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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Betting & Hierarchy In Paleontology, Leonard Finkelman Jan 2019

Betting & Hierarchy In Paleontology, Leonard Finkelman

Faculty Publications

In his Rock, Bone, and Ruin: An Optimist’s Guide to the Historical Sciences, Adrian Currie argues that historical scientists should be optimistic about success in reconstructing the past on the basis of future research. This optimism follows in part from examples of success in paleontology. I argue that paleontologists’ success in these cases is underwritten by the hierarchical nature of biological information: extinct organisms have extant analogues at various levels of taxonomic, ecological, and physiological hierarchies, and paleontologists are adept at exploiting analogies within one informational hierarchy to infer information in another. On this account, fossils serve the role ...


From Big Ag To Campus Cafeterias: Intersections Of Food-Supply Networks As Technical Communication Pedagogy, Jessie Lynn Richards, Joshua Lenart, David Sumner, Douglas Christensen Jan 2018

From Big Ag To Campus Cafeterias: Intersections Of Food-Supply Networks As Technical Communication Pedagogy, Jessie Lynn Richards, Joshua Lenart, David Sumner, Douglas Christensen

Faculty Publications

This article presents a pedagogical approach to teaching technical and professional writing with an eye toward cultivating awareness and generating informed research among undergraduate students about food production and its various, intricate networks between Big Ag and campus cafeterias. Our pedagogy, influenced by interdisciplinary content, is designed to teach students to differentiate between food processes—such as production versus distribution and consumption—by viewing these networks as communicative practices rather than as inevitable chains or simple functions of one another. Our approach encourages students to locate and analyze differences between interdependent, but seemingly disparate pathways and to make visible communicative ...


De-Extinction And The Conception Of Species, Leonard Finkelman Jan 2018

De-Extinction And The Conception Of Species, Leonard Finkelman

Faculty Publications

Developments in genetic engineering may soon allow biologists to clone organisms from extinct species. The process, dubbed “de-extinction,” has been publicized as a means to bring extinct species back to life. For theorists and philosophers of biology, the process also suggests a thought experiment for the ongoing “species problem”: given a species concept, would a clone be classified in the extinct species? Previous analyses have answered this question in the context of specific de-extinction technologies or particular species concepts. The thought experiment is given more comprehensive treatment here. Given the products of three de-extinction technologies, twenty-two species concepts are “tested ...


The Extinction And De-Extinction Of Species, Helena Siipi, Leonard Finkelman Jan 2017

The Extinction And De-Extinction Of Species, Helena Siipi, Leonard Finkelman

Faculty Publications

In this paper, we discuss the following four alternative ways of understanding the outcomes of resurrection biology (also known as de-extinction). Implications of each of the ways are discussed with respect to concepts of species and extinction. (1) Replication: animals created by resurrection biology do not belong to the original species but are copies of it. The view is compatible with finality of extinction as well as with certain biological and ecological species concepts. (2) Re-creation: animals created are members of the original species but, despite their existence, the species remains extinct. The view is incompatible with all species concepts ...


