutated to alanine, a significant reduction in ligand binding affinity is observed in the presence of WIN 55,212-2 and SR141716A but not CP55,940 and ...


Dynamics Of Dissolved Organic Carbon, Nitrogen And Phosphorus In A Seagrass Meadow Of Laguna Madre, Texas, Susan Ziegler, Edith Kaiser, Ronald Benner Nov 2004

Dynamics Of Dissolved Organic Carbon, Nitrogen And Phosphorus In A Seagrass Meadow Of Laguna Madre, Texas, Susan Ziegler, Edith Kaiser, Ronald Benner

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: Interactions With Fire, Snags, Fungi, Rat Snakes, And Pileated Woodpeckers, Richard N. Conner, Daniel Saenz, D. Craig Rudolph Nov 2004

The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: Interactions With Fire, Snags, Fungi, Rat Snakes, And Pileated Woodpeckers, Richard N. Conner, Daniel Saenz, D. Craig Rudolph

Faculty Publications

Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) adaptation to fire-maintained southern pine ecosystems has involved several important interactions: (I) the reduction of hardwood frequency in the pine ecosystem because of frequent tires, (2) the softening of pine heartwood by red heart fungus (Phellinus pini) that hastens cavity excavation by the species, (3) the woodpecker's use of the pine's resin system to create abarrier against rat snakes (Elaphe sp.), and (4) the woodpecker as a keystone cavity excavator for secondary-cavity users. Historically, frequent, low-intensity ground tires in southern pine uplands reduced the availability of dead trees (snags) that are typically used ...


Incremental Genetic K-Means Algorithm And Its Application In Gene Expression Data Analysis, Yi Lu, Shiyong Lu, Farhad Fotouhi, Youping Deng, Susan J. Brown Oct 2004

Incremental Genetic K-Means Algorithm And Its Application In Gene Expression Data Analysis, Yi Lu, Shiyong Lu, Farhad Fotouhi, Youping Deng, Susan J. Brown

Faculty Publications

Background

In recent years, clustering algorithms have been effectively applied in molecular biology for gene expression data analysis. With the help of clustering algorithms such as K-means, hierarchical clustering, SOM, etc, genes are partitioned into groups based on the similarity between their expression profiles. In this way, functionally related genes are identified. As the amount of laboratory data in molecular biology grows exponentially each year due to advanced technologies such as Microarray, new efficient and effective methods for clustering must be developed to process this growing amount of biological data.

Results

In this paper, we propose a new clustering algorithm ...


Spring Phytoplankton Photosynthesis, Growth, And Primary Production And Relationships To A Recurrent Coastal Sediment Plume And River Inputs In Southeastern Lake Michigan, Steven E. Lohrenz, Gary L. Fahnenstiel, David F. Millie, Oscar M.E. Schofield, Tom Johengon Oct 2004

Spring Phytoplankton Photosynthesis, Growth, And Primary Production And Relationships To A Recurrent Coastal Sediment Plume And River Inputs In Southeastern Lake Michigan, Steven E. Lohrenz, Gary L. Fahnenstiel, David F. Millie, Oscar M.E. Schofield, Tom Johengon

Faculty Publications

[1] A recurrent coastal sediment plume (RCP) is an episodic event in the southern basin of Lake Michigan that typically coincides with the spring diatom bloom. Strong winter storm activity during El Nino conditions in 1998 resulted in a large and intense RCP event. Consistently higher values of the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis, P-max(B), were observed in spring 1998 compared to 1999 and 2000. Higher values of P-max(B) in 1998 appeared to be related to increased availability of phosphorus, as evidenced by significant correlations of P-max(B) with soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Light-saturated growth rates were also significantly ...


The Role Of Optimal Healing Environments In The Management Of Childhood Obesity, Marjorie Freedman, Judith Stern Oct 2004

The Role Of Optimal Healing Environments In The Management Of Childhood Obesity, Marjorie Freedman, Judith Stern

Faculty Publications

The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has increased steadily over the past three decades such that obesity is now a major worldwide pediatric health risk factor. Pediatric obesity is associated with significant health problems, and is an important early risk factor for adult morbidity and mortality. This paper focuses on the role and components of optimal healing environments (OHEs) that may be useful in the management of childhood obesity: healing intention, healing relationships, health promotion and disease prevention, and healing spaces. Diet, physical activity, and behavior modification strategies used in the treatment of childhood obesity are also reviewed.


Rapid And Convenient Method For Preparing Masters For Microcontact Printing With 1–12 Μm Features, Lloyd W. Zilch, Ghaleb A. Husseini, Yit-Yian Lua, Michael V. Lee, Kevin R. Gertsch, Bennion R. Cannon, Robert M. Perry, Eric T. Sevy, Matthew C. Asplund, Adam T. Woolley, Matthew R. Linford Sep 2004

Rapid And Convenient Method For Preparing Masters For Microcontact Printing With 1–12 Μm Features, Lloyd W. Zilch, Ghaleb A. Husseini, Yit-Yian Lua, Michael V. Lee, Kevin R. Gertsch, Bennion R. Cannon, Robert M. Perry, Eric T. Sevy, Matthew C. Asplund, Adam T. Woolley, Matthew R. Linford

Faculty Publications

Mechanical scribing can be employed to create surfaces with recessed features. Through replica molding elastomeric copies of these scribed surfaces are created that function as stamps for microcontact printing. It is shown that this new method for creating masters for microcontact printing can be performed with a computer-controlled milling machine (CNC), making this method particularly straightforward and accessible to a large technical community that does not need to work in a particle free environment. Thus, no clean room, or other specialized equipment is required, as is commonly needed to prepare masters. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry confirms surface pattering by ...


Evidence Of Linear Lattice Expansion And Covalency Enhancement In Rutile Tio2 Nanocrystals, Guangshe Li, Juliana Boerio-Goates, Brian F. Woodfield, Liping Li Sep 2004

Evidence Of Linear Lattice Expansion And Covalency Enhancement In Rutile Tio2 Nanocrystals, Guangshe Li, Juliana Boerio-Goates, Brian F. Woodfield, Liping Li

Faculty Publications

Lattice variations and bonding characteristics in rutile TiO2 nanocrystals were examined by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With a reduction in the physical dimensions, rutile TiO2 nanocrystals show a linear lattice expansion and an anomalous covalency enhancement in apparent contradiction to the ionicity increase in BaTiO3 and CuO nanocrystals as reported recently by S. Tsunekawa et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 85, 3440] and V. R. Palkar et al. [Phys. Rev. B 1996, 53, 2167]. A surface defect dipole model is proposed to explain these physical phenomena in terms of the strong interactions among the surface dipoles that produce ...


On The Approximation Of The Coriolis Terms In C-Grid Models, Dmitri A. Nechaev, Max Yaremchuk Sep 2004

On The Approximation Of The Coriolis Terms In C-Grid Models, Dmitri A. Nechaev, Max Yaremchuk

Faculty Publications

A new representation of the Coriolis terms on the Arakawa C grid is proposed. The approximation dumps the grid-scale noise that arises because of spatial averaging of the Coriolis terms when the grid spacing is larger than the deformation radius. The proposed approximation can also be applied in C-grid schemes with semi-implicit treatment of the Coriolis terms. The new scheme is analyzed in the context of the linear inertial-gravity waves and its advantageous behavior is demonstrated with respect to the conventional technique.


Testing Species Boundaries In An Ancient Species Complex With Deep Phylogeographic History: Genus Xantusia (Squamata: Xantusiidae), Keith A. Crandall, Elizabeth A. Sinclair, Robert L. Bezy, Kathryn Bolles, Jose L. Camarillo, Jack W. Sites Sep 2004

Testing Species Boundaries In An Ancient Species Complex With Deep Phylogeographic History: Genus Xantusia (Squamata: Xantusiidae), Keith A. Crandall, Elizabeth A. Sinclair, Robert L. Bezy, Kathryn Bolles, Jose L. Camarillo, Jack W. Sites

Faculty Publications

Identification of species in natural populations has recently received increased attention with a number of investigators proposing rigorous methods for species delimitation. Morphologically conservative species (or species complexes) with deep phylogenetic histories (and limited gene flow) are likely to pose particular problems when attempting to delimit species, yet this is crucial to comparative studies of the geography of speciation. We apply two methods of species delimitation to an ancient group of lizards (genus Xantusia) that occur throughout southwestern North America. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene sequences were generated from samples taken throughout the geographic ...