A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change With Increased Investment In Instructional Time, Christopher D. Shaffer, Consuelo J. Alvarez, April E. Bednarski, David Dunbar, Anya L. Goodman, Catherine Reinke, Anne G. Rosenwald, Michael J. Wolyniak, Cheryl Bailey, Daron Barnard, Christopher Bazinet, Dale L. Beach, James E.J. Bedard, Satish Bhalla, John Braverman, Martin Burg, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Hui-Min Chung, Kari Clase, Randall J. Dejong, Justin R. Diangelo, Chunguang Du, Todd T. Eckdahl, Heather Eisler, Julia A. Emerson, Amy Frary, Donald Frohlich, Yuying Gosser, Shubha Govind, Adam Haberman, Amy T. Hark, Charles Hauser, Arlene Hoogewerf, Laura L.M. Hoopes, Carina E. Howell, Diana Johnson, Christopher J. Jones, Lisa Kadlec, Marian Kaehler, S. Catherine Silver Key, Adam Kleinschmit, Nighat P. Kokan, Olga Kopp, Gary Kuleck, Judith Leatherman, Jane Lopilato, Christy Mackinnon, Juan Carlos Martinez-Cruzado, Gerard Mcneil, Stephanie Mel, Hemlata Mistry, Alexis Nagengast, Paul Overvoorde, Don W. Paetkau, Susan Parrish, Celeste N. Peterson, Mary Preuss, Laura K. Reed, Dennis Revie, Srebrenka Robic, Jennifer Roecklein-Canfield, Michael R. Rubin, Kenneth Saville, Stephanie Schroeder, Karim Sharif, Mary Shaw, Gary Skuse, Christopher D. Smith, Mary A. Smith, Sheryl T. Smith, Eric Spana, Mary Spratt, Aparna Sreenivasan, Joyce Stamm, Paul Szauter, Jeffrey S. Thompson, Matthew Wawersik, James Youngblom, Leming Zhou, Elaine R. Mardis, Jeremy Buhler, Wilson Leung, David Lopatto, Sarah C.R. Elgin Jan 2014

A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change With Increased Investment In Instructional Time, Christopher D. Shaffer, Consuelo J. Alvarez, April E. Bednarski, David Dunbar, Anya L. Goodman, Catherine Reinke, Anne G. Rosenwald, Michael J. Wolyniak, Cheryl Bailey, Daron Barnard, Christopher Bazinet, Dale L. Beach, James E.J. Bedard, Satish Bhalla, John Braverman, Martin Burg, Vidya Chandrasekaran, Hui-Min Chung, Kari Clase, Randall J. Dejong, Justin R. Diangelo, Chunguang Du, Todd T. Eckdahl, Heather Eisler, Julia A. Emerson, Amy Frary, Donald Frohlich, Yuying Gosser, Shubha Govind, Adam Haberman, Amy T. Hark, Charles Hauser, Arlene Hoogewerf, Laura L.M. Hoopes, Carina E. Howell, Diana Johnson, Christopher J. Jones, Lisa Kadlec, Marian Kaehler, S. Catherine Silver Key, Adam Kleinschmit, Nighat P. Kokan, Olga Kopp, Gary Kuleck, Judith Leatherman, Jane Lopilato, Christy Mackinnon, Juan Carlos Martinez-Cruzado, Gerard Mcneil, Stephanie Mel, Hemlata Mistry, Alexis Nagengast, Paul Overvoorde, Don W. Paetkau, Susan Parrish, Celeste N. Peterson, Mary Preuss, Laura K. Reed, Dennis Revie, Srebrenka Robic, Jennifer Roecklein-Canfield, Michael R. Rubin, Kenneth Saville, Stephanie Schroeder, Karim Sharif, Mary Shaw, Gary Skuse, Christopher D. Smith, Mary A. Smith, Sheryl T. Smith, Eric Spana, Mary Spratt, Aparna Sreenivasan, Joyce Stamm, Paul Szauter, Jeffrey S. Thompson, Matthew Wawersik, James Youngblom, Leming Zhou, Elaine R. Mardis, Jeremy Buhler, Wilson Leung, David Lopatto, Sarah C.R. Elgin

Faculty Publications

There is widespread agreement that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs should provide undergraduates with research experience. Practical issues and limited resources, however, make this a challenge. We have developed a bioinformatics project that provides a course-based research experience for students at a diverse group of schools and offers the opportunity to tailor this experience to local curriculum and institution-specific student needs. We assessed both attitude and knowledge gains, looking for insights into how students respond given this wide range of curricular and institutional variables. While different approaches all appear to result in learning gains, we find that a significant ...