Quality Of Regular And Parboiled Rice In Long-Term Storage, L. Coons, M. B. Halling, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2004

Quality Of Regular And Parboiled Rice In Long-Term Storage, L. Coons, M. B. Halling, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

There is interest in storing food for long periods of time for such uses as disaster relief efforts, military rations and space travel. Rice hermetically sealed in cans and treated to remove oxygen is available in the retail market, but further work is needed to determine the effects of long-term storage on quality. The objective of this research was to investigate the quality of regular and parboiled white rice packaged for long-term storage in cans treated to reduce oxygen levels and held at ambient temperature for up to 30 years. Eighteen samples of white rice (11 regular, 7 parboiled) packaged ...


Genetic Diversity Of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) And Its Wild Relatives Based On The Analysis Of Hypervariable Regions Of The Genome, Marcio De Carvalho Moretzsohn, Mark S. Hopkins, Sharon E. Mitchell, Stephen Kresovich, Jose Francisco Montenegro Valls, Marcio Elias Ferreira Jul 2004

Genetic Diversity Of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) And Its Wild Relatives Based On The Analysis Of Hypervariable Regions Of The Genome, Marcio De Carvalho Moretzsohn, Mark S. Hopkins, Sharon E. Mitchell, Stephen Kresovich, Jose Francisco Montenegro Valls, Marcio Elias Ferreira

Faculty Publications

Background: The genus Arachis is native to a region that includes Central Brazil and neighboring countries. Little is known about the genetic variability of the Brazilian cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea, genome AABB) germplasm collection at the DNA level. The understanding of the genetic diversity of cultivated and wild species of peanut (Arachis spp.) is essential to develop strategies of collection, conservation and use of the germplasm in variety development. The identity of the ancestor progenitor species of cultivated peanut has also been of great interest. Several species have been suggested as putative AA and BB genome donors to allotetraploid A ...


A Patch Hath Smaller Patches: Delineating Ecological Neighborhoods For Parasites, Derek Zelmer, John R. Seed Jul 2004

A Patch Hath Smaller Patches: Delineating Ecological Neighborhoods For Parasites, Derek Zelmer, John R. Seed

Faculty Publications

Use of the host individual as a boundary for parasite populations and communities provides an unambiguous spatial unit that is useful for pattern description, but this framework precludes consideration of the host landscape and within-host population dynamics. Recognizing host individuals as spatially and temporally complex landscapes requires modified concepts of parasite populations and communities. An outline of the currently accepted hierarchies of parasite populations and communities is provided on the basis of ecological neighborhoods that are delineated by discrete habitat patches or functional dynamics (or both), as opposed to host individuals. This parasite-based framework accommodates consideration of both within- and ...


Constraints On Adaptive Evolution: The Functional Trade-Off Between Reproduction And Fast-Start Swimming Performance In The Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia Reticulata), Cameron K. Ghalambor, David N. Reznick, Jeffrey A. Walker Jul 2004

Constraints On Adaptive Evolution: The Functional Trade-Off Between Reproduction And Fast-Start Swimming Performance In The Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia Reticulata), Cameron K. Ghalambor, David N. Reznick, Jeffrey A. Walker

Faculty Publications

The empirical study of natural selection reveals that adaptations often involve trade-offs between competing functions. Because natural selection acts on whole organisms rather than isolated traits, adaptive evolution may be constrained by the interaction between traits that are functionally integrated. Yet, few attempts have been made to characterize how and when such constraints are manifested or whether they limit the adaptive divergence of populations. Here we examine the consequences of adaptive life-history evolution on locomotor performance in the live-bearing guppy. In response to increased predation from piscivorous fish, Trinidadian guppies evolve an increased allocation of resources toward reproduction. These populations ...


Effect Of Long-Term Storage On Baking Powder Functionality, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike, R. Utley Jul 2004

Effect Of Long-Term Storage On Baking Powder Functionality, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike, R. Utley

Faculty Publications

Baking powder is widely used to leaven baked products. The industry standard for baking powder shelf-life is eighteen to twenty-four months, but little information is available on baking powder functionality when stored beyond this time. A longer shelf-life would prove beneficial in certain situations, such as personal food storage, disaster relief efforts, and space missions. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of long-term storage on baking powder functionality. Six samples of double-acting baking powder in original commercial packaging were obtained from donors and two fresh samples were purchased. Samples ranged in age from 0.25-29 years ...


Quality Of Dehydrated Potato Flakes In Long-Term Storage, A. P. Neilson, H. Farnsworth, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2004

Quality Of Dehydrated Potato Flakes In Long-Term Storage, A. P. Neilson, H. Farnsworth, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

There is interest in dehydrated potatoes packaged for long-term storage for uses such as military rations, disaster relief, and space travel. Research has shown the effects of processing and storage (up to 2 years) on dehydrated potatoes, including such aspects as sensory properties and nutrient degradation. The quality of dehydrated potatoes during long-term storage has not been studied. The objective of this study was to examine the quality of dehydrated potato flakes held at ambient conditions in residential storage up to 30 years. Thirteen samples of dehydrated potato flakes packaged in No. 10 cans were obtained from donors. Sample age ...


Effects Of Long-Term Storage On Wheat Flour Packaged In A Low Oxygen Atmosphere, N. M. Dickey, Devin J. Rose, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2004

Effects Of Long-Term Storage On Wheat Flour Packaged In A Low Oxygen Atmosphere, N. M. Dickey, Devin J. Rose, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

There is interest in the long-term storage of food for applications such as space flight, military rations, and disaster relief. Long-term storage of wheat flour under modified atmospheres has not been extensively studied. The objective of this research was to examine the effects of long-term storage on wheat flour packaged in a low oxygen atmosphere. Ten samples of wheat flour packaged in No. 10 cans were obtained from donors. Samples ranged in age from 0.5-11 years and were stored at ambient temperatures (13-27º C). Oxygen levels were below 1%, and moisture contents were between 12.0% and 14.3 ...


A Physiochemically Constrained Seawater Culturing System For Production Of Benthic Foraminifera, C. J. Hintz, Greg T. Chandler, Jay M. Bernhardt, D. C. Mccorkle, S. M. Havach, J. K. Blanks, Timothy J. Shaw Jun 2004

A Physiochemically Constrained Seawater Culturing System For Production Of Benthic Foraminifera, C. J. Hintz, Greg T. Chandler, Jay M. Bernhardt, D. C. Mccorkle, S. M. Havach, J. K. Blanks, Timothy J. Shaw

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Rationale For A New Generation Of Indicators For Coastal Waters, Gerald Niemi, Denice Wardrop, Robert Brooks, Susan Anderson, Valerie Brady, Hans Paerl, Chet Rakocinski, Marius Brouwer, Barbara Levinson, Michael Mcdonald Jun 2004

Rationale For A New Generation Of Indicators For Coastal Waters, Gerald Niemi, Denice Wardrop, Robert Brooks, Susan Anderson, Valerie Brady, Hans Paerl, Chet Rakocinski, Marius Brouwer, Barbara Levinson, Michael Mcdonald

Faculty Publications

More than half the world'S human population lives within 100 km of the coast, and that number is expected to increase by 25% over the next two decades. Consequently, coastal ecosystems are at serious risk. Larger coastal populations and increasing development have led to increased loading of toxic substances, nutrients and pathogens with subsequent algal blooms, hypoxia, beach closures, and damage to coastal fisheries. Recent climate change has led to the rise in sea level with loss of coastal wetlands and saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Coastal resources have traditionally been monitored on a stressor-by-stressor basis such as for ...


The Impact Of Species Concept On Biodiversity Studies, Keith A. Crandall, Paul-Michael Agapow, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, John L. Gittleman, Georgina M. Mace, Jonathon C. Marshall, Andy Purvis Jun 2004

The Impact Of Species Concept On Biodiversity Studies, Keith A. Crandall, Paul-Michael Agapow, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, John L. Gittleman, Georgina M. Mace, Jonathon C. Marshall, Andy Purvis

Faculty Publications

Species are defined using a variety of different operational techniques. While discussion of the various methodologies has previously been restricted mostly to taxonomists, the demarcation of species is also crucial for conservation biology. Unfortunately, different methods of diagnosing species can arrive at different entities. Most prominently, it is widely thought that use of a phylogenetic species concept may lead to recognition of a far greater number of much less inclusive units. As a result, studies of the same group of organisms can produce not only different species identities but also different species range and number of individuals. To assess the ...