Psychologists And Medications In The Era Of Interprofessional Care: Collaboration Is Less Problematic And Costly Than Prescribing, William N. Robiner, Tim R. Tumlin, Tanya Tompkins Jan 2013

Psychologists And Medications In The Era Of Interprofessional Care: Collaboration Is Less Problematic And Costly Than Prescribing, William N. Robiner, Tim R. Tumlin, Tanya Tompkins

Faculty Publications

Increasing emphasis on interprofessionalism and teamwork in healthcare renders psychologists’ collaborations critical and invites reexamination of psychologists’ roles related to medications. The Collaboration Level outlined by the APA’s Ad Hoc Task Force is more achievable and in synch with health reform than prescription privileges (RxP). RxP remains controversial due to training and safety concerns, lacking support from health professionals, psychologists, and consumers. Differences in educational preparation of psychologists relative to prescribing professionals are discussed. Enactment of only three of 170 RxP initiatives reveals RxP to be a costly, ineffectual agenda. Alternatives (e.g., integrated care, collaboration, telehealth) increase access ...


A Systematic Genetic Screen To Dissect The Microrna Pathway In Drosophila, Sigal Pressman, Catherine A. Reinke, Xiaohong Wang, Richard W. Carthew Jan 2012

A Systematic Genetic Screen To Dissect The Microrna Pathway In Drosophila, Sigal Pressman, Catherine A. Reinke, Xiaohong Wang, Richard W. Carthew

Faculty Publications

A central goal of microRNA biology is to elucidate the genetic program of miRNA function and regulation. However, relatively few of the effectors that execute miRNA repression have been identified. Because such genes may function in many developmental processes, mutations in them are expected to be pleiotropic and thus are discarded in most standard genetic screens. Here, we describe a systematic screen designed to identify all Drosophila genes in ~40% of the genome that function in the miRNA pathway. To identify potentially pleiotropic genes, the screen analyzed clones of homozygous mutant cells in heterozygous animals. We identified 45 mutations representing ...


A Microrna Imparts Robustness Against Environmental Fluctuation During Development, Xin Li, Justin J. Cassidy, Catherine A. Reinke, Stephen Fischboeck, Richard W. Carthew Jan 2009

A Microrna Imparts Robustness Against Environmental Fluctuation During Development, Xin Li, Justin J. Cassidy, Catherine A. Reinke, Stephen Fischboeck, Richard W. Carthew

Faculty Publications

The microRNA miR-7 is perfectly conserved from annelids to humans, and yet some of the genes that it regulates in Drosophila are not regulated in mammals. We have explored the role of lineage restricted targets, using Drosophila , in order to better understand the evolutionary significance of microRNA-target relationships. From studies of two well characterized developmental regulatory networks, we find that miR-7 functions in several interlocking feedback and feedforward loops, and propose that its role in these networks is to buffer them against perturbation. To directly demonstrate this function for miR-7, we subjected the networks to temperature fluctuation and found that ...


Bmp Signaling Goes Posttranscriptional In A Microrna Sort Of Way, Catherine A. Reinke, Richard W. Carthew Jan 2008

Bmp Signaling Goes Posttranscriptional In A Microrna Sort Of Way, Catherine A. Reinke, Richard W. Carthew

Faculty Publications

Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression correlates with human diseases such as cardiac disorders and cancer. Treatment of such disorders using miRNA-targeted therapeutics requires a thorough understanding of miRNA regulation in vivo. A recent paper in Nature by Davis et al. expands our understanding of miRNA biogenesis and maturation, elucidating a mechanism by which extracellular signaling directs cell differentiation via posttranscriptional regulation of miRNA expression.


Distinct Phospho-Forms Of Cortactin Differentially Regulate Actin Polymerization And Focal Adhesions, Anne E. Kruchten, Eugene W. Krueger, Yu Wang, Mark A. Mcniven Jan 2008

Distinct Phospho-Forms Of Cortactin Differentially Regulate Actin Polymerization And Focal Adhesions, Anne E. Kruchten, Eugene W. Krueger, Yu Wang, Mark A. Mcniven

Faculty Publications

Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that is overexpressed in many cancers and is a substrate for both tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin has been observed to increase cell motility and invasion in vivo, although it has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on actin polymerization in vitro. In contrast, serine phosphorylation of cortactin has been shown to stimulate actin assembly in vitro. Currently, the effects of cortactin serine phosphorylation on cell migration are unclear, and furthermore, how the distinct phospho-forms of cortactin may differentially contribute to cell migration has not been directly compared ...