Growth And Transport Properties Of Complementary Germanium Nanowire Field Effect Transistors, Andrew B. Greytak, Lincoln J. Lauhon, Mark S. Gudiksen, Charles M. Lieber May 2004

Growth And Transport Properties Of Complementary Germanium Nanowire Field Effect Transistors, Andrew B. Greytak, Lincoln J. Lauhon, Mark S. Gudiksen, Charles M. Lieber

Faculty Publications

n- and p-type Ge nanowires were synthesized by a multistep process in which axial elongation, via vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) growth, and doping were accomplished in separate chemical vapor deposition steps. Intrinsic, single-crystal, Ge nanowires prepared by Au nanocluster-mediated VLS growth were surface-doped in situ using diborane or phosphine, and then radial growth of an epitaxial Ge shell was used to cap the dopant layer. Field-effect transistors prepared from these Ge nanowires exhibited on currents and transconductances up to 850 µA/µm and 4.9 µA/V, respectively, with device yields of >85%.


Impacts Of A Recurrent Resuspension Event And Variable Phytoplankton Community Composition On Remote Sensing Reflectance, Trisha Bergmann, Gary Fahnenstiel, Steven Lohrenz, David Millie, Oscar Schofield May 2004

Impacts Of A Recurrent Resuspension Event And Variable Phytoplankton Community Composition On Remote Sensing Reflectance, Trisha Bergmann, Gary Fahnenstiel, Steven Lohrenz, David Millie, Oscar Schofield

Faculty Publications

In order to characterize the impact of turbidity plumes on optical and biological dynamics, a suite of environmental parameters were measured in southern Lake Michigan during the springtime recurrent sediment plume. In-water measurements of inherent optical properties (IOPs) were entered into the Hydrolight 4.2 radiative transfer model and the output was compared with measured apparent optical properties (AOPs) across a wide range of optical conditions. Hydrolight output and measured underwater light fields were then used to clarify the effects of the sediment plume on primary production, phytoplankton community composition, and nearshore remote sensing ocean color algorithms. Our results show ...


Individual Cell Growth Rates Of Marine Bacteria, Measured By Bromodeoxyuridine Incorporation, Koji Hamasaki, Richard A. Long, Farooq Azam May 2004

Individual Cell Growth Rates Of Marine Bacteria, Measured By Bromodeoxyuridine Incorporation, Koji Hamasaki, Richard A. Long, Farooq Azam

Faculty Publications

We tested the application of 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analogue that becomes incorporated into DNA during growth, to measure growth rates of individual marine bacteria cells. Immunocytochemical detection of BrdU incorporation into bacterial DNA has the potential for single-cell-based growth measurement. Optimized procedure for immunocytochemistry was applicable to 14 marine heterotrophic bacterial isolates belonging to g-proteobacteria, α-proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group and Gram-positive bacteria. The relationship between cell-specific fluorescence intensity and specific growth rate was linearly correlated among CFB group isolates, which indicated a potential of the method for quantitative measurement. Analysis of the detection limit indicated that ...


Dynamics Of Pectoral Fin Rowing In A Fish With An Extreme Rowing Stroke: The Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus Aculeatus), Jeffrey A. Walker Ph.D. May 2004

Dynamics Of Pectoral Fin Rowing In A Fish With An Extreme Rowing Stroke: The Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus Aculeatus), Jeffrey A. Walker Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

The dynamics of pectoral fin rowing in the threespine stickleback are investigated by measuring the instantaneous force balance on freely swimming fish throughout the stroke cycle and comparing the measured forces with fin motions and an unsteady, blade-element model of pectoral fin propulsion. Both measured and modeled forces suggest that attached vortex and circulatory forces and not inertial (added mass) forces dominate the force balance. Peak forces occur at midstrokes. There is no evidence for large force peaks at the stroke transitions due to either rapid fin rotation (supination) or rapid fin closure against the body. The energetics of pectoral ...


Identification Of An Il-17-Producing Nk1.1neg Inkt Cell Population Involved In Airway Neutrophilia, Paul B. Savage, Marie-Laure Michel, Alexandre Castro Keller, Christophe Paget, Masakazu Fujio, Francois Trottein, Chi-Huey Wong, Elke Schneider, Michael Dy, Maria C. Leite-De-Moraes Apr 2004

Identification Of An Il-17-Producing Nk1.1neg Inkt Cell Population Involved In Airway Neutrophilia, Paul B. Savage, Marie-Laure Michel, Alexandre Castro Keller, Christophe Paget, Masakazu Fujio, Francois Trottein, Chi-Huey Wong, Elke Schneider, Michael Dy, Maria C. Leite-De-Moraes

Faculty Publications

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an important source of both T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines, through which they can exert beneficial, as well as deleterious, effects in a variety of inflammatory diseases. This functional heterogeneity raises the question of how far phenotypically distinct subpopulations are responsible for such contrasting activities. In this study, we identify a particular set of iNKT cells that lack the NK1.1 marker (NK1.1neg) and secrete high amounts of interleukin (IL)-17 and low levels of interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and IL-4. NK1.1neg iNKT cells produce IL-17 upon synthetic ({alpha ...


Quality At Time Of Purchase Of Dried Milk Products Commercially Packaged In Reduced Oxygen Atmosphere, Michelle A. Lloyd, J. Zou, H. Farnsworth, Oscar A. Pike Apr 2004

Quality At Time Of Purchase Of Dried Milk Products Commercially Packaged In Reduced Oxygen Atmosphere, Michelle A. Lloyd, J. Zou, H. Farnsworth, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

Nonfat dry milk (NDM) and powdered whey beverages are available at the retail level, packaged in No. 10 cans in a reduced oxygen atmosphere to prolong shelf life. The objective of this research was to determine the sensory and nutritional quality of these dried milk products at the time of purchase. In the 10 brands tested, wide variation existed in headspace oxygen, can seam quality, sensory quality, and vitamin A (with 6 of 10 brands entirely lacking the vitamin). Manufacturers of dried milk products packaged in cans for long-term storage need to give careful attention to can seam quality, product ...


Methanogenic Archaea And Human Periodontal Disease, Paul W. Lepp, Mary M. Brinig, Cleber C. Ouverney, Katherine Palm, Gary C. Armitage, David A. Relman Apr 2004

Methanogenic Archaea And Human Periodontal Disease, Paul W. Lepp, Mary M. Brinig, Cleber C. Ouverney, Katherine Palm, Gary C. Armitage, David A. Relman

Faculty Publications

Archaea have been isolated from the human colon, vagina, and oral cavity, but have not been established as causes of human disease. In this study, we reveal a relationship between the severity of periodontal disease and the relative abundance of archaeal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA) in the subgingival crevice by using quantitative PCR. Furthermore, the relative abundance of archaeal small subunit rDNA decreased at treated sites in association with clinical improvement. Archaea were harbored by 36% of periodontitis patients and were restricted to subgingival sites with periodontal disease. The presence of archaeal cells at these sites was ...


Decadal Variability Of Circulation In The Arctic Ocean Retrieved From Climatological Data By A Variational Method, Dmitri A. Nechaev, Max Yaremchuk, Motoyoshi Ikeda Apr 2004

Decadal Variability Of Circulation In The Arctic Ocean Retrieved From Climatological Data By A Variational Method, Dmitri A. Nechaev, Max Yaremchuk, Motoyoshi Ikeda

Faculty Publications

[1] An inverse 3D finite-element ocean circulation model has been designed and used to study variability of the Arctic Ocean circulation in the last 4 decades. We obtained stationary model solutions with the temperature and salinity fields close to the ones given by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) [1998] atlas. Transports at the open boundaries, wind forcing and hydrographic fields are treated as unknowns, which are varied to minimize a quadratic cost function subject to model constraints. The inverse problem is solved for 10 gridded hydrographic data sets that were obtained as winter and summer averages of EWG data over ...


A New Method For Estimation Of The Sensible Heat Flux Under Unstable Conditions Using Satellite Vector Winds, Jiayi Pan, Xiao-Hai Yan, Young-Heon Jo, Quanan Zheng, W. Timothy Liu Apr 2004

A New Method For Estimation Of The Sensible Heat Flux Under Unstable Conditions Using Satellite Vector Winds, Jiayi Pan, Xiao-Hai Yan, Young-Heon Jo, Quanan Zheng, W. Timothy Liu

Faculty Publications

It has been difficult to estimate the sensible heat flux at the air - sea interface using satellite data because of the difficulty in remotely observing the sea level air temperature. In this study, a new method is developed for estimating the sensible heat flux using satellite observations under unstable conditions. The basic idea of the method is that the air - sea temperature difference is related to the atmospheric convergence. Employed data include the wind convergence, sea level humidity, and sea surface temperature. These parameters can be derived from the satellite wind vectors, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) precipitable water ...