Morphological And Molecular Analyses Of Microorganisms In Caribbean Reef Adult Sponges And In Corresponding Reproductive Material, Susanne Schmitt, Markus Wehrl, Niels Lindquist, Jeremy B. Weisz, Ute Hentschel Jan 2007

Morphological And Molecular Analyses Of Microorganisms In Caribbean Reef Adult Sponges And In Corresponding Reproductive Material, Susanne Schmitt, Markus Wehrl, Niels Lindquist, Jeremy B. Weisz, Ute Hentschel

Faculty Publications

Caribbean reef sponges were surveyed for the presence of microorganisms in the mesohyl tissue of adult sponges and the respective reproductive material (embryos, larvae). A clear correlation was found in that high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges always contained microorganisms in their reproductive stages. In contrast, low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges did not contain microorganisms in their reproductive stages. Based on these data, Ircinia felix Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1864 was chosen as a model organism for the molecular analysis of microorganisms within the adult sponge and its larvae and juveniles. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of eubacterial 16S rDNA sequences revealed ...


From Observers To Participants: Joining The Scientific Community, Catherine A. Reinke, Susan R. Singer, Carl Mcdaniel, Carolyn J. Ferguson, Julia Vandermeer, Adam Williamson Jan 2007

From Observers To Participants: Joining The Scientific Community, Catherine A. Reinke, Susan R. Singer, Carl Mcdaniel, Carolyn J. Ferguson, Julia Vandermeer, Adam Williamson

Faculty Publications

In this essay, we have integrated the voices of our mentors and students to explore 45 years of undergraduate research experiences and their role in shaping our scientific community. In considering our collective experiences, we see undergraduate involvement in research as a rich source of community development, one that has both touched our lives and influenced our teaching.


Vertical Transmission Of A Phylogenetically Complex Microbial Consortium In The Viviparous Sponge Ircinia Felix, Susanne Schmitt, Jeremy B. Weisz, Niels Lindquist, Ute Hentschel Jan 2007

Vertical Transmission Of A Phylogenetically Complex Microbial Consortium In The Viviparous Sponge Ircinia Felix, Susanne Schmitt, Jeremy B. Weisz, Niels Lindquist, Ute Hentschel

Faculty Publications

Many marine demosponges contain large amounts of phylogenetically complex yet highly sponge-specific microbial consortia within the mesohyl matrix, but little is known about how these microorganisms are acquired by their hosts. Settlement experiments were performed with the viviparous Caribbean demosponge Ircinia felix to investigate the role of larvae in the vertical transmission of the sponge-associated microbial community. Inspections by electron microscopy revealed large amounts of morphologically diverse microorganisms in the center of I. felix larvae, while the outer rim appeared to be devoid of microorganisms. In juveniles, microorganisms were found between densely packed sponge cells. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE ...


Allostasis, Homeostasis, And The Costs Of Physiological Adaptation, Sarah C. Coste Jan 2006

Allostasis, Homeostasis, And The Costs Of Physiological Adaptation, Sarah C. Coste

Faculty Publications

Sarah Coste reviews Allostasis, Homeostasis, and the Costs of Physiological Adaptation (edited by Jay Schulkin) for the Quarterly Review of Biology.


Dynamin As A Mover And Pincher During Cell Migration And Invasion, Anne E. Kruchten, Mark A. Mcniven Jan 2006

Dynamin As A Mover And Pincher During Cell Migration And Invasion, Anne E. Kruchten, Mark A. Mcniven

Faculty Publications

The large GTPase dynamin, long known for its role in endocytosis, has most recently been implicated as a facilitator of cell migration and invasion. Recent observations link dynamin to the cycle of membrane expansion and retraction essential for cell motility. Its role in actin polymerization, membrane deformation and vesiculation, and focal adhesion dynamics are all important for this process, and the new findings provide exciting directions for studies of this ubiquitous and diverse protein family.


A Dynamin-3 Spliced Variant Modulates The Actin/Cortactin-Dependent Morphogenesis Of Dendritic Spines, Noah W. Gray, Anne E. Kruchten, Jing Chen, Mark A. Mcniven Jan 2005

A Dynamin-3 Spliced Variant Modulates The Actin/Cortactin-Dependent Morphogenesis Of Dendritic Spines, Noah W. Gray, Anne E. Kruchten, Jing Chen, Mark A. Mcniven

Faculty Publications

Immature dendrites extend many actin-rich filopodial structures that can be replaced by synapse-containing dendritic spines as the neuron matures. The large GTPase dynamin-3 (Dyn3) is a component of the postsynapse in hippocampal neurons but its function is undefined. Here, we demonstrate that a specific Dyn3 variant (Dyn3baa) promotes the formation of immature dendritic filopodia in cultured neurons. This effect is dependent upon Dyn3 GTPase activity and a direct interaction with the F-actin-binding protein cortactin. Consistent with these findings, Dyn3baa binds to cortactin with a 200% higher affinity than Dyn3aaa, a near identical isoform that does not induce dendritic filopodia when ...


Il-1Α And Tnf-Α Down-Regulate Crh Receptor-2 Mrna Expression In The Mouse Heart, Sarah C. Coste, Kurt A. Heldwein, Susan L. Stevens, Eric Tobar-Dupres, Mary P. Stenzel-Poore Jan 2001

Il-1Α And Tnf-Α Down-Regulate Crh Receptor-2 Mrna Expression In The Mouse Heart, Sarah C. Coste, Kurt A. Heldwein, Susan L. Stevens, Eric Tobar-Dupres, Mary P. Stenzel-Poore

Faculty Publications

Two receptors (CRH receptor type 1 and CRH receptor type 2) have been identified for the stress-induced neuropeptide, CRH and related peptides, urocortin, and urocortin II. We previously found marked down-regulation of cardiac CRH receptor type 2 expression following administration of bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide, a model of systemic immune activation, and inflammation. We postulated that inflammatory cytokines may regulate CRH receptor type 2. We show that systemic IL-1α administration significantly down-regulates CRH receptor type 2 mRNA in mouse heart. In addition, TNFα treatment also reduces CRH receptor type 2 mRNA expression, although the effect was not as marked as with ...


A Role For Actin, Cdc1p, And Myo2p In The Inheritance Of Late Golgi Elements In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Olivia W. Rossanese, Catherine A. Reinke, Brooke J. Bevis, Adam T. Hammond, Irina B. Sears, James O'Connor, Benjamin S. Glick Jan 2001

A Role For Actin, Cdc1p, And Myo2p In The Inheritance Of Late Golgi Elements In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Olivia W. Rossanese, Catherine A. Reinke, Brooke J. Bevis, Adam T. Hammond, Irina B. Sears, James O'Connor, Benjamin S. Glick

Faculty Publications

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Golgi elements are present in the bud very early in the cell cycle. We have analyzed this Golgi inheritance process using fluorescence microscopy and genetics. In rapidly growing cells, late Golgi elements show an actin-dependent concentration at sites of polarized growth. Late Golgi elements are apparently transported into the bud along actin cables and are also retained in the bud by a mechanism that may involve actin. A visual screen for mutants defective in the inheritance of late Golgi elements yielded multiple alleles of CDC1. Mutations in CDC1 severely depolarize the actin cytoskeleton, and these mutations prevent ...


Grounds For Argument: Local Understandings, Science, And Global Processes In Special Forest Products Harvesting, Thomas Love, Eric Jones Jan 1997

Grounds For Argument: Local Understandings, Science, And Global Processes In Special Forest Products Harvesting, Thomas Love, Eric Jones

Faculty Publications

In posing the question "Where are the pickers?", Love and Jones suggest that the shifting paradigm in forestry is real and that academia is not leading the shift. Love and Jones illustrate the emergence of special forest products' legitimacy in competing uses of forests with their experience and research in mushroom harvesting in the Pacific Northwest